Data from FDA - Curated by Toby Galbraith - Last updated 12 July 2017

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Hypertension Lisinopril Tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure lowers the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including lisinopril. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (eg, on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy. Lisinopril may be administered alone or with other antihypertensive agents. Heart Failure Lisinopril tablets, USP are indicated as adjunctive therapy in the management of heart failure in patients who are not responding adequately to diuretics and digitalis. Acute Myocardial Infarction Lisinopril tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of hemodynamically stable patients within 24 hours of acute myocardial infarction, to improve survival. Patients should receive, as appropriate, the standard recommended treatments such as thrombolytics, aspirin and beta-blockers. In using lisinopril, consideration should be given to the fact that another angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, has caused agranulocytosis, particularly in patients with renal impairment or collagen vascular disease, and that available data are insufficient to show that lisinopril does not have a similar risk (See WARNINGS ). In considering the use of lisinopril, it should be noted that in controlled clinical trials ACE inhibitors have an effect on blood pressure that is less in Black patients than in non-Blacks. In addition, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a higher rate of angioedema in Black than in non-Black patients (See WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions ).

Learning Zones

An epgonline.org Learning Zone (LZ) is an area of the site dedicated to providing detailed self-directed medical education about a disease, condition or procedure.

Acute and Advanced Heart Failure

What are the most effective treatments for acute heart failure? Can you define advanced heart failure? Discover here...

Visit Acute and Advanced Heart Failure


Transplantation

See information on best practice in solid organ transplantation, and expert discussions on related hot topics.

Visit Transplantation


Related Content

Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Lisinopril is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to this product and in patients with a history of angioedema related to previous treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and in patients with hereditary or idiopathic angioedema.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General Aortic Stenosis/Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: As with all vasodilators, lisinopril should be given with caution to patients with obstruction in the outflow tract of the left ventricle. Impaired Renal Function: As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals. In patients with severe congestive heart failure whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, including lisinopril, may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and rarely with acute renal failure and/or death. In hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine may occur. Experience with another angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests that these increases are usually reversible upon discontinuation of lisinopril and/or diuretic therapy. In such patients, renal function should be monitored during the first few weeks of therapy. Some patients with hypertension or heart failure with no apparent pre-existing renal vascular disease have developed increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient, especially when lisinopril has been given concomitantly with a diuretic. This is more likely to occur in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. Dosage reduction and/or discontinuation of the diuretic and/or lisinopril may be required. Patients with acute myocardial infarction in the GISSI-3 trial treated with lisinopril had a higher (2.4% versus 1.1%) incidence of renal dysfunction in-hospital and at six weeks (increasing creatinine concentration to over 3 mg/dL or a doubling or more of the baseline serum creatinine concentration). In acute myocardial infarction, treatment with lisinopril should be initiated with caution in patients with evidence of renal dysfunction, defined as serum creatinine concentration exceeding 2 mg/dL. If renal dysfunction develops during treatment with lisinopril (serum creatinine concentration exceeding 3 mg/dL or a doubling from the pre-treatment value) then the physician should consider withdrawal of lisinopril. Evaluation of patients with hypertension, heart failure, or myocardial infarction should always include assessment of renal function (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Hyperkalemia: In clinical trials hyperkalemia (serum potassium greater than 5.7 mEq/L) occurred in approximately 2.2% of hypertensive patients and 4.8% of patients with heart failure. In most cases these were isolated values which resolved despite continued therapy. Hyperkalemia was a cause of discontinuation of therapy in approximately 0.1% of hypertensive patients; 0.6% of patients with heart failure and 0.1% of patients with myocardial infarction. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes. Hyperkalemia can cause serious, sometimes fatal, arrhythmias. Lisinopril should be used cautiously, if at all, with these agents and with frequent monitoring of serum potassium (See PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions). Cough: Presumably due to the inhibition of the degradation of endogenous bradykinin, persistent nonproductive cough has been reported with all ACE inhibitors, almost always resolving after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough. Surgery/Anesthesia: In patients undergoing major surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, lisinopril may block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. If hypotension occurs and is considered to be due to this mechanism, it can be corrected by volume expansion. Information for Patients Angioedema: Angioedema, including laryngeal edema may occur at any time during treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, including lisinopril. Patients should be so advised and told to report immediately any signs or symptoms suggesting angioedema (swelling of face, extremities, eyes, lips, tongue, difficulty in swallowing or breathing) and to take no more drug until they have consulted with the prescribing physician. Symptomatic Hypotension: Patients should be cautioned to report lightheadedness especially during the first few days of therapy. If actual syncope occurs, the patient should be told to discontinue the drug until they have consulted with the prescribing physician. All patients should be cautioned that excessive perspiration and dehydration may lead to an excessive fall in blood pressure because of reduction in fluid volume. Other causes of volume depletion such as vomiting or diarrhea may also lead to a fall in blood pressure; patients should be advised to consult with their physician. Hyperkalemia: Patients should be told not to use salt substitutes containing potassium without consulting their physician. Hypoglycemia: Diabetic patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents or insulin starting an ACE inhibitor should be told to closely monitor for hypoglycemia, especially during the first month of combined use (See PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions). Leukopenia/Neutropenia: Patients should be told to report promptly any indication of infection (e.g., sore throat, fever) which may be a sign of leukopenia/neutropenia. Pregnancy: Female patients of childbearing age should be told about the consequences of exposure to lisinopril during pregnancy. Discuss treatment options with women planning to become pregnant. Patients should be asked