Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 July 2018

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Naloxone Hydrochloride Injection, USP is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of opioid depression, including respiratory depression, induced by natural or synthetic opioids including propoxyphene, methadone, and certain mixed agonist-antagonist analgesics: nalbuphine, pentazocine, butorphanol and cyclazocine. Naloxone hydrochloride is also indicated for the diagnosis of suspected or known acute opioid overdosage. Naloxone may be useful as an adjunctive agent to increase blood pressure in the management of septic shock (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Adjunctive Use in Septic Shock).

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Naloxone hydrochloride injection is contraindicated in patients known to be hypersensitive to naloxone hydrochloride or to any of the other ingredients contained in the formulation.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General In addition to naloxone, other resuscitative measures such as maintenance of a free airway, artificial ventilation, cardiac massage, and vasopressor agents should be available and employed when necessary to counteract acute opioid poisoning. Abrupt postoperative reversal of opioid depression may result in nausea, vomiting, sweating, tremulousness, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, seizures, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, pulmonary edema and cardiac arrest which may result in death. Excessive doses of naloxone in postoperative patients may result in significant reversal of analgesia and may cause agitation (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Usage in Adults-Postoperative Opioid Depression). Several instances of hypotension, hypertension, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrest have been reported in postoperative patients. Death, coma and encephalopathy have been reported as sequelae of these events. These have occurred in patients most of whom had pre-existing cardiovascular disorders or received other drugs which may have similar adverse cardiovascular effects. Although a direct cause and effect relationship has not been established, naloxone should be used with caution in patients with pre-existing cardiac disease or patients who have received medications with potential adverse cardiovascular effects such as hypotension, ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation and pulmonary edema. It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of pulmonary edema associated with the use of naloxone is similar to neurogenic pulmonary edema, i.e., a centrally mediated massive catecholamine response leading to a dramatic shift of blood volume into the pulmonary vascular bed resulting in increased hydrostatic pressures. Drug Interactions Large doses of naloxone are required to antagonize buprenorphine since the latter has a long duration of action due to its slow rate of binding and subsequent slow dissociation from the opioid receptor. Buprenorphine antagonism is characterized by a gradual onset of the reversal effects and a decreased duration of action of the normally prolonged respiratory depression. The barbiturate methohexital appears to block the acute onset of withdrawal symptoms induced by naloxone in opiate addicts. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Studies in animals to assess the carcinogenic potential of naloxone have not been conducted. Naloxone was weakly positive in the Ames mutagenicity and in the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration test but was negative in the in vitro Chinese hamster V79 cell HGPRT mutagenicity assay and in the in vivo rat bone marrow chromosome aberration study. Reproduction studies conducted in mice and rats at doses 4-times and 8-times, respectively, the dose of a 50 kg human given 10 mg/day (when based on surface area or mg/m2), demonstrated no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects due to naloxone. Use in Pregnancy; Teratogenic Effect: Pregnancy Category C Teratology studies conducted in mice and rats at doses 4-times and 8-times, respectively, the dose of a 50 kg human given 10 mg/day (when based on surface area or mg/m2), demonstrated no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects due to naloxone. There are, however, no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant woman. Because animal reproduction studies are no always predictive of human response, naloxone hydrochloride should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Non-teratogenic effects: Risk-benefit must be considered before naloxone is administered to a pregnant woman who is known or suspected to be opioid-dependent since maternal dependence may often be accompanied by fetal dependence. Naloxone crosses the placenta, and may precipitate withdrawal in the fetus as well as in the mother. Patients with mild to moderate hypertension who receive naloxone during labor should be carefully monitored as severe hypertension may occur. Use in Labor and Delivery It is not known if naloxone hydrochloride injection affects the duration of labor and/or delivery. However, published reports indicated that the administration of naloxone during labor did not adversely affect maternal or neonatal status. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether naloxone is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when naloxone hydrochloride is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Naloxone hydrochloride injection may be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously in children and neonates to reverse the effects of opiates. The American Academy of Pediatrics, however, does not endorse subcutaneous or intramuscular administration in opiate intoxication since absorption may be erratic or delayed. Although the opiate-intoxicated child responds dramatically to naloxone hydrochloride injection, he/she must be carefully monitored for at least 24 hours as a relapse may occur as naloxone is metabolized. When naloxone hydrochloride injection is given to the mother shortly before delivery, the duration of its effects lasts only for the first two hours of neonatal life. It is preferable to administer naloxone hydrochloride injection directly into the neonate if needed after delivery. Naloxone has no apparent benefit as an additional method of resuscitation in the newly born infant with intrauterine asphyxia, which is not related to opioid use. Usage in Pediatric Patients and Neonates for Septic Shock: The safety and effectiveness of naloxone hydrochloride injection in the treatment of hypotension in pediatric patients and neonates with septic shock have not been established. One study of two neonates in septic shock reported a positive pressor response; however, one patient subsequently died after intractable seizures. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of naloxone hydrochloride injection did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Renal Insufficiency/Failure The safety and effectiveness of naloxone hydrochloride injection in patients with renal insufficiency/failure have not been established in well-controlled clinical trials. Caution should be exercised when naloxone is administered to this patient population. Liver Disease The safety and effectiveness of naloxone hydrochloride injection in patients with liver disease have not been established in well-controlled clinical trials. Caution should be exercised when naloxone is administered to patients with liver disease.