Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 July 2018


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE LUNESTA ® (eszopiclone) is indicated for the treatment of insomnia. In controlled outpatient and sleep laboratory studies, LUNESTA administered at bedtime decreased sleep latency and improved sleep maintenance. The clinical trials performed in support of efficacy were up to 6 months in duration. The final formal assessments of sleep latency and maintenance were performed at 4 weeks in the 6-week study (adults only), at the end of both 2-week studies (elderly only) and at the end of the 6-month study (adults only). LUNESTA is indicated for the treatment of insomnia. LUNESTA has been shown to decrease sleep latency and improve sleep maintenance ( 1)

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Advisory information

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS LUNESTA is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to eszopiclone. Hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylaxis and angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3)] . Known hypersensitivity to eszopiclone ( 4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. The premarketing development program for LUNESTA included eszopiclone exposures in patients and/or normal subjects from two different groups of studies: approximately 400 normal subjects in clinical pharmacology/pharmacokinetic studies, and approximately 1550 patients in placebo-controlled clinical effectiveness studies, corresponding to approximately 263 patient-exposure years. The conditions and duration of treatment with LUNESTA varied greatly and included (in overlapping categories) open-label and double-blind phases of studies, inpatients and outpatients, and short-term and longer-term exposure. Adverse reactions were assessed by collecting adverse events, results of physical examinations, vital signs, weights, laboratory analyses, and ECGs. The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while the patient was receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. Most commonly observed adverse reactions (incidence ≥2%) were unpleasant taste, headache, somnolence, respiratory infection, dizziness, dry mouth, rash, anxiety, hallucinations, and viral infections ( 6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc. at 1-877-737-7226 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or . 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Adverse Reactions Resulting in Discontinuation of Treatment In placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trials in the elderly, 3.8% of 208 patients who received placebo, 2.3% of 215 patients who received 2 mg LUNESTA, and 1.4% of 72 patients who received 1 mg LUNESTA discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction. In the 6-week parallel-group study in adults, no patients in the 3 mg arm discontinued because of an adverse reaction. In the long-term 6-month study in adult insomnia patients, 7.2% of 195 patients who received placebo and 12.8% of 593 patients who received 3 mg LUNESTA discontinued due to an adverse reaction. No reaction that resulted in discontinuation occurred at a rate of greater than 2%. Adverse Reactions Observed at an Incidence of ≥2% in Controlled Trials Table 1 shows the incidence of adverse reactions from a Phase 3 placebo-controlled study of LUNESTA at doses of 2 or 3 mg in non-elderly adults. Treatment duration in this trial was 44 days. The table includes only reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with LUNESTA 2 mg or 3 mg in which the incidence in patients treated with LUNESTA was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients. Table 1: Incidence (%) of Adverse Reactions in a 6-Week Placebo-Controlled Study in Non-Elderly Adults with LUNESTA 1 1 Reactions for which the LUNESTA incidence was equal to or less than placebo are not listed on the table, but included the following: abnormal dreams, accidental injury, back pain, diarrhea, flu syndrome, myalgia, pain, pharyngitis, and rhinitis. * Gender-specific adverse reaction in females ** Gender-specific adverse reaction in males Adverse Reaction Placebo (n=99) LUNESTA 2 mg (n=104) LUNESTA 3 mg (n=105) Body as a Whole Headache 13 21 17 Viral Infection 1 3 3 Digestive System Dry Mouth 3 5 7 Dyspepsia 4 4 5 Nausea 4 5 4 Vomiting 1 3 0 Nervous System Anxiety 0 3 1 Confusion 0 0 3 Depression 0 4 1 Dizziness 4 5 7 Hallucinations 0 1 3 Libido Decreased 0 0 3 Nervousness 3 5 0 Somnolence 3 10 8 Respiratory System Infection 3 5 10 Skin and Appendages Rash 1 3 4 Special Senses Unpleasant Taste 3 17 34 Urogenital System Dysmenorrhea * 0 3 0 Gynecomastia ** 0 3 0 Adverse reactions from Table 1 that suggest a dose-response relationship in adults include viral infection, dry mouth, dizziness, hallucinations, infection, rash, and unpleasant taste, with this relationship clearest for unpleasant taste. Table 2 shows the incidence of adverse reactions from combined Phase 3 placebo-controlled studies of LUNESTA at doses of 1 or 2 mg in elderly adults (ages 65-86). Treatment duration in these trials was 14 days. The table includes only reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with LUNESTA 1 mg or 2 mg in which the incidence in patients treated with LUNESTA was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients. Table 2: Incidence (%) of Adverse Reactions in Elderly Adults (Ages 65-86) in 2-Week Placebo-Controlled Trials with LUNESTA 1 1 Reactions for which the LUNESTA incidence was equal to or less than placebo are not listed on the table, but included the following: abdominal pain, asthenia, nausea, rash, and somnolence. Adverse Reactions Placebo (n=208) LUNESTA 1 mg (n=72) LUNESTA 2 mg (n=215) Body as a Whole Accidental Injury 1 0 3 Headache 14 15 13 Pain 2 4 5 Digestive System Diarrhea 2 4 2 Dry Mouth 2 3 7 Dyspepsia 2 6 2 Nervous System Abnormal Dreams 0 3 1 Dizziness 2 1 6 Nervousness 1 0 2 Neuralgia 0 3 0 Skin and Appendages Pruritus 1 4 1 Special Senses Unpleasant Taste 0 8 12 Urogenital System Urinary Tract Infection 0 3 0 Adverse reactions from Table 2 that suggest a dose-response relationship in elderly adults include pain, dry mouth, and unpleasant taste, with this relationship again clearest for unpleasant taste. These figures cannot be used to predict the incidence of adverse reactions in the course of usual medical practice because patient characteristics and other factors may differ from those that prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contributions of drug and non-drug factors to the adverse reaction incidence rate in the population studied. Other Reactions Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of LUNESTA Following is a list of modified COSTART terms that reflect adverse reactions as defined in the introduction to the Adverse Reactions section and reported by approximately 1550 subjects treated with LUNESTA at doses in the range of 1 to 3.5 mg/day during Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials throughout the United States and Canada. All reported reactions are included except those already listed in Tables 1 and 2 or elsewhere in labeling, minor reactions common in the general population, and reactions unlikely to be drug-related. Although the reactions reported occurred during treatment with LUNESTA, they were not necessarily caused by it. Reactions are further categorized by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency according to the following definitions: frequent adverse reactions are those that occurred on one or more occasions in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse reactions are those that occurred in fewer than 1/100 patients but in at least 1/1,000 patients; rare adverse reactions are those that occurred in fewer than 1/1,000 patients. Gender-specific reactions are categorized based on their incidence for the appropriate gender. Body as a Whole: Frequent: chest pain; Infrequent: allergic reaction, cellulitis, face edema, fever, halitosis, heat stroke, hernia, malaise, neck rigidity, photosensitivity. Cardiovascular System: Frequent: migraine; Infrequent: hypertension; Rare: thrombophlebitis. Digestive System: Infrequent: anorexia, cholelithiasis, increased appetite, melena, mouth ulceration, thirst, ulcerative stomatitis; Rare: colitis, dysphagia, gastritis, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, liver damage, stomach ulcer, stomatitis, tongue edema, rectal hemorrhage. Hemic and Lymphatic System: Infrequent: anemia, lymphadenopathy. Metabolic and Nutritional: Frequent: peripheral edema; Infrequent: hypercholesteremia, weight gain, weight loss; Rare: dehydration, gout, hyperlipemia, hypokalemia. Musculoskeletal System: Infrequent: arthritis, bursitis, joint disorder (mainly swelling, stiffness, and pain), leg cramps, myasthenia, twitching; Rare: arthrosis, myopathy, ptosis. Nervous System: Infrequent: agitation, apathy, ataxia, emotional lability, hostility, hypertonia, hypesthesia, incoordination, insomnia, memory impairment, neurosis, nystagmus, paresthesia, reflexes decreased, thinking abnormal (mainly difficulty concentrating), vertigo; Rare: abnormal gait, euphoria, hyperesthesia, hypokinesia, neuritis, neuropathy, stupor, tremor. Respiratory System: Infrequent: asthma, bronchitis, dyspnea, epistaxis, hiccup, laryngitis. Skin and Appendages: Infrequent: acne, alopecia, contact dermatitis, dry skin, eczema, skin discoloration, sweating, urticaria; Rare: erythema multiforme, furunculosis, herpes zoster, hirsutism, maculopapular rash, vesiculobullous rash. Special Senses: Infrequent: conjunctivitis, dry eyes, ear pain, otitis externa, otitis media, tinnitus, vestibular disorder; Rare: hyperacusis, iritis, mydriasis, photophobia. Urogenital System: Infrequent: amenorrhea, breast engorgement, breast enlargement, breast neoplasm, breast pain, cystitis, dysuria, female lactation, hematuria, kidney calculus, kidney pain, mastitis, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, uterine hemorrhage, vaginal hemorrhage, vaginitis; Rare: oliguria, pyelonephritis, urethritis. 6.2 Post-Marketing Experience In addition to the adverse reactions observed during clinical trials, dysosmia, an olfactory dysfunction that is characterized by distortion of the sense of smell, has been reported during post-marketing surveillance with LUNESTA. Because this event is reported spontaneously from a population of unknown size, it is not possible to estimate the frequency of this event.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Use the lowest effective dose for the patient. Use the lowest dose effective for the patient ( 2) Recommended initial dose is 1 mg, immediately before bedtime, with at least 7-8 hours remaining before the planned time of awakening. May increase dose if clinically indicated, to a maximum of 3 mg ( 2.1) Geriatric or debilitated patients: Dose should not exceed 2 mg ( 2.2) Patients with severe hepatic impairment, or taking potent CYP3A4 inhibitors: Dose should not exceed 2 mg ( 2.3) Do not take with or immediately after a meal ( 2.5) 2.1 Dosage in Adults The recommended starting dose is 1 mg. Dosing can be raised to 2 mg or 3 mg if clinically indicated. In some patients, the higher morning blood levels of LUNESTA following use of the 2 mg or 3 mg dose increase the risk of next day impairment of driving and other activities that require full alertness [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1) ]. The total dose of LUNESTA should not exceed 3 mg, once daily immediately before bedtime [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6) ]. 2.2 Geriatric or Debilitated Patients The total dose of LUNESTA should not exceed 2 mg in elderly or debilitated patients. 2.3 Patients with Severe Hepatic Impairment, or Taking Potent CYP3A4 Inhibitors In patients with severe hepatic impairment, or in patients coadministered LUNESTA with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, the total dose of LUNESTA should not exceed 2 mg [ see Warning and Precautions ( 5.7) ]. 2.4 Use with CNS Depressants Dosage adjustments may be necessary when LUNESTA is combined with other CNS depressant drugs because of the potentially additive effects [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)]. 2.5 Administration with Food Taking LUNESTA with or immediately after a heavy, high-fat meal results in slower absorption and would be expected to reduce the effect of LUNESTA on sleep latency [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)] .
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm ( 8.1) Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness not established. Dizziness, dysgeusia, hallucinations, suicidal ideation reported ( 8.4) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. LUNESTA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Oral administration of eszopiclone to pregnant rats (62.5, 125, or 250 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (4, 8, or 16 mg/kg/day) throughout organogenesis showed no evidence of teratogenicity up to the highest doses tested. In rats, reduced fetal weight and increased incidences of skeletal variations and/or delayed ossification were observed at the mid and high doses. The no-observed-effect dose for adverse effects on embryofetal development is 200 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 3 mg/day on a mg/m 2 basis. No effects on embryofetal development were observed in rabbits; the highest dose tested is approximately 100 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis. Oral administration of eszopiclone (60, 120, or 180 mg/kg/day) to pregnant rats throughout the pregnancy and lactation resulted in increased post-implantation loss, decreased postnatal pup weights and survival, and increased pup startle response at all doses. The lowest dose tested is approximately 200 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis. Eszopiclone had no effects on other developmental measures or reproductive function in the offspring. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of LUNESTA have not been established in pediatric patients. LUNESTA failed to demonstrate efficacy in controlled clinical studies of pediatric patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD) associated insomnia. In a 12-week controlled study, 483 pediatric patients (aged 6-17 years) with insomnia associated with ADHD (with 65% of the patients using concomitant ADHD treatments) were treated with oral tablets of LUNESTA (1 or 2 or 3 mg tablets, n=323), or placebo (n=160). LUNESTA did not significantly decrease latency to persistent sleep, compared to placebo, as measured by polysomnography after 12 weeks of treatment. Psychiatric and nervous system disorders comprised the most frequent treatment emergent adverse reactions observed with LUNESTA versus placebo and included dysgeusia (9% vs. 1%), dizziness (6% vs. 2%), hallucinations (2% vs. 0%) and suicidal ideation (0.3% vs. 0%). Nine patients on LUNESTA (3%) discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction compared to 3 patients on placebo (2%). In studies in which eszopiclone (2 to 300 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to young rats from weaning through sexual maturity, neurobehavioral impairment (altered auditory startle response) and reproductive toxicity (adverse effects on male reproductive organ weights and histopathology) were observed at doses ≥ 5 mg/kg/day. Delayed sexual maturation was noted in males and females at ≥10 mg/kg/day. The no-effect dose (2 mg/kg) was associated with plasma exposures (AUC) for eszopiclone and metabolite (S)-desmethylzopiclone [(S)-DMZ] approximately 2 times plasma exposures in humans at the maximum recommended dose (MRHD) in adults (3 mg/day). When eszopiclone (doses from 1 to 50 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to young dogs from weaning through sexual maturity, neurotoxicity (convulsions) was observed at doses ≥ 5 mg/kg/day. Hepatotoxicity (elevated liver enzymes and hepatocellular vacuolation and degeneration) and reproductive toxicity (adverse effects on male reproductive organ weights and histopathology) were noted at dose ≥10 mg/kg/day. The no-effect dose (1 mg/kg) was associated with plasma exposures (AUC) to eszopiclone and (S)-DMZ approximately 3 and 2 times, respectively, plasma exposures in humans at the MRHD in adults. 8.5 Geriatric Use A total of 287 subjects in double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trials who received eszopiclone were 65 to 86 years of age. The overall pattern of adverse events for elderly subjects (median age = 71 years) in 2-week studies with nighttime dosing of 2 mg eszopiclone was not different from that seen in younger adults [see Adverse Reactions ( 6)] . LUNESTA 2 mg exhibited significant reduction in sleep latency and improvement in sleep maintenance in the elderly population. Compared with non-elderly adults, subjects 65 years and older had longer elimination and higher total exposure to eszopiclone. Therefore, dose reduction is recommended in the elderly patients [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2), Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)] . 8.6 Hepatic Impairment No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment. Exposure was increased in severely impaired patients compared with the healthy volunteers. The dose of LUNESTA should not exceed 2 mg in patients with severe hepatic impairment. LUNESTA should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.3), Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)] .
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk.


7 DRUG INTERACTIONS CNS Depressants: Additive CNS-depressant effects with combination use. Use with ethanol causes additive psychomotor impairment ( 7.1) Rifampicin: Combination use may decrease exposure and effects of LUNESTA ( 7.2) Ketoconazole: Combination use increases exposure and effect of LUNESTA. Dose reduction of LUNESTA is needed ( 7.2) 7.1 CNS Active Drugs Ethanol: An additive effect on psychomotor performance was seen with coadministration of eszopiclone and ethanol. Olanzapine: Coadministration of eszopiclone and olanzapine produced a decrease in DSST scores. The interaction was pharmacodynamic; there was no alteration in the pharmacokinetics of either drug. 7.2 Drugs that Inhibit or Induce CYP3A4 Drugs That Inhibit CYP3A4 (Ketoconazole) CYP3A4 is a major metabolic pathway for elimination of eszopiclone. The exposure of eszopiclone was increased by coadministration of ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Other strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., itraconazole, clarithromycin, nefazodone, troleandomycin, ritonavir, nelfinavir) would be expected to behave similarly. Dose reduction of LUNESTA is needed for patient co-administered LUNESTA with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.3)] . Drugs that Induce CYP3A4 (Rifampicin) Racemic zopiclone exposure was decreased 80% by concomitant use of rifampicin, a potent inducer of CYP3A4. A similar effect would be expected with eszopiclone. Combination use with CYP3A4 inducer may decrease the exposure and effects of LUNESTA.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA021476
Agency product number UZX80K71OE
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 55289-014
Date Last Revised 22-06-2018
RXCUI 485465
Marketing authorisation holder PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.