Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 15 June 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Palonosetron hydrochloride injection is a serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist indicated in adults for: • Moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy -- prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses (1.1) • Highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy -- prevention of acute nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses (1.1) •Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) for up to 24 hours following surgery. Efficacy beyond 24 hours has not been demonstrated (1.3) Palonosetron hydrochloride injection is indicated in pediatric patients aged 1 month to 17 less than 17 years for: •Prevention of acute nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy (1.2) 1.1 Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Adults Palonosetron hydrochloride injection is indicated for: • Moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy -- prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses • Highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy -- prevention of acute nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses 1.2 Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric Patients Aged 1 month to Less than 17 Years Palonosetron hydrochloride injection is indicated for prevention of acute nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy. 1.3 Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Adults Palonosetron hydrochloride injection is indicated for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) for up to 24 hours following surgery. Efficacy beyond 24 hours has not been demonstrated. As with other antiemetics, routine prophylaxis is not recommended in patients in whom there is little expectation that nausea and/or vomiting will occur postoperatively. In patients where nausea and vomiting must be avoided during the postoperative period, palonosetron hydrochloride injection is recommended even where the incidence of postoperative nausea and/or vomiting is low.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Palonosetron hydrochloride injection is contraindicated in patients known to have hypersensitivity to the drug or any of its components. [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] Palonosetron hydrochloride injection is contraindicated in patients known to have hypersensitivity to the drug or any of its components (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The most common adverse reactions in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults (incidence ≥5%) are headache and constipation (6.1). The most common adverse reactions in postoperative nausea and vomiting (incidence ≥ 2%) are QT prolongation, bradycardia, headache, and constipation (6.2). To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Dr. REDDY’S LABORATORIES Inc., at 1-888-375-3784 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Adults In clinical trials for the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy, 1374 adult patients received palonosetron. Adverse reactions were similar in frequency and severity with palonosetron hydrochloride injection and ondansetron or dolasetron. Following is a listing of all adverse reactions reported by ≥ 2% of patients in these trials (Table 1). Table 1: Adverse Reactions from Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Studies ≥ 2% in any Treatment Group Event Palonosetron hydrochloride injection 0.25 mg (N=633) Ondansetron 32 mg I.V. (N=410) Dolasetron 100 mg I.V. (N=194) Headache 60 (9%) 34 (8%) 32 (16%) Constipation 29 (5%) 8 (2%) 12 (6%) Diarrhea 8 (1%) 7 (2%) 4 (2%) Dizziness 8 (1%) 9 (2%) 4 (2%) Fatigue 3 (< 1%) 4 (1%) 4 (2%) Abdominal Pain 1 (< 1%) 2 (< 1%) 3 (2%) Insomnia 1 (< 1%) 3 (1%) 3 (2%) In other studies, 2 subjects experienced severe constipation following a single palonosetron dose of approximately 0.75 mg, three times the recommended dose. One patient received a 10 mcg/kg oral dose in a post‑ operative nausea and vomiting study and one healthy subject received a 0.75 mg I.V. dose in a pharmacokinetic study. In clinical trials, the following infrequently reported adverse reactions, assessed by investigators as treatment-related or causality unknown, occurred following administration of palonosetron hydrochloride injection to adult patients receiving concomitant cancer chemotherapy: Cardiovascular: 1%: non-sustained tachycardia, bradycardia, hypotension, < 1%: hypertension, myocardial ischemia, extrasystoles, sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, supraventricular extrasystoles and QT prolongation. In many cases, the relationship to palonosetron hydrochloride injection was unclear. Dermatological: < 1%: allergic dermatitis, rash. Hearing and Vision: < 1%: motion sickness, tinnitus, eye irritation and amblyopia. Gastrointestinal System: 1%: diarrhea, < 1%: dyspepsia, abdominal pain, dry mouth, hiccups and flatulence. General: 1%: weakness, < 1%: fatigue, fever, hot flash, flu-like syndrome. Liver: < 1%: transient, asymptomatic increases in AST and/or ALT and bilirubin. These changes occurred predominantly in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Metabolic: 1%: hyperkalemia, < 1%: electrolyte fluctuations, hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, glycosuria, appetite decrease, anorexia. Musculoskeletal: < 1%: arthralgia. Nervous System: 1%: dizziness, < 1%: somnolence, insomnia, hypersomnia, paresthesia. Psychiatric: 1%: anxiety, < 1%: euphoric mood. Urinary System: < 1%: urinary retention. Vascular: < 1%: vein discoloration, vein distention. Pediatrics In a pediatric clinical trial for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting 163 cancer patients received a single 20 mcg/kg (maximum 1.5mg) intravenous infusion of palonosetron 30 minutes before beginning the first cycle of emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients had a mean age of 8.4 years (range 2 months to 16.9 years) and were 46% male; and 93% white. The following adverse reactions were reported for palonosetron: Nervous System: <1%: headache, dizziness, dyskinesia. General: <1%: infusion site pain. Dermatological: <1%: allergic dermatitis, skin disorder. In the trial, adverse reactions were evaluated in pediatric patients receiving palonosetron for up to 4 chemotherapy cycles. 6.2 Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting The adverse reactions cited in Table 2 were reported in ≥ 2% of adults receiving I.V. Palonosetron hydrochloride injection 0.075 mg immediately before induction of anesthesia in one phase 2 and two phase 3 randomized placebo-controlled trials. Rates of events between palonosetron and placebo groups were similar. Some events are known to be associated with, or may be exacerbated by concomitant perioperative and intraoperative medications administered in this surgical population. Please refer to Section 12.2, thorough QT/QTc study results, for data demonstrating the lack of palonosetron effect on QT/QTc. Table 2: Adverse Reactions from Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Studies ≥ 2% in any Treatment Group Event Palonosetron hydrochloride injection 0.075 mg (N=336) Placebo (N=369) Electrocardiogram QT prolongation 16 (5%) 11 (3%) Bradycardia 13 (4%) 16 (4%) Headache 11 (3%) 14 (4%) Constipation 8 (2%) 11(3%) In these clinical trials, the following infrequently reported adverse reactions, assessed by investigators as treatment-related or causality unknown, occurred following administration of palonosetron hydrochloride injection to adult patients receiving concomitant perioperative and intraoperative medications including those associated with anesthesia: Cardiovascular: 1%: electrocardiogram QTc prolongation, sinus bradycardia, tachycardia, < 1%: blood pressure decreased, hypotension, hypertension, arrhythmia, ventricular extrasystoles, generalized edema, ECG T wave amplitude decreased, platelet count decreased. The frequency of these adverse effects did not appear to be different from placebo. Dermatological: 1%: pruritus. Gastrointestinal System: 1%: flatulence, < 1%: dry mouth, upper abdominal pain, salivary hypersecretion, dyspepsia, diarrhea, intestinal hypomotility, anorexia. General: < 1%: chills. Liver: 1%: increases in AST and/or ALT, < 1%: hepatic enzyme increased. Metabolic: < 1%: hypokalemia, anorexia. Nervous System: < 1%: dizziness. Respiratory: < 1%: hypoventilation, laryngospasm. Urinary System: 1%: urinary retention. 6.3 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of palonosetron hydrochloride injection. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Very rare cases (<1/10,000) of hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis and anaphylactic shock and injection site reactions (burning, induration, discomfort and pain) were reported from postmarketing experience of palonosetron hydrochloride injection 0.25 mg in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (2.1) Age Dose* Infusion Time Adults 0.25 mg x 1 Infuse over 30 seconds beginning approx. 30 min before the start of chemo Pediatrics (1 month to less than 17 years) 20 micrograms per kilogram (max 1.5mg) x 1 Infuse over 15 minutes beginning approx. 30 min before the start of chemo * Note different dosing units in pediatrics Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (2.1) • Adult Dosage: a single 0.075 mg intravenous dose administered over 10 seconds immediately before the induction of anesthesia. 2.1 Recommended Dosing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Age Dose* Infusion Time Adults 0.25 mg x 1 Infuse over 30 seconds beginning approx. 30 min before the start of chemo Pediatrics (1 month to less than 17 years) 20 micrograms per kilogram (max 1.5mg) x 1 Infuse over 15 minutes beginning approx. 30 min before the start of chemo *Note different dosing units in pediatrics Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Dosage for Adults - a single 0.075 mg intravenous dose administered over 10 seconds immediately before the induction of anesthesia. 2.2 Instructions for Intravenous Administration Palonosetron hydrochloride injection is supplied ready for intravenous administration at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL (50 mcg/ mL). Palonosetron hydrochloride injection should not be mixed with other drugs. The infusion line should be flushed with normal saline before and after administration of palonosetron hydrochloride injection. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration before administration, whenever solution and container permit.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Pediatric use: Safety and effectiveness in neonates (less than 1 month of age) have not been established (8.4) Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Safety and Effectiveness in patients below the age of 18 years have not been established (8.4) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category B Risk Summary Adequate and well controlled studies with palonosetron hydrochloride injection have not been conducted in pregnant women. In animal reproduction studies, no effects on embryo-fetal development were observed with the administration of oral palonosetron during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 1894 and 3789 times the recommended human intravenous dose in rats and rabbits, respectively. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, palonosetron hydrochloride injection should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Animal Data In animal studies, no effects on embryo-fetal development were observed in pregnant rats given oral palonosetron at doses up to 60 mg/kg/day (1894 times the recommended human intravenous dose based on body surface area) or pregnant rabbits given oral doses up to 60 mg/kg/day (3789 times the recommended human intravenous dose based on body surface area) during the period of organogenesis. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether palonosetron hydrochloride injection is present in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants and the potential for tumorigenicity shown for palonosetron in the rat carcinogenicity study [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)], a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Safety and effectiveness of palonosetron hydrochloride have been established in pediatric patients aged 1 month to less than 17 years for the prevention of acute nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy. Use is supported by a clinical trial where 165 pediatric patients aged 2 months to <17 years were randomized to receive a single dose of palonosetron 20 mcg/kg (maximum 1.5mg) administered as an intravenous infusion 30 minutes prior to the start of emetogenic chemotherapy [see Clinical Studies ( 14.2 )]. While this study demonstrated tat pediatric patients require a higher palonosetron dose than adults to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, the safety profile is consistent with the established profile in adults [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1 )]. Safety and effectiveness of palonosetron hydrochloride injection in neonates (less than 1 month of age) have not been established. Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Studies Safety and efficacy have not been established in pediatric patients for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Two pediatric trials were performed. Pediatric study 1, a dose finding study was conducted to compare two doses of palonosetron, 1 mcg/kg (max 0.075 mg) versus 3 mcg/kg (max 0.25 mg). A total of 150 pediatric surgical patients participated, age range 1 month to <17 years. No dose responses were observed. Pediatric study 2, a multicenter, double-blind double-dummy, randomized, parallel group, active control, single-dose non-inferiority study, compared I.V palonosetron (1 mcg/kg, max 0.075 mg) versus I.V. ondansetron. A total of 670 pediatric surgical patients participated, age 30 days to <17 years. The primary efficacy endpoint, Complete Response (CR: no vomiting, no retching, and no antiemetic rescue medication) during the first 24 hours postoperatively was achieved in 78.2% of patients in the palonosetron group and 82.7% in the ondansetron group. Given the pre-specified non-inferiority margin of -10%, the stratum adjusted Mantel-Haenszel statistical non-inferiority confidence interval for the difference in the primary endpoint, complete response (CR), was [-10.5, 1.7%], therefore non-inferiority was not demonstrated. Adverse reactions to palonosetron were similar to those reported in adults (see Table 2). 8.5 Geriatric Use Population pharmacokinetics analysis did not reveal any differences in palonosetron pharmacokinetics between cancer patients ≥ 65 years of age and younger patients (18 to 64 years). Of the 1374 adult cancer patients in clinical studies of palonosetron, 316 (23%) were ≥ 65 years old, while 71 (5%) were ≥ 75 years old. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and the younger subjects, but greater sensitivity in some older individuals cannot be ruled out. No dose adjustment or special monitoring are required for geriatric patients. Of the 1520 adult patients in palonosetron hydrochloride injection PONV clinical studies, 73 (5%) were ≥65 years old. No overall differences in safety were observed between older and younger subjects in these studies, though the possibility of heightened sensitivity in some older individuals cannot be excluded. No differences in efficacy were observed in geriatric patients for the CINV indication and none are expected for geriatric PONV patients. However, Palonosetron hydrochloride injection efficacy in geriatric patients has not been adequately evaluated. 8.6 Renal Impairment Mild to moderate renal impairment does not significantly affect palonosetron pharmacokinetic parameters. Total systemic exposure increased by approximately 28% in severe renal impairment relative to healthy subjects. Dosage adjustment is not necessary in patients with any degree of renal impairment. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment Hepatic impairment does not significantly affect total body clearance of palonosetron compared to the healthy subjects. Dosage adjustment is not necessary in patients with any degree of hepatic impairment. 8.8 Race Intravenous palonosetron pharmacokinetics was characterized in twenty-four healthy Japanese subjects over the dose range of 3–90 mcg/kg. Total body clearance was 25% higher in Japanese subjects compared to Whites, however, no dose adjustment is required. The pharmacokinetics of palonosetron in Blacks has not been adequately characterized.
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether palonosetron hydrochloride injection is present in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants and the potential for tumorigenicity shown for palonosetron in the rat carcinogenicity study [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)], a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Palonosetron is eliminated from the body through both renal excretion and metabolic pathways with the latter mediated via multiple CYP enzymes. Further in vitro studies indicated that palonosetron is not an inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4/5 (CYP2C19 was not investigated) nor does it induce the activity of CYP1A2, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4/5. Therefore, the potential for clinically significant drug interactions with palonosetron appears to be low. Serotonin syndrome (including altered mental status, autonomic instability, and neuromuscular symptoms) has been described following the concomitant use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and other serotonergic drugs, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Coadministration of 0.25 mg I.V. palonosetron and 20 mg I.V. dexamethasone in healthy subjects revealed no pharmacokinetic drug- interactions between palonosetron and dexamethasone. In an interaction study in healthy subjects where palonosetron 0.25 mg (I.V. bolus) was administered on day 1 and oral aprepitant for 3 days (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), the pharmacokinetics of palonosetron were not significantly altered (AUC: no change, Cmax: 15% increase). A study in healthy volunteers involving single-dose I.V. palonosetron (0.75 mg) and steady state oral metoclopramide (10 mg four times daily) demonstrated no significant pharmacokinetic interaction. In controlled clinical trials, palonosetron hydrochloride injection has been safely administered with corticosteroids, analgesics, antiemetics/antinauseants, antispasmodics and anticholinergic agents. Palonosetron did not inhibit the antitumor activity of the five chemotherapeutic agents tested (cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, doxorubicin and mitomycin C) in murine tumor models. The potential for clinically significant drug interactions with palonosetron appears to be low (7)

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA201533
Agency product number 23310D4I19
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 68001-355
Date Last Revised 30-05-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 1728055
Marketing authorisation holder BluePoint Laboratories