Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 24 November 2019

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE: Nafcillin is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci which have demonstrated susceptibility to the drug. Culture and susceptibility tests should be performed initially to determine the causative organism and its susceptibility to the drug (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY - Susceptibility Testing ). Nafcillin should not be used in infections caused by organisms susceptible to penicillin G. If the susceptibility tests indicate that the infection is due to a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sp., therapy with Nafcillin for Injection should be discontinued and alternative therapy provided. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Nafcillin for Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Nafcillin for Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS: A history of a hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reaction to any penicillin is a contraindication.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS: General Nafcillin should generally not be administered to patients with a history of sensitivity to any penicillin. Penicillin should be used with caution in individuals with histories of significant allergies and/or asthma. Whenever allergic reactions occur, penicillin should be withdrawn unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to penicillin therapy. The use of antibiotics may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. If new infections due to bacteria or fungi occur, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures taken. The liver/biliary tract is the primary route of nafcillin clearance. Caution should be exercised when patients with concomitant hepatic insufficiency and renal dysfunction are treated with nafcillin. Prescribing Nafcillin for Injection in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Laboratory Tests Bacteriologic studies to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to penicillinase-resistant penicillins should be performed (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , Microbiology). In the treatment of suspected staphylococcal infections, therapy should be changed to another active agent if culture tests fail to demonstrate the presence of staphylococci. Periodic assessment of organ system function including renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic should be made during prolonged therapy with nafcillin. White blood cell and differential cell counts should be obtained prior to initiation of therapy and periodically during therapy with nafcillin. Urinalysis, serum blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine determinations should be performed at baseline and periodically during therapy with nafcillin. Serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transferase should be obtained at baseline and periodically during therapy, especially when using high nafcillin doses. In patients with worsening hepatic function, the risk versus benefit of continued nafcillin use should be re-evaluated. Drug Interactions Tetracycline, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, may antagonize the bactericidal effect of penicillin, and concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided. Nafcillin in high dosage regimens, i.e., 2 grams every 4 hours, has been reported to decrease the effects of warfarin. When nafcillin and warfarin are used concomitantly, the prothrombin time should be closely monitored and the dose of warfarin adjusted as necessary. This effect may persist for up to 30 days after nafcillin has been discontinued. Nafcillin when administered concomitantly with cyclosporine has been reported to result in subtherapeutic cyclosporine levels. The nafcillin-cyclosporine interaction was documented in a patient during two separate courses of therapy. When cyclosporine and nafcillin are used concomitantly in organ transplant patients, the cyclosporine levels should be monitored. Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions Nafcillin in the urine can cause a false-positive urine reaction for protein when the sulfosalicylic acid test is used, but not with the dipstick. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility No long term animal studies have been conducted with these drugs. Studies on reproduction (nafcillin) in rats and mice reveal no fetal or maternal abnormalities before conception and continuously through weaning (one generation). Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category B Reproduction studies have been performed in the mouse with oral doses up to 20 times the human dose and orally in the rat at doses up to 40 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the rodent fetus due to nafcillin. There are, however, no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, nafcillin should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nursing Mothers Penicillins are excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when penicillins are administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use The liver/biliary tract is the principal route of nafcillin elimination. Because of immature hepatic and renal function in pediatric patients, nafcillin excretion may be impaired. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established for the use of intravenous nafcillin. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have been established for the use of intramuscular nafcillin. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of Nafcillin for Injection did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Each Pharmacy Bulk Package bottle contains nafcillin sodium, as the monohydrate equivalent to 10 grams of nafcillin. The sodium content is 65.8 mg [2.9 mEq] per gram of nafcillin. The product is buffered with 40 mg sodium citrate per gram. At the usual recommended doses, patients would receive between 197.4 and 394.8 mg/day (8.7 and 17.4 mEq) of sodium. The geriatric population may respond with a blunted natriuresis to salt loading. This may be clinically important with regard to such diseases as congestive heart failure. Information for Patients Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Nafcillin for Injection should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g. the common cold). When Nafcillin for Injection is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Nafcillin for Injection or other antibacterial drugs in the future. Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS: Body as a Whole The reported incidence of allergic reactions to penicillin ranges from 0.7 to 10 percent (see WARNINGS ). Sensitization is usually the result of treatment, but some individuals have had immediate reactions to penicillin when first treated. In such cases, it is thought that the patients may have had prior exposure to the drug via trace amounts present in milk or vaccines. Two types of allergic reactions to penicillins are noted clinically, immediate and delayed. Immediate reactions usually occur within 20 minutes of administration and range in severity from urticaria and pruritus to angioedema, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, hypotension, vascular collapse, and death. Such immediate anaphylactic reactions are very rare (see WARNINGS ) and usually occur after parenteral therapy but have occurred in patients receiving oral therapy. Another type of immediate reaction, an accelerated reaction, may occur between 20 minutes and 48 hours after administration and may include urticaria, pruritus, and fever. Although laryngeal edema, laryngospasm, and hypotension occasionally occur, fatality is uncommon. Delayed allergic reactions to penicillin therapy usually occur after 48 hours and sometimes as late as 2 to 4 weeks after initiation of therapy. Manifestations of this type of reaction include serum sickness-like symptoms (i.e., fever, malaise, urticaria, myalgia, arthralgia, abdominal pain) and various skin rashes. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis, black or hairy tongue, and other symptoms of gastrointestinal irritation may occur, especially during oral penicillin therapy. Local Reactions Pain, swelling, inflammation, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, and occasional skin sloughing at the injection site have occurred with intravenous administration of nafcillin (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Severe tissue necrosis with sloughing secondary to subcutaneous extravasation of nafcillin has been reported. Nervous System Reactions Neurotoxic reactions similar to those observed with penicillin G could occur with large intravenous or intraventricular doses of nafcillin especially in patients with concomitant hepatic insufficiency and renal dysfunction (see PRECAUTIONS ). Nephrotoxicity Renal tubular damage and interstitial nephritis have been associated with the administration of nafcillin. Manifestations of nephrotoxicity are hematuria, proteinuria, and acute kidney injury, and may be associated with rash, fever, and eosinophilia. The majority of cases resolve upon discontinuation of nafcillin. Some patients, however, may require dialysis treatment and may develop permanent renal damage. Hepatic Reactions Elevation of liver transaminases and/or cholestasis may occur, especially with administration of high doses of nafcillin. Gastrointestinal Reactions Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with the use of nafcillin. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment (see WARNINGS ). Metabolic Reactions Agranulocytosis, neutropenia, and bone marrow depression have been associated with the use of nafcillin. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE EVENTS, contact FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Nafcillin for Injection, in the Pharmacy Bulk Package Bottle is for intravenous injection only. The usual IV dosage for adults is 500 mg every 4 hours. For severe infections, 1 gram every 4 hours is recommended. Administer slowly over at least 30 to 60 minutes to minimize the risk of vein irritation and extravasation. Bacteriologic studies to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to nafcillin should always be performed. Duration of therapy varies with the type and severity of infection as well as the overall condition of the patient; therefore, it should be determined by the clinical and bacteriological response of the patient. In severe staphylococcal infections, therapy with nafcillin should be continued for at least 14 days. The treatment of endocarditis and osteomyelitis may require a longer duration of therapy. No dosage alterations are necessary for patients with renal dysfunction, including those on hemodialysis. Hemodialysis does not accelerate nafcillin clearance from the blood. With intravenous administration, particularly in elderly patients, care should be taken because of the possibility of thrombophlebitis. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Do not add supplementary medication to Nafcillin for Injection, USP.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA090005
Agency product number 49G3001BCK
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 63323-330
Date Last Revised 12-06-2019
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 239189
Storage and handling STORAGE: Before reconstitution store sterile powder at 20º to 25ºC (68º to 77ºF) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Marketing authorisation holder Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC