Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 22 November 2019

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Loperamide hydrochloride capsules are indicated for the control and symptomatic relief of acute nonspecific diarrhea in patients 2 years of age and older and of chronic diarrhea in adults associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Loperamide hydrochloride capsules are also indicated for reducing the volume of discharge from ileostomies.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Loperamide hydrochloride capsules are contraindicated in: pediatric patients less than 2 years of age due to the risks of respiratory depression and serious cardiac adverse reactions (see WARNINGS). patients with a known hypersensitivity to loperamide hydrochloride or to any of the excipients. patients with abdominal pain in the absence of diarrhea. patients with acute dysentery, which is characterized by blood in stools and high fever. patients with acute ulcerative colitis. patients with bacterial enterocolitis caused by invasive organisms including Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter. patients with pseudomembranous colitis (e.g., Clostridium difficle) associated with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General Allergic Reactions Extremely rare allergic reactions including anaphylaxis and anaphylactic shock have been reported. Hepatic Impairment The effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of loperamide have not been studied. Use loperamide hydrochloride capsules with caution in such patients because the systemic exposure to loperamide may be increased due to reduced metabolism. Monitor patients with hepatic impairment closely for signs of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. Renal Impairment No pharmacokinetic data are available in patients with renal impairment. Since it has been reported that the majority of the drug is metabolized and metabolites or the unchanged drug are excreted mainly in the feces, dosage adjustments in patients with renal impairment are not required. Geriatric Use No formal studies have been conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of loperamide in elderly subjects. However, in two studies that enrolled elderly patients, there were no major differences in the drug disposition in elderly patients with diarrhea relative to young patients. In general, elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval. Avoid loperamide hydrochloride capsules in elderly patients taking drugs that can result in prolongation of the QT interval (for example, Class IA or III antiarrhythmics) or in patients with risk factors for Torsades de Pointes (see WARNINGS). Information for Patients Advise patients: to take loperamide hydrochloride capsules at the prescribed dosage. Use of a higher than prescribed dosage is not recommended (see WARNINGS). Report to a healthcare facility if you or someone you are caring for taking loperamide hydrochloride capsules experiences a fainting episode, a rapid or irregular heartbeat or becomes unresponsive. with acute diarrhea, that if clinical improvement is not observed in 48 hours, discontinue loperamide hydrochloride capsules and contact their healthcare provider. to contact their healthcare provider if they see blood in their stools, or if they develop a fever or abdominal distention. to use caution when driving a car or operating machinery, as tiredness, dizziness, or drowsiness may occur in the setting of diarrheal syndromes treated with loperamide hydrochloride capsules (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). to tell their healthcare provider about all the medications they are taking, including prescription and over-the-counter medications, vitamins and herbal supplements, especially if they take Class 1A (e.g., quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmics, antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, haloperidol, thioridazine, ziprasidone), antibiotics (e.g., moxifloxacin), or any other drug known to prolong the QT interval (e.g., pentamidine, levomethadyl acetate, methadone). Drug Interactions Effects of Other Drugs on Loperamide Concomitant use of loperamide hydrochloride capsules with inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., itraconazole) or CYP2C8 (e.g., gemfibrozil) or inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (e.g., quinidine, ritonavir) can increase exposure to loperamide. The increased systemic exposure to loperamide may increase a risk for cardiac adverse reactions especially in patients who are taking multiple CYP enzyme inhibitors, or in patients with underlying cardiac conditions (see WARNINGS). Monitor patients for cardiac adverse reactions. CYP3A4 Inhibitors Itraconazole Concomitant administration of multiple doses of 100 mg itraconazole twice daily, an inhibitor of both CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein, with a single 4 mg dose of loperamide hydrochloride increased the peak plasma concentration and the systemic exposure to loperamide by 2.9-fold and 3.8-fold, respectively. CYP2C8 Inhibitors Gemfibrozil When a single 4 mg dose of loperamide hydrochloride was coadministered with 600 mg gemfibrozil, a strong inhibitor of CYP2C8, on day 3 of a 5-day treatment with gemfibrozil twice daily, the mean peak plasma concentration and the systemic exposure to loperamide was increased by 1.6-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 Inhibitors When multiple doses of both 100 mg itraconazole and 600 mg gemfibrozil twice daily were administered with a single 4 mg dose of loperamide hydrochloride, the mean peak plasma concentration and the systemic exposure to loperamide was increased by 4.2-fold and 12.6-fold, respectively. P-glycoprotein Inhibitors Concomitant administration of a 16 mg single dose of loperamide hydrochloride with a 600 mg single dose of quinidine or ritonavir, both of which are P-glycoprotein inhibitors, resulted in a 2- to 3-fold increase in loperamide plasma concentrations. Due to the potential for enhanced CNS adverse reactions when loperamide is coadministered with quinidine and with ritonavir, caution should be exercised when loperamide hydrochloride capsules are administered at the recommended dosages (2 mg, up to 16 mg maximum daily dose) with P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Effects of Loperamide on Other Drugs Saquinavir When a single 16 mg dose of loperamide hydrochloride is coadministered with a 600 mg single dose of saquinavir, loperamide decreased saquinavir exposure by 54%, which may be of clinical relevance due to reduction of therapeutic efficacy of saquinavir. The effect of saquinavir on loperamide is of less clinical significance. Therefore, when loperamide hydrochloride capsules are given with saquinavir, the therapeutic efficacy of saquinavir should be closely monitored. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility In an 18-month rat study with oral loperamide hydrochloride doses up to 40 mg/kg/day (21 times the maximum human dose of 16 mg/day, based on a body surface area comparison), there was no evidence of carcinogenesis. Loperamide was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the SOS chromotest in E. coli, the dominant lethal test in female mice, or the mouse embryo cell transformation assay. Fertility and reproductive performance was evaluated in rats using oral doses of 2.5 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day, and 40 mg/kg/day (females only) in a second study. Oral administration of 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 11 times the human dose based on a body surface area comparison) and higher, produced a strong impairment of female fertility. Treatment of female rats with up to 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the human dose based on a body surface area comparison) had no effect on fertility. Treatment of male rats with oral doses of 40 mg/kg/day (approximately 21 times the human dose based on a body surface area comparison) produced impairment of male fertility, whereas administration of up to 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the human dose based on a body surface area comparison) had no effect. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C Teratology studies have been performed in rats using oral loperamide hydrochloride doses of 2.5 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day, and 40 mg/kg/day, and in rabbits using oral doses of 5 mg/kg/day, 20 mg/kg/day, and 40 mg/kg/day. These studies have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day in rats (5 times the human dose based on body surface area comparison) and 40 mg/kg/day in rabbits (43 times the human dose based on body surface area comparison). Treatment of rats with oral doses of 40 mg/kg/day (21 times the human dose based on a body surface area comparison) produced marked impairment of fertility. The studies produced no evidence of teratogenic activity. There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Loperamide hydrochloride capsules should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Non-Teratogenic Effects In a peri- and post-natal development study in rats, oral administration of 40 mg/kg/day produced impairment of growth and survival of offspring. Nursing Mothers Small amounts of loperamide may appear in human breast milk. Therefore, loperamide hydrochloride capsules are not recommended during breast-feeding. Pediatric Use Loperamide hydrochloride capsules are contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age due to the risks of respiratory depression and serious cardiac adverse reactions (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Postmarketing cases of cardiac arrest, syncope, and respiratory depression have been reported in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age (see WARNINGS). Pediatric patients may be more sensitive to CNS effects, such as altered mental status, somnolence, and respiratory depression, than adults. There have been rare reports of paralytic ileus associated with abdominal distention. Most of these reports occurred in the setting of acute dysentery, overdose, and with pediatric patients less than two years of age. Loperamide hydrochloride capsules should be used with special caution in pediatric patients because of their greater variability of response (see WARNINGS). Dehydration, particularly in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age, may further influence the variability of response to loperamide hydrochloride capsules. The safety and effectiveness of loperamide hydrochloride capsules in pediatric patients with chronic diarrhea have not been established. Although loperamide hydrochloride capsules have been studied in a limited number of pediatric patients with chronic diarrhea; the therapeutic dose for the treatment of chronic diarrhea in a pediatric population has not been established. In case of accidental overdosage of loperamide hydrochloride capsules by pediatric patients, see OVERDOSAGE for suggested treatment.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Clinical Trial Experience The adverse effects reported during clinical investigations of loperamide hydrochloride capsules are difficult to distinguish from symptoms associated with the diarrheal syndrome. Adverse experiences recorded during clinical studies with loperamide hydrochloride capsules were generally of a minor and self-limiting nature. They were more commonly observed during the treatment of chronic diarrhea. The adverse events reported are summarized irrespective of the causality assessment of the investigators. 1) Adverse events from 4 placebo-controlled studies in patients with acute diarrhea The adverse events with an incidence of 1.0% or greater, which were reported at least as often in patients on loperamide hydrochloride as on placebo, are presented in the table below. Acute Diarrhea Loperamide Hydrochloride Placebo No. of treated patients 231 236 Gastrointestinal AE% Constipation 2.6% 0.8% The adverse events with an incidence of 1.0% or greater, which were more frequently reported in patients on placebo than on loperamide hydrochloride, were: dry mouth, flatulence, abdominal cramp and colic. 2) Adverse events from 20 placebo-controlled studies in patients with chronic diarrhea The adverse events with an incidence of 1.0% or greater, which were reported at least as often in patients on loperamide hydrochloride as on placebo, are presented in the table below. Chronic Diarrhea Loperamide Hydrochloride Placebo No. of treated patients 285 277 Gastrointestinal AE% Constipation 5.3% 0.0% Central and peripheral nervous system AE% Dizziness 1.4% 0.7% The adverse events with an incidence of 1.0% or greater, which were more frequently reported in patients on placebo than on loperamide hydrochloride were: nausea, vomiting, headache, meteorism, abdominal pain, abdominal cramp and colic. 3) Adverse events from 76 controlled and uncontrolled studies in patients with acute or chronic diarrhea The adverse events with an incidence of 1.0% or greater in patients from all studies are given in the table below. Acute Diarrhea Chronic Diarrhea All Studies All patients in all studies, including those in which it was not specified if the adverse events occurred in patients with acute or chronic diarrhea. No. of treated patients 1913 1371 3740 Gastrointestinal AE% Nausea 0.7% 3.2% 1.8% Constipation 1.6% 1.9% 1.7% Abdominal cramps 0.5% 3.0% 1.4% Postmarketing Experience The following adverse events have been reported: Cardiac Disorders: QT/QTc-interval prolongation, Torsades de Pointes, other ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, syncope, and death (see WARNINGS and OVERDOSAGE). Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Rash, pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, and extremely rare cases of bullous eruption including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis have been reported with use of loperamide hydrochloride capsules. Immune System Disorders: Isolated occurrences of allergic reactions and in some cases severe hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylactic shock and anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with the use of loperamide hydrochloride capsules. Gastrointestinal Disorders: Dry mouth, abdominal pain, distention or discomfort, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, dyspepsia, constipation, paralytic ileus, megacolon; including toxic megacolon (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS). Renal and Urinary Disorders: Urinary retention Nervous System Disorders: Drowsiness, dizziness General Disorders and Administrative Site Conditions: Tiredness A number of the adverse events reported during the clinical investigations and postmarketing experience with loperamide are frequent symptoms of the underlying diarrheal syndrome (abdominal pain/discomfort, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, tiredness, drowsiness, dizziness, constipation, and flatulence). These symptoms are often difficult to distinguish from undesirable drug effects.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Loperamide hydrochloride capsules are contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age due to the risks of respiratory depression and serious cardiac adverse reactions (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Avoid loperamide hydrochloride capsules dosages higher than recommended in adult or pediatric patients 2 years of age and older due to the risk of serious cardiac adverse reactions (see WARNINGS and OVERDOSAGE). (1 capsule = 2 mg): Patients should receive appropriate fluid and electrolyte replacement as needed. Acute Diarrhea Adults and Pediatric Patients 13 Years and Older The recommended initial dose is 4 mg (two capsules) followed by 2 mg (one capsule) after each unformed stool. The maximum daily dose is 16 mg (eight capsules). Clinical improvement is usually observed within 48 hours. Pediatric Patients 2 to 12 Years of Age In pediatric patients 2 to 5 years of age (20 kg or less), the non-prescription liquid formulation of loperamide (1 mg/5 mL) should be used; for ages 6 to 12, either loperamide hydrochloride capsules or the non-prescription liquid formulation of loperamide may be used. For pediatric patients 2 to 12 years of age, the following schedule for capsules or liquid will usually fulfill initial dosage requirements: Recommended First Day Dosage Schedule Two to five years (13 kg to 20 kg): 1 mg three times daily (3 mg total daily dosage) Six to eight years (20 kg to 30 kg): 2 mg twice daily (4 mg total daily dosage) Eight to twelve years (greater than 30 kg): 2 mg three times daily (6 mg total daily dosage) Recommended Subsequent Daily Dosage Following the first treatment day, it is recommended that subsequent loperamide hydrochloride capsules doses (1 mg/10 kg body weight) be administered only after a loose stool. Total daily dosage should not exceed recommended dosages for the first day. Chronic Diarrhea Adults The recommended initial dose is 4 mg (two capsules) followed by 2 mg (one capsule) after each unformed stool until diarrhea is controlled, after which the dosage of loperamide hydrochloride capsules should be reduced to meet individual requirements. When the optimal daily dosage has been established, this amount may then be administered as a single dose or in divided doses. The average daily maintenance dosage in clinical trials was 4 mg to 8 mg (two to four capsules per day). The maximum daily dosage is 16 mg (eight capsules per day). If clinical improvement is not observed after treatment with 16 mg per day for at least 10 days, symptoms are unlikely to be controlled by further administration. Loperamide hydrochloride capsules administration may be continued if diarrhea cannot be adequately controlled with diet or specific treatment. Elderly No formal pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in elderly subjects. However, there were no major differences reported in the drug disposition in elderly patients with diarrhea relative to young patients. No dose adjustment is required for the elderly. In general, elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects of the QT interval. Avoid loperamide hydrochloride capsules in elderly patients taking drugs that can result in prolongation of the QT interval (for example, Class IA or III antiarrhythmics) or in patients with risk factors for Torsades de Pointes (see WARNINGS). Renal Impairment No pharmacokinetic data are available in patients with renal impairment. Since the metabolites and the unchanged drug are mainly excreted in the feces, no dosage adjustment is required for patients with renal impairment (see PRECAUTIONS). Hepatic Impairment The pharmacokinetics of loperamide have not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment. Use loperamide hydrochloride capsules with caution in such patients because the systemic exposure may be increased due to reduced metabolism (see PRECAUTIONS).
