PRECAUTIONS General The initial prescription and renewal of the medication order beyond 20 mL of MAXITROL® (neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension) should be made by a physician only after examination of the patient with the aid of magnification, such as slit lamp biomicroscopy, and where appropriate, fluorescein staining. If signs and symptoms fail to improve after two days, the patient should be reevaluated. As fungal infections of the cornea are particularly prone to develop coincidentally with long-term corticosteroid applications, fungal invasion should be suspected in any persistent corneal ulceration where a corticosteroid has been used or is in use. Fungal cultures should be taken when appropriate. If this product is used for 10 days or longer, IOP should be monitored (see WARNINGS). Prolonged use of topical anti-bacterial agents may give rise to overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms including fungi. Information for Patients If inflammation or pain persists longer than 48 hours or becomes aggravated, the patient should be advised to discontinue use of the medication and consult a physician. This product is sterile when packaged. To prevent contamination, care should be taken to avoid touching the bottle tip to eyelids or to any other surface. The use of this bottle by more than one person may spread infection. Keep bottle tightly closed when not in use. Keep out of reach of children. Patients should be advised that their vision may be temporarily blurred following dosing with MAXITROL® (neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension). Care should be exercised in operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic or mutagenic potential have not been conducted with polymyxin B sulfate. Treatment of cultured human lymphocytes in vitro with neomycin increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations at the highest concentration (80 mcg/mL) tested. However, the effects of neomycin on carcinogenesis and mutagenesis in humans are unknown. Polymyxin B has been reported to impair the motility of equine sperm, but its effects on male or female fertility are unknown. Pregnancy Dexamethasone has been shown to be teratogenic in mice and rabbits following topical ophthalmic application in multiples of the therapeutic dose. In the mouse, corticosteroids produce fetal resorptions and a specific abnormality, cleft palate. In the rabbit, corticosteroids have produced fetal resorptions and multiple abnormalities involving the head, ears, limbs, palate, etc. There are no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. However, prolonged or repeated corticoid use during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of intra-uterine growth retardation. MAXITROL® (neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension) should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit to the mother justifies the potential risk to the embryo or fetus. Infants born of mothers who have received substantial doses of corticosteroids during pregnancy should be observed carefully for signs of hypoadrenalism. Nursing Mothers Systemically administered corticosteroids appear in human milk, could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. It is not known whether topical administration of corticosteroids could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when MAXITROL® (neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and dexamethasone ophthalmic suspension) is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 2 years have not been established. Geriatric Use No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients.