ADVERSE REACTIONS Serious cardiac events, including some that have been fatal, have occurred following the use of sumatriptan succinate injection or tablets. These events are extremely rare and most have been reported in patients with risk factors predictive of CAD. Events reported have included coronary artery vasospasm, transient myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation (see CONTRAINDICATIONS , WARNINGS , and PRECAUTIONS ). Significant hypertensive episodes, including hypertensive crises, have been reported on rare occasions in patients with or without a history of hypertension (see WARNINGS ). Incidence in Controlled Clinical Trials Table 2 lists adverse events that occurred in placebo-controlled clinical trials in patients who took at least 1 dose of study drug. Only events that occurred at a frequency of 2% or more in any group treated with sumatriptan tablets and were more frequent in that group than in the placebo group are included in Table 2. The events cited reflect experience gained under closely monitored conditions of clinical trials in a highly selected patient population. In actual clinical practice or in other clinical trials, these frequency estimates may not apply, as the conditions of use, reporting behavior, and the kinds of patients treated may differ. Table 2. Treatment Emergent Adverse Events Reported by at Least 2% of Patients in Controlled Migraine Trialsa Adverse Event Type Percent of Patients Reporting Placebo (N = 309) Sumatriptan 25 mg (N = 417) Sumatriptan 50 mg (N = 771) Sumatriptan 100 mg (N = 437) Atypical sensations 4% 5% 6% 6% Paresthesia (all types) 2% 3% 5% 3% Sensation warm/cold 2% 3% 2% 3% Pain and other pressure sensations 4% 6% 6% 8% Chest - pain/tightness/pressure and/or heaviness 1% 1% 2% 2% Neck/throat/jaw - pain/ tightness/pressure <1% <1% 2% 3% Pain - location specified 1% 2% 1% 1% Other - pressure/tightness/ heaviness 2% 1% 1% 3% Neurological Vertigo <1% <1% <1% 2% Other Malaise/fatigue <1% 2% 2% 3% a Events that occurred at a frequency of 2% or more in the group treated with sumatriptan tablets and that occurred more frequently in that group than the placebo group. Other events that occurred in more than 1% of patients receiving sumatriptan tablets and at least as often on placebo included nausea and/or vomiting, migraine, headache, hyposalivation, dizziness, and drowsiness/sleepiness. Sumatriptan tablets are generally well tolerated. Across all doses, most adverse reactions were mild and transient and did not lead to long-lasting effects. The incidence of adverse events in controlled clinical trials was not affected by gender or age of the patients. There were insufficient data to assess the impact of race on the incidence of adverse events. Other Events Observed in Association With the Administration of Sumatriptan Tablets In the paragraphs that follow, the frequencies of less commonly reported adverse clinical events are presented. Because the reports include events observed in open and uncontrolled studies, the role of sumatriptan tablets in their causation cannot be reliably determined. Furthermore, variability associated with adverse event reporting, the terminology used to describe adverse events, etc., limit the value of quantitative frequency estimates provided. Event frequencies are calculated as the number of patients who used sumatriptane tablets (25, 50, or 100 mg) and reported an event divided by the total number of patients (N = 6,348) exposed to sumatriptan tablets. All reported events are included except those already listed in the previous table, those too general to be informative, and those not reasonably associated with the use of the drug. Events are further classified within body system categories and enumerated in order of decreasing frequency using the following definitions: frequent adverse events are defined as those occurring in at least 1/100 patients, infrequent adverse events are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1,000 patients, and rare adverse events are those occurring in fewer than 1/1,000 patients. Atypical Sensations Frequent were burning sensation and numbness. Infrequent was tight feeling in head. Rare were dysesthesia. Cardiovascular Frequent were palpitations, syncope, decreased blood pressure, and increased blood pressure. Infrequent were arrhythmia, changes in ECG, hypertension, hypotension, pallor, pulsating sensations, and tachycardia. Rare were angina, atherosclerosis, bradycardia, cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular lesion, heart block, peripheral cyanosis, thrombosis, transient myocardial ischemia, and vasodilation. Ear, Nose, and Throat Frequent were sinusitis, tinnitus; allergic rhinitis; upper respiratory inflammation; ear, nose, and throat hemorrhage; external otitis; hearing loss; nasal inflammation; and sensitivity to noise. Infrequent were hearing disturbances and otalgia. Rare was feeling of fullness in the ear(s). Endocrine and Metabolic Infrequent was thirst. Rare were elevated thyrotropin stimulating hormone (TSH) levels; galactorrhea; hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia; hypothyroidism; polydipsia; weight gain; weight loss; endocrine cysts, lumps, and masses; and fluid disturbances. Eye Rare were disorders of sclera, mydriasis, blindness and low vision, visual disturbances, eye edema and swelling, eye irritation and itching, accommodation disorders, external ocular muscle disorders, eye hemorrhage, eye pain, and keratitis and conjunctivitis. Gastrointestinal Frequent were diarrhea and gastric symptoms. Infrequent were constipation, dysphagia, and gastroesophageal reflux. Rare were gastrointestinal bleeding, hematemesis, melena, peptic ulcer, gastrointestinal pain, dyspeptic symptoms, dental pain, feelings of gastrointestinal pressure, gastritis, gastroenteritis, hypersalivation, abdominal distention, oral itching and irritation, salivary gland swelling, and swallowing disorders. Hematological Disorders Rare was anemia. Musculoskeletal Frequent was myalgia. Infrequent was muscle cramps. Rare were tetany; muscle atrophy, weakness, and tiredness; arthralgia and articular rheumatitis; acquired musculoskeletal deformity; muscle stiffness, tightness, and rigidity; and musculoskeletal inflammation. Neurological Frequent were phonophobia and photophobia. Infrequent were confusion, depression, difficulty concentrating, disturbance of smell, dysarthria, euphoria, facial pain, heat sensitivity, incoordination, lacrimation, monoplegia, sleep disturbance, shivering, syncope, and tremor. Rare were aggressiveness, apathy, bradylogia, cluster headache, convulsions, decreased appetite, drug abuse, dystonic reaction, facial paralysis, hallucinations, hunger, hyperesthesia, hysteria, increased alertness, memory disturbance, neuralgia, paralysis, personality change, phobia, radiculopathy, rigidity, suicide, twitching, agitation, anxiety, depressive disorders, detachment, motor dysfunction, neurotic disorders, psychomotor disorders, taste disturbances, and raised intracranial pressure. Respiratory Frequent was dyspnea. Infrequent was asthma. Rare were hiccoughs, breathing disorders, cough, and bronchitis. Skin Frequent was sweating. Infrequent were erythema, pruritus, rash, and skin tenderness. Rare were dry/scaly skin, tightness of skin, wrinkling of skin, eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, and skin nodules. Breasts Infrequent was tenderness. Rare were nipple discharge; breast swelling; cysts, lumps, and masses of breasts; and primary malignant breast neoplasm. Urogenital Infrequent were dysmenorrhea, increased urination, and intermenstrual bleeding. Rare were abortion and hematuria, urinary frequency, bladder inflammation, micturition disorders, urethritis, urinary infections, menstruation symptoms, abnormal menstrual cycle, inflammation of fallopian tubes, and menstrual cycle symptoms. Miscellaneous Frequent was hypersensitivity. Infrequent were fever, fluid retention, and overdose. Rare were edema, hematoma, lymphadenopathy, speech disturbance, voice disturbances, contusions. Other Events Observed in the Clinical Development of Sumatriptan The following adverse events occurred in clinical trials with sumatriptan succinate injection and sumatriptan succinate nasal spray. Because the reports include events observed in open and uncontrolled studies, the role of sumatriptan in their causation cannot be reliably determined. All reported events are included except those already listed, those too general to be informative, and those not reasonably associated with the use of the drug. Atypical Sensations Feeling strange, prickling sensation, tingling, and hot sensation. Cardiovascular Abdominal aortic aneurysm, abnormal pulse, flushing, phlebitis, Raynaud syndrome, and various transient ECG changes (nonspecific ST or T wave changes, prolongation of PR or QTc intervals, sinus arrhythmia, nonsustained ventricular premature beats, isolated junctional ectopic beats, atrial ectopic beats, delayed activation of the right ventricle). Chest Symptoms Chest discomfort. Endocrine and Metabolic Dehydration. Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorder/discomfort nasal cavity and sinuses, ear infection, Meniere disease, and throat discomfort. Eye Vision alterations. Gastrointestinal Abdominal discomfort, colitis, disturbance of liver function tests, flatulence/eructation, gallstones, intestinal obstruction, pancreatitis, and retching. Injection Site Reaction Miscellaneous Difficulty in walking, hypersensitivity to various agents, jaw discomfort, miscellaneous laboratory abnormalities, “serotonin agonist effect,” swelling of the extremities, and swelling of the face. Mouth and Teeth Disorder of mouth and tongue (e.g., burning of tongue, numbness of tongue, dry mouth). Musculoskeletal Arthritis, backache, intervertebral disc disorder, neck pain/stiffness, need to flex calf muscles, and various joint disturbances (pain, stiffness, swelling, ache). Neurological Bad/unusual taste, chills, diplegia, disturbance of emotions, sedation, globus hystericus, intoxication, myoclonia, neoplasm of pituitary, relaxation, sensation of lightness, simultaneous hot and cold sensations, stinging sensations, stress, tickling sensations, transient hemiplegia, and yawning. Respiratory influenza and diseases of the lower respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract infection. Skin Skin eruption, herpes, and peeling of the skin. Urogenital Disorder of breasts, endometriosis, and renal calculus. Postmarketing Experience (Reports for Subcutaneous or Oral Sumatriptan) The following section enumerates potentially important adverse events that have occurred in clinical practice and that have been reported spontaneously to various surveillance systems. The events enumerated represent reports arising from both domestic and nondomestic use of oral or subcutaneous dosage forms of sumatriptan. The events enumerated include all except those already listed in the ADVERSE REACTIONS section above or those too general to be informative. Because the reports cite events reported spontaneously from worldwide postmarketing experience, frequency of events and the role of sumatriptan in their causation cannot be reliably determined. It is assumed, however, that systemic reactions following sumatriptan use are likely to be similar regardless of route of administration. Blood Hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia. Cardiovascular Atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, colonic ischemia (see WARNINGS ), Prinzmetal variant angina, pulmonary embolism, shock, thrombophlebitis. Ear, Nose, and Throat Deafness. Eye Ischemic optic neuropathy, retinal artery occlusion, retinal vein thrombosis, loss of vision. Gastrointestinal Ischemic colitis with rectal bleeding (see WARNINGS ), xerostomia. Hepatic Elevated liver function tests. Neurological Central nervous system vasculitis, cerebrovascular accident, dysphasia, serotonin syndrome, subarachnoid hemorrhage. Non-Site Specific Angioneurotic edema, cyanosis, death (see WARNINGS ), temporal arteritis. Psychiatry Panic disorder. Respiratory Bronchospasm in patients with and without a history of asthma. Skin Exacerbation of sunburn, hypersensitivity reactions (allergic vasculitis, erythema, pruritus, rash, shortness of breath, urticaria; in addition, severe anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reactions have been reported [see WARNINGS ]), photosensitivity. Urogenital Acute renal failure.