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Small amounts of loperamide may appear in human breast milk. Therefore, loperamide hydrochloride capsules are not recommended during breast-feeding.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Effects of Other Drugs on Loperamide Concomitant use of loperamide hydrochloride capsules with inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., itraconazole) or CYP2C8 (e.g., gemfibrozil) or inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (e.g., quinidine, ritonavir) can increase exposure to loperamide. The increased systemic exposure to loperamide may increase a risk for cardiac adverse reactions especially in patients who are taking multiple CYP enzyme inhibitors, or in patients with underlying cardiac conditions (see WARNINGS). Monitor patients for cardiac adverse reactions. CYP3A4 Inhibitors Itraconazole Concomitant administration of multiple doses of 100 mg itraconazole twice daily, an inhibitor of both CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein, with a single 4 mg dose of loperamide hydrochloride increased the peak plasma concentration and the systemic exposure to loperamide by 2.9-fold and 3.8-fold, respectively. CYP2C8 Inhibitors Gemfibrozil When a single 4 mg dose of loperamide hydrochloride was coadministered with 600 mg gemfibrozil, a strong inhibitor of CYP2C8, on day 3 of a 5-day treatment with gemfibrozil twice daily, the mean peak plasma concentration and the systemic exposure to loperamide was increased by 1.6-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 Inhibitors When multiple doses of both 100 mg itraconazole and 600 mg gemfibrozil twice daily were administered with a single 4 mg dose of loperamide hydrochloride, the mean peak plasma concentration and the systemic exposure to loperamide was increased by 4.2-fold and 12.6-fold, respectively. P-glycoprotein Inhibitors Concomitant administration of a 16 mg single dose of loperamide hydrochloride with a 600 mg single dose of quinidine or ritonavir, both of which are P-glycoprotein inhibitors, resulted in a 2- to 3-fold increase in loperamide plasma concentrations. Due to the potential for enhanced CNS adverse reactions when loperamide is coadministered with quinidine and with ritonavir, caution should be exercised when loperamide hydrochloride capsules are administered at the recommended dosages (2 mg, up to 16 mg maximum daily dose) with P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Effects of Loperamide on Other Drugs Saquinavir When a single 16 mg dose of loperamide hydrochloride is coadministered with a 600 mg single dose of saquinavir, loperamide decreased saquinavir exposure by 54%, which may be of clinical relevance due to reduction of therapeutic efficacy of saquinavir. The effect of saquinavir on loperamide is of less clinical significance. Therefore, when loperamide hydrochloride capsules are given with saquinavir, the therapeutic efficacy of saquinavir should be closely monitored.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA072741
Agency product number 77TI35393C
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 70518-0893
Date Last Revised 27-08-2019
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 978006
Marketing authorisation holder REMEDYREPACK INC.
Warnings WARNING: TORSADES DE POINTES AND SUDDEN DEATH ● Cases of Torsades de Pointes, cardiac arrest, and death have been reported with the use of a higher than recommended dosage of loperamide hydrochloride capsules (see WARNINGS and OVERDOSAGE ). ● Loperamide hydrochloride capsules are contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ). ● Avoid loperamide hydrochloride capsules dosages higher than recommended in adults and pediatric patients 2 years of age and older due to the risk of serious cardiac adverse reactions (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).