6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The most common adverse reactions in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults (incidence ≥5%) are headache and constipation (6.1). The most common adverse reactions in postoperative nausea and vomiting (incidence ≥ 2%) are QT prolongation, bradycardia, headache, and constipation (6.2). To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Dr. REDDY’S LABORATORIES Inc., at 1-888-375-3784 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Adults In clinical trials for the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy, 1374 adult patients received palonosetron. Adverse reactions were similar in frequency and severity with palonosetron hydrochloride injection and ondansetron or dolasetron. Following is a listing of all adverse reactions reported by ≥ 2% of patients in these trials (Table 1). Table 1: Adverse Reactions from Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Studies ≥ 2% in any Treatment Group Event Palonosetron hydrochloride injection 0.25 mg (N=633) Ondansetron 32 mg I.V. (N=410) Dolasetron 100 mg I.V. (N=194) Headache 60 (9%) 34 (8%) 32 (16%) Constipation 29 (5%) 8 (2%) 12 (6%) Diarrhea 8 (1%) 7 (2%) 4 (2%) Dizziness 8 (1%) 9 (2%) 4 (2%) Fatigue 3 (< 1%) 4 (1%) 4 (2%) Abdominal Pain 1 (< 1%) 2 (< 1%) 3 (2%) Insomnia 1 (< 1%) 3 (1%) 3 (2%) In other studies, 2 subjects experienced severe constipation following a single palonosetron dose of approximately 0.75 mg, three times the recommended dose. One patient received a 10 mcg/kg oral dose in a post‑ operative nausea and vomiting study and one healthy subject received a 0.75 mg I.V. dose in a pharmacokinetic study. In clinical trials, the following infrequently reported adverse reactions, assessed by investigators as treatment-related or causality unknown, occurred following administration of palonosetron hydrochloride injection to adult patients receiving concomitant cancer chemotherapy: Cardiovascular: 1%: non-sustained tachycardia, bradycardia, hypotension, < 1%: hypertension, myocardial ischemia, extrasystoles, sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, supraventricular extrasystoles and QT prolongation. In many cases, the relationship to palonosetron hydrochloride injection was unclear. Dermatological: < 1%: allergic dermatitis, rash. Hearing and Vision: < 1%: motion sickness, tinnitus, eye irritation and amblyopia. Gastrointestinal System: 1%: diarrhea, < 1%: dyspepsia, abdominal pain, dry mouth, hiccups and flatulence. General: 1%: weakness, < 1%: fatigue, fever, hot flash, flu-like syndrome. Liver: < 1%: transient, asymptomatic increases in AST and/or ALT and bilirubin. These changes occurred predominantly in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Metabolic: 1%: hyperkalemia, < 1%: electrolyte fluctuations, hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, glycosuria, appetite decrease, anorexia. Musculoskeletal: < 1%: arthralgia. Nervous System: 1%: dizziness, < 1%: somnolence, insomnia, hypersomnia, paresthesia. Psychiatric: 1%: anxiety, < 1%: euphoric mood. Urinary System: < 1%: urinary retention. Vascular: < 1%: vein discoloration, vein distention. Pediatrics In a pediatric clinical trial for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting 163 cancer patients received a single 20 mcg/kg (maximum 1.5mg) intravenous infusion of palonosetron 30 minutes before beginning the first cycle of emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients had a mean age of 8.4 years (range 2 months to 16.9 years) and were 46% male; and 93% white. The following adverse reactions were reported for palonosetron: Nervous System: <1%: headache, dizziness, dyskinesia. General: <1%: infusion site pain. Dermatological: <1%: allergic dermatitis, skin disorder. In the trial, adverse reactions were evaluated in pediatric patients receiving palonosetron for up to 4 chemotherapy cycles. 6.2 Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting The adverse reactions cited in Table 2 were reported in ≥ 2% of adults receiving I.V. Palonosetron hydrochloride injection 0.075 mg immediately before induction of anesthesia in one phase 2 and two phase 3 randomized placebo-controlled trials. Rates of events between palonosetron and placebo groups were similar. Some events are known to be associated with, or may be exacerbated by concomitant perioperative and intraoperative medications administered in this surgical population. Please refer to Section 12.2, thorough QT/QTc study results, for data demonstrating the lack of palonosetron effect on QT/QTc. Table 2: Adverse Reactions from Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Studies ≥ 2% in any Treatment Group Event Palonosetron hydrochloride injection 0.075 mg (N=336) Placebo (N=369) Electrocardiogram QT prolongation 16 (5%) 11 (3%) Bradycardia 13 (4%) 16 (4%) Headache 11 (3%) 14 (4%) Constipation 8 (2%) 11(3%) In these clinical trials, the following infrequently reported adverse reactions, assessed by investigators as treatment-related or causality unknown, occurred following administration of palonosetron hydrochloride injection to adult patients receiving concomitant perioperative and intraoperative medications including those associated with anesthesia: Cardiovascular: 1%: electrocardiogram QTc prolongation, sinus bradycardia, tachycardia, < 1%: blood pressure decreased, hypotension, hypertension, arrhythmia, ventricular extrasystoles, generalized edema, ECG T wave amplitude decreased, platelet count decreased. The frequency of these adverse effects did not appear to be different from placebo. Dermatological: 1%: pruritus. Gastrointestinal System: 1%: flatulence, < 1%: dry mouth, upper abdominal pain, salivary hypersecretion, dyspepsia, diarrhea, intestinal hypomotility, anorexia. General: < 1%: chills. Liver: 1%: increases in AST and/or ALT, < 1%: hepatic enzyme increased. Metabolic: < 1%: hypokalemia, anorexia. Nervous System: < 1%: dizziness. Respiratory: < 1%: hypoventilation, laryngospasm. Urinary System: 1%: urinary retention. 6.3 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of palonosetron hydrochloride injection. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Very rare cases (<1/10,000) of hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis and anaphylactic shock and injection site reactions (burning, induration, discomfort and pain) were reported from postmarketing experience of palonosetron hydrochloride injection 0.25 mg in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.