2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Management of Pain •To be prescribed only by healthcare providers knowledgeable in use of potent opioids for management of chronic pain. (2.3) •Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals. (2.3) •Individualize dosing based on the severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse. (2.3) •For opioid naïve patients, initiate methadone hydrochloride treatment with 2.5 mg every 8 to 12 hours. (2.3) •To convert to methadone hydrochloride tablets from another opioid, use available conversion factors to obtain estimated dose. (2.3) •Titrate slowly with dose increases no more frequent than every 3 to 5 days. (2.4) •Do not abruptly discontinue methadone hydrochloride tablets in a physically dependent patient. (2.5, 5.14) Initiation of Detoxification and Maintenance Treatment •A single dose of 20 to 30 mg may be sufficient to suppress withdrawal syndrome. (2.6) 2.1 Conditions for Distribution and Use of Methadone Products for the Treatment of Opioid Addiction Code of Federal Regulations, Title 42, Sec 8: Methadone products when used for the treatment of opioid addiction in detoxification or maintenance programs, shall be dispensed only by opioid treatment programs (and agencies, practitioners or institutions by formal agreement with the program sponsor) certified by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and approved by the designated state authority. Certified treatment programs shall dispense and use methadone in oral form only and according to the treatment requirements stipulated in the Federal Opioid Treatment Standards (42 CFR 8.12). See below for important regulatory exceptions to the general requirement for certification to provide opioid agonist treatment. Failure to abide by the requirements in these regulations may result in criminal prosecution, seizure of the drug supply, revocation of the program approval, and injunction precluding operation of the program. Regulatory Exceptions to the General Requirement for Certification to Provide Opioid Agonist Treatment: •During inpatient care, when the patient was admitted for any condition other than concurrent opioid addiction (pursuant to 21CFR 1306.07(c)), to facilitate the treatment of the primary admitting diagnosis). •During an emergency period of no longer than 3 days while definitive care for the addiction is being sought in an appropriately licensed facility (pursuant to 21CFR 1306.07(b)). 2.2 Important General Information The peak respiratory depressant effect of methadone occurs later and persists longer than its peak therapeutic effect. A high degree of opioid tolerance does not eliminate the possibility of methadone overdose, iatrogenic or otherwise. Deaths have been reported during conversion to methadone from chronic, high-dose treatment with other opioid agonists and during initiation of methadone treatment of addiction in subjects previously abusing high doses of other agonists. With repeated dosing, methadone is retained in the liver and then slowly released, prolonging the duration of potential toxicity. Methadone has a narrow therapeutic index, especially when combined with other drugs. 2.3 Methadone hydrochloride tablets for Management of Pain Important Dosage and Administration Information Methadone hydrochloride tablets should be prescribed only by healthcare professionals who are knowledgeable in the use of potent opioids for the management of chronic pain. Consider the following important factors that differentiate methadone from other opioid analgesics: There is high interpatient variability in absorption, metabolism, and relative analgesic potency of methadone. Population-based equianalgesic conversion ratios between methadone and other opioids are not accurate when applied to individuals. The duration of analgesic action of methadone is 4 to 8 hours (based on single-dose studies) but the plasma elimination half-life is 8 to 59 hours. With repeated dosing, the potency of methadone increases due to systemic accumulation. Steady-state plasma concentrations and full analgesic effects are not attained until at least 3 to 5 days on a dose, and may take longer in some patients. Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see Warnings and Precautions (5) ]. Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient’s severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic treatment experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24 to 72 hours of initiating therapy and following dosage increases with methadone hydrochloride tablets and adjust the dosage accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. Use of Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets as the First Opioid Analgesic Initiate treatment with methadone hydrochloride tablets with 2.5 mg orally every 8 to 12 hours. Conversion from Other Oral Opioids to Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets Discontinue all other around-the-clock opioid drugs when methadone hydrochloride tablets therapy is initiated. Deaths have occurred in opioid-tolerant patients during conversion to methadone. The potency of methadone relative to other opioid analgesics is nonlinear and increases with increasing dose. Table 1 provides an estimated conversion factor for use when converting patients from another opioid to methadone. Because of the high inter-patient variability in absorption, metabolism, and relative potency, it is critical to avoid overestimating the methadone dose which can lead to fatal respiratory depression. It is safer to underestimate a patient’s 24-hour methadone dosage and provide rescue medication (e.g., immediate-release opioid) than to overestimate the 24-hour methadone dosage and manage an adverse reaction due to an overdose. Consider the