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Postoperative The following adverse events have been associated with the use of naloxone hydrochloride injection in postoperative patients: hypotension, hypertension, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrest. Death, coma, and encephalopathy have been reported as sequelae of these events. Excessive doses of naloxone in postoperative patients may result in significant reversal of analgesia and may cause agitation (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION; Usage in Adults-Postoperative Opioid Depression). Opioid Depression Abrupt reversal of opioid depression may result in nausea, vomiting, sweating, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, tremulousness, seizures, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrest which may result in death (see PRECAUTIONS). Opioid Dependence Abrupt reversal of opioid effects in persons who are physically dependent on opioids may precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome which may include, but not limited to the following signs and symptoms: body aches, fever, sweating, runny nose, sneezing, piloerection, yawning, weakness, shivering or trembling, nervousness, restlessness or irritability, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, abdominal cramps, increased blood pressure, and tachycardia. In the neonate, opioid withdrawal may also include: convulsions, excessive crying, and hyperactive reflexes (see WARNINGS). Adverse events associated with the postoperative use of naloxone hydrochloride injection are listed by organ system and in decreasing order of frequency as follows: Cardiac Disorders: pulmonary edema, cardiac arrest or failure, tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia. Death, coma and encephalopathy have been reported as sequelae of these events. Gastrointestinal Disorders: vomiting, nausea Nervous System Disorders: convulsions, paraesthesia, grand mal convulsion Psychiatric Disorders: agitation, hallucination, tremulousness Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders: dyspnea, respiratory depression, hypoxia Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: nonspecific injection site reactions, sweating Vascular Disorders: hypertension, hypotension, hot flashes, or flushing See also PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION; Usage in Adults-Postoperative Opioid Depression.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Naloxone hydrochloride injection may be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously. The most rapid onset of action is achieved by intravenous administration and it is recommended in emergency situations. Since the duration of action of some opioids may exceed that of naloxone, the patient should be kept under continued surveillance. Repeated doses of naloxone should be administered, as necessary. Intravenous Infusion: Naloxone injection may be diluted for intravenous infusion in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The addition of 2 mg of naloxone hydrochloride in 500 mL of either solution provides a concentration of 0.004 mg/mL. Mixtures should be used within 24 hours. After 24 hours, the remaining unused solution must be discarded. The rate of administration should be titrated in accordance with the patient’s response. Naloxone hydrochloride injection should not be mixed with preparations containing bisulfite, metabisulfite, long-chain or high molecular weight anions, or any solution having an alkaline pH. No drug or chemical agent should be added to naloxone hydrochloride injection unless its effect on the chemical and physical stability of the solution has first been established. Usage in Adults: Opioid Overdose – Known or Suspected: An initial dose of 0.4 mg to 2 mg of naloxone hydrochloride may be administered intravenously. If the desired degree of counteraction and improvement in respiratory functions is not obtained, it may be repeated at 2 to 3 minute intervals. If no response is observed after 10 mg of naloxone hydrochloride have been administered, the diagnosis of opioid induced or partial opioid induced toxicity should be questioned. Intramuscular or subcutaneous administration may be necessary if the intravenous route is not available. Postoperative Opioid Depression: For the partial reversal of opioid depression following the use of opioids during surgery, small doses of naloxone hydrochloride are usually sufficient. The dose of naloxone should be titrated according to the patient’s response. For the initial reversal of respiratory depression, naloxone hydrochloride should be injected in increments of 0.1 mg to 0.2 mg intravenously at two to three minute intervals to the desired degree of reversal, i.e., adequate ventilation and alertness without significant pain or discomfort. Larger than necessary dosage of naloxone may result in significant reversal of analgesia and increase in blood pressure. Similarly, too rapid reversal may induce nausea, vomiting, sweating or circulatory stress. Repeat doses of naloxone may be required within one to two hour intervals depending upon the amount, type (i.e., short or long acting) and time interval since last administration of opioid. Supplemental intramuscular doses have been shown to produce a longer lasting effect. Septic Shock: The optimal dosage of naloxone or duration of therapy for the treatment of hypotension in septic shock patients has not been established (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Usage in Pediatric Population: Opioid Overdose – Known or Suspected: The usual initial dose in pediatric patients is 0.01 mg/kg body weight given intravenously. If this dose does not result in the desired degree of clinical improvement, a subsequent dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight may be administered. If an intravenous route of administration is not available, naloxone hydrochloride may be administered intramuscularly, or subcutaneously in divided doses. If necessary, naloxone hydrochloride injection can be diluted with sterile water for injection. Postoperative Opioid Depression: Follow the recommendations and cautions under Adult Postoperative Depression. For the initial reversal of respiratory depression, naloxone hydrochloride should be injected in increments of 0.005 mg to 0.01 mg intravenously at two to three minute intervals to the desired degree of reversal. Usage in Neonates When using naloxone hydrochloride injection in neonates a product containing 0.02 mg/mL should be used. Opioid-Induced Depression: The usual initial dose is 0.01 mg/kg body weight administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously. This dose may be repeated in accordance with adult administration guidelines for postoperative opioid depression. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Do not administer unless solution is clear and container is undamaged. Discard unused portion.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA208871
Agency product number F850569PQR
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 52584-058
Date Last Revised 12-06-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 1659929
Storage and handling STORAGE Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light. Retain in carton until contents are used. Akorn Manufactured by: Akorn, Inc. Lake Forest, IL 60045 NL00N Rev. 02/17
Marketing authorisation holder General Injectables and Vaccines, Inc.