following when using the information in Table 1: This is not a table of equianalgesic doses. The conversion factors in this table are only for the conversion from another oral opioid analgesic to methadone hydrochloride tablets. The table cannot be used to convert from methadone hydrochloride tablets to another opioid. Doing so will result in an overestimation of the dose of the new opioid and may result in fatal overdose. Table 1: Conversion Factors to Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets Total Daily Baseline Oral Morphine Equivalent Dose Estimated Daily Oral Methadone Requirement as Percent of Total Daily Morphine Equivalent Dose < 100 mg 20% to 30% 100 to 300 mg 10% to 20% 300 to 600 mg 8% to 12% 600 mg to 1000 mg 5% to 10% > 1000 mg < 5 % To calculate the estimated methadone hydrochloride tablets dose using Table 1: For patients on a single opioid, sum the current total daily dose of the opioid, convert it to a Morphine Equivalent Dose according to specific conversion factor for that specific opioid, then multiply the Morphine Equivalent Dose by the corresponding percentage in the above table to calculate the approximate oral methadone daily dose. Divide the total daily methadone dose derived from the table above to reflect the intended dosing schedule (i.e., for administration every 8 hours, divide total daily methadone dose by 3). For patients on a regimen of more than one opioid, calculate the approximate oral methadone dose for each opioid and sum the totals to obtain the approximate total methadone daily dose. Divide the total daily methadone dose derived from the table above to reflect the intended dosing schedule (i.e., for administration every 8 hours, divide total daily methadone dose by 3). For patients on a regimen of fixed-ratio opioid/non-opioid analgesic products, use only the opioid component of these products in the conversion. Always round the dose down, if necessary, to the appropriate methadone hydrochloride tablets strength(s) available. Example conversion from a single opioid to methadone hydrochloride tablets: Step 1: Sum the total daily dose of the opioid (in this case, Morphine Extended Release Tablets 50 mg twice daily) 50 mg Morphine Extended Release Tablets 2 times daily = 100 mg total daily dose of Morphine Step 2: Calculate the approximate equivalent dose of methadone hydrochloride tablets based on the total daily dose of Morphine using Table 1. 100 mg total daily dose of Morphine x 15% (10% to 20% per Table 1) = 15 mg methadone hydrochloride tablets daily Step 3: Calculate the approximate starting dose of methadone hydrochloride tablets to be given every 12 hours. Round down, if necessary, to the appropriate methadone hydrochloride tablets strengths available. 15 mg daily / 2 = 7.5 mg methadone hydrochloride tablets every 12 hours Then 7.5 mg is rounded down to 5 mg methadone hydrochloride tablets every 12 hours Close observation and frequent titration are warranted until pain management is stable on the new opioid. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal or for signs of over-sedation/toxicity after converting patients to methadone hydrochloride tablets. Conversion from Parenteral Methadone to Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets Use a conversion ratio of 1:2 mg for parenteral to oral methadone (e.g., 5 mg parenteral methadone to 10 mg oral methadone). 2.4 Titration and Maintenance of Therapy for Pain Individually titrate methadone hydrochloride tablets to a dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. Continually reevaluate patients receiving methadone hydrochloride tablets to assess the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of adverse reactions, as well as monitoring for the development of addiction, abuse, or misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Frequent communication is important among the prescriber, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family during periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration. During chronic therapy, periodically reassess the continued need for the use of opioid analgesics. Patients who experience breakthrough pain may require a dose increase of methadone hydrochloride tablets, or may need rescue medication with an appropriate dose of an immediate-release analgesic. If the level of pain increases after dosage stabilization, attempt to identify the source of increased pain before increasing the methadone hydrochloride tablets dosage. Because of individual variability in the pharmacokinetic profile (i.e., terminal half-life (T1/2) from 8 to 59 hours in different studies [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ], titrate methadone hydrochloride tablets slowly, with dose increases no more frequent than every 3 to 5 days. However, because of this high variability, some patients may require substantially longer periods between dose increases (up to 12 days). Monitor patients closely for the development of potentially life-threatening adverse reactions (e.g., CNS and respiratory depression). If unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed, the subsequent doses may be reduced and/or the dosing interval adjusted (i.e., every 8 hours or every 12 hours). Adjust the dose to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid-related adverse reactions. 2.5 Discontinuation of Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets for Pain When a patient no longer requires therapy with methadone hydrochloride tablets for pain, taper the dose gradually, by 15% to 50% every two to four days, to prevent signs and symptoms of withdrawal. If the patient develops these signs or symptoms, raise the dose to the previous level and taper more slowly, either by increasing the interval between decreases, decreasing the amount of change in dose, or both. Do not abruptly discontinue methadone hydrochloride tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14) , Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3) ]. 2.6 Induction/Initial Dosing for Detoxification and Maintenance Treatment of Opioid Addiction For detoxification and maintenance of opioid dependence, methadone should be administered in accordance with the treatment standards cited in 42 CFR Section 8.12, including limitations on unsupervised administration. Administer the initial methadone dose under supervision, when there are no signs of sedation or intoxication, and the patient shows symptoms of withdrawal. An initial single dose of 20 to 30 mg of methadone hydrochloride tablets will often be sufficient to suppress withdrawal symptoms. The initial dose should not exceed 30 mg. To make same-day dosing adjustments, have the patient wait 2 to 4 hours for further evaluation, when peak levels have been reached. Provide an additional 5 to 10 mg of methadone hydrochloride tablets if withdrawal symptoms have not been suppressed or if symptoms reappear. The total daily dose of methadone hydrochloride tablets on the first day of treatment should not ordinarily exceed 40 mg. Adjust the dose over the first week of treatment based on control of withdrawal symptoms at the time of expected peak activity (e.g., 2 to 4 hours after dosing). When adjusting the dose, keep in mind that methadone levels will accumulate over the first several days of dosing; deaths have occurred in early treatment due to the cumulative effects. Instruct patients that the dose will “hold” for a longer period of time as tissue stores of methadone accumulate. Use lower initial doses for patients whose tolerance is expected to be low at treatment entry. Any patient who has not taken opioids for more than 5 days may no longer be tolerant. Do not determine initial doses based on previous treatment episodes or dollars spent per day on illicit drug use. During the induction phase of methadone maintenance treatment, patients are being withdrawn from opioids and may have opioid withdrawal symptoms. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal including: lacrimation, rhinorrhea, sneezing, yawning, excessive perspiration, goose-flesh, fever, chilling alternating with flushing, restlessness, irritability, weakness, anxiety, depression, dilated pupils, tremors, tachycardia, abdominal cramps, body aches, involuntary twitching and kicking movements, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, intestinal spasms, and weight loss and consider dose adjustment as indicated. Short-term Detoxification For a brief course of stabilization followed by a period of medically supervised withdrawal, titrate the patient to a total daily dose of about 40 mg in divided doses to achieve an adequate stabilizing level. After 2 to 3 days of stabilization, gradually decrease the dose of methadone hydrochloride tablets. Decrease the dose of methadone hydrochloride tablets on a daily basis or at 2-day intervals, keeping the amount of methadone hydrochloride tablets sufficient to keep withdrawal symptoms at a tolerable level. Hospitalized patients may tolerate a daily reduction of 20% of the total daily dose. Ambulatory patients may need a slower schedule. 2.7 Titration and Maintenance Treatment of Opioid Dependence Titrate patients in maintenance treatment to a dose that prevents opioid withdrawal symptoms for 24 hours, reduces drug hunger or craving, and blocks or attenuates the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids, ensuring that the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone. Most commonly, clinical stability is achieved at doses between 80 to 120 mg/day. During prolonged administration of methadone, monitor patients for persistent constipation and manage accordingly. 2.8 Medically Supervised Withdrawal after a Period of Maintenance Treatment for Opioid Addiction There is considerable variability in the appropriate rate of methadone taper in patients choosing medically supervised withdrawal from methadone treatment. Dose reductions should generally be less than 10% of the established tolerance or maintenance dose, and 10 to 14-day intervals should elapse between dose reductions. Apprise patients of the high risk of relapse to illicit drug use associated with discontinuation of methadone maintenance treatment. 2.9 Risk of Relapse in Patients on Methadone Maintenance Treatment of Opioid Addiction Abrupt opioid discontinuation can lead to development of opioid withdrawal symptoms [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3) ]. Opioid withdrawal symptoms have been associated with an increased risk of relapse to illicit drug use in susceptible patients. 2.10 Considerations for Management of Acute Pain during Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients in methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence who experience physical trauma, postoperative pain or other acute pain cannot be expected to derive analgesia from their existing dose of methadone. Such patients should be administered analgesics, including opioids, in doses that would otherwise be indicated for non-methadone-treated patients with similar painful conditions. When opioids are required for management of acute pain in methadone maintenance patients, somewhat higher and/or more frequent doses will often be required than would be the case for non-tolerant patients due to the opioid tolerance induced by methadone. 2.11 Dosage Adjustment during Pregnancy Methadone clearance may be increased during pregnancy. During pregnancy, a woman’s methadone dose may need to be increased or the dosing interval decreased. Methadone should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].