to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible. NOTE: As with many other drugs, certain advice to patients being treated with lisinopril is warranted. This information is intended to aid in the safe and effective use of this medication. It is not a disclosure of all possible adverse or intended effects. Drug Interactions Hypotension – Patients on Diuretic Therapy: Patients on diuretics and especially those in whom diuretic therapy was recently instituted, may occasionally experience an excessive reduction of blood pressure after initiation of therapy with lisinopril. The possibility of hypotensive effects with lisinopril can be minimized by either discontinuing the diuretic or increasing the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with lisinopril. If it is necessary to continue the diuretic, initiate therapy with lisinopril at a dose of 5 mg daily, and provide close medical supervision after the initial dose until blood pressure has stabilized (See WARNINGS , and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). When a diuretic is added to the therapy of a patient receiving lisinopril, an additional antihypertensive effect is usually observed. Studies with ACE inhibitors in combination with diuretics indicate that the dose of the ACE inhibitor can be reduced when it is given with a diuretic (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Antidiabetics: Epidemiological studies have suggested that concomitant administration of ACE inhibitors and antidiabetic medicines (insulins, oral hypoglycemic agents) may cause an increased blood-glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. This phenomenon appeared to be more likely to occur during the first weeks of combined treatment and in patients with renal impairment. In diabetic patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents or insulin, glycemic control should be closely monitored for hypoglycemia, especially during the first month of treatment with an ACE inhibitor. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors): In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ACE inhibitors, including lisinopril, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving lisinopril and NSAID therapy. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, including lisinopril, may be attenuated by NSAIDs. Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on lisinopril and other agents that affect the RAS. Do not co-administer aliskiren with lisinopril in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with lisinopril in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 ml/min). Other Agents: Lisinopril has been used concomitantly with nitrates and/or digoxin without evidence of clinically significant adverse interactions. This included post myocardial infarction patients who were receiving intravenous or transdermal nitroglycerin. No clinically important pharmacokinetic interactions occurred when lisinopril was used concomitantly with propranolol or hydrochlorothiazide. The presence of food in the stomach does not alter the bioavailability of lisinopril. Agents Increasing Serum Potassium: Lisinopril attenuates potassium loss caused by thiazide-type diuretics. Use of lisinopril with potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., spironolactone, eplerenone, triamterene or amiloride), potassium supplements, or potassium-containing salt substitutes may lead to significant increases in serum potassium. Therefore, if concomitant use of these agents is indicated because of demonstrated hypokalemia, they should be used with caution and with frequent monitoring of serum potassium. Potassium-sparing agents should generally not be used in patients with heart failure who are receiving lisinopril. Lithium: Lithium toxicity has been reported in patients receiving lithium concomitantly with drugs which cause elimination of sodium, including ACE inhibitors. Lithium toxicity was usually reversible upon discontinuation of lithium and the ACE inhibitor. It is recommended that serum lithium levels be monitored frequently if lisinopril is administered concomitantly with lithium. Gold: Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy including lisinopril. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility There was no evidence of a tumorigenic effect when lisinopril was administered for 105 weeks to male and female rats at doses up to 90 mg/kg/day (about 56 or 9 times* the maximum recommended daily human dose, based on body weight and body surface area, respectively). There was no evidence of carcinogenicity when lisinopril was administered for 92 weeks to (male and female) mice at doses up to 135 mg/kg/day (about 84 times* the maximum recommended daily human dose). This dose was 6.8 times the maximum human dose based on body surface area in mice. Lisinopril was not mutagenic in the Ames microbial mutagen test with or without metabolic activation. It was also negative in a forward mutation assay using Chinese hamster lung cells. Lisinopril did not produce single strand DNA breaks in an in vitro alkaline elution rat hepatocyte assay. In addition, lisinopril did not produce increases in chromosomal aberrations in an in vitro test in Chinese hamster ovary cells or in an in vivo study in mouse bone marrow. There were no adverse effects on reproductive performance in male and female rats treated with up to 300 mg/kg/day of lisinopril. This dose is 188 times and 30 times the maximum human dose when based on mg/kg and mg/m2, respectively. *Calculations assume a human weight of 50 kg and human body surface area of 1.62 m2. Nursing Mothers Milk of lactating rats contains radioactivity following administration of 14C lisinopril. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ACE inhibitors, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue lisinopril, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to lisinopril: If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. Lisinopril, which crosses the placenta, has been removed from neonatal circulation by peritoneal dialysis with some clinical benefit, and theoretically may be removed by exchange transfusion, although there is no experience with the latter procedure. Antihypertensive effects of lisinopril have been established in hypertensive pediatric patients aged 6 to 16 years. There are no data on the effect of lisinopril on blood pressure in pediatric patients under the age 6 or in pediatric patients with glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism and Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Geriatric Use Clinical studies of lisinopril in patients with hypertension did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other clinical experience in this population has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. In the ATLAS trial of lisinopril in patients with congestive heart failure, 1,596 (50%) were 65 and over, while 437 (14%) were 75 and over. In a clinical study of lisinopril in patients with myocardial infarctions 4,413 (47%) were 65 and over, while 1,656 (18%) were 75 and over. In these studies, no overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between elderly and younger patients, and other reported clinical experiences has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects, Heart Failure and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects, Acute Myocardial Infarction). Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that maximum blood levels and area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) are doubled in older patients (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism). This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection. Evaluation of patients with hypertension, congestive heart failure, or myocardial infarction should always include assessment of renal function (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Lisinopril has been found to be generally well tolerated in controlled clinical trials involving 1969 patients with hypertension or heart failure. For the most part, adverse experiences were mild and transient. Hypertension In clinical trials in patients with hypertension treated with lisinopril, discontinuation of therapy due to clinical adverse experiences occurred in 5.7% of patients. The overall frequency of adverse experiences could not be related to total daily dosage within the recommended therapeutic dosage range. For adverse experiences occurring in greater than 1% of patients with hypertension treated with lisinopril or lisinopril plus hydrochlorothiazide in controlled clinical trials, and more frequently with lisinopril and/or lisinopril plus hydrochlorothiazide than placebo, comparative incidence data are listed in the table below: PERCENT OF PATIENTS IN CONTROLLED STUDIES LISINOPRIL (n=1349) Incidence (discontinuation) LISINOPRIL/ Hydrochlorothiazide (n=629) Incidence (discontinuation) PLACEBO (n=207) Incidence (discontinuation) Body as a Whole Fatigue 2.5 (0.3) 4.0 (0.5) 1.0 (0.0) Asthenia 1.3 (0.5) 2.1 (0.2) 1.0 (0.0) Orthostatic Effects 1.2 (0.0) 3.5 (0.2) 1.0 (0.0) Cardiovascular Hypotension 1.2 (0.5) 1.6 (0.5) 0.5 (0.5) Digestive Diarrhea 2.7 (0.2) 2.7 (0.3) 2.4 (0.0) Nausea 2.0 (0.4) 2.5 (0.2) 2.4 (0.0) Vomiting 1.1 (0.2) 1.4 (0.1) 0.5 (0.0) Dyspepsia 0.9 (0.0) 1.9 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) Musculoskeletal Muscle Cramps 0.5 (0.0) 2.9 (0.8) 0.5 (0.0) Nervous/Psychiatric Headache 5.7 (0.2) 4.5 (0.5) 1.9 (0.0) Dizziness 5.4 (0.4) 9.2 (1.0) 1.9 (0.0) Paresthesia 0.8 (0.1) 2.1 (0.2) 0.0 (0.0) Decreased Libido 0.4 (0.1) 1.3 (0.1) 0.0 (0.0) Vertigo 0.2 (0.1) 1.1 (0.2) 0.0 (0.0) Respiratory Cough 3.5 (0.7) 4.6 (0.8) 1.0 (0.0) Upper Respiratory Infection 2.1 (0.1) 2.7 (0.1) 0.0 (0.0) Common Cold 1.1 (0.1) 1.3 (0.1) 0.0 (0.0) Nasal Congestion 0.4 (0.1) 1.3 (0.1) 0.0 (0.0) Influenza 0.3 (0.1) 1.1 (0.1) 0.0 (0.0) Skin Rash 1.3 (0.4) 1.6 (0.2) 0.5 (0.5) Urogenital Impotence 1.0 (0.4) 1.6 (0.5) 0.0 (0.0) Chest pain and back pain were also seen, but were more common on placebo than lisinopril. Heart Failure In patients with heart failure treated with lisinopril for up to four years, discontinuation of therapy due to clinical adverse experiences occurred in 11.0% of patients. In controlled studies in patients with heart failure, therapy was discontinued in 8.1% of patients treated with lisinopril for 12 weeks, compared to 7.7% of patients treated with placebo for 12 weeks. The following table lists those adverse experiences which occurred in greater than 1% of patients with heart failure treated with lisinopril or placebo for up to 12 weeks in controlled clinical trials, and more frequently on lisinopril than placebo. Controlled Trials Lisinopril (n=407) Incidence (discontinuation) 12 weeks Placebo (n=155) Incidence (discontinuation) 12 weeks Body as a Whole Chest Pain 3.4 (0.2) 1.3 (0.0) Abdominal Pain 2.2 (0.7) 1.9 (0.0) Cardiovascular Hypotension 4.4 (1.7) 0.6 (0.6) Digestive Diarrhea 3.7 (0.5) 1.9 (0.0) Nervous/Psychiatric Dizziness 11.8 (1.2) 4.5 (1.3) Headache 4.4 (0.2) 3.9 (0.0) Respiratory Upper Respiratory Infection 1.5 (0.0) 1.3 (0.0) Skin Rash 1.7 (0.5) 0.6 (0.6) Also observed at >1% with lisinopril but more frequent or as frequent on placebo than lisinopril in controlled trials were asthenia, angina pectoris, nausea, dyspnea, cough, and pruritus. Worsening of heart failure, anorexia, increased salivation, muscle cramps, back pain, myalgia, depression, chest sound abnormalities, and pulmonary edema were also seen in controlled clinical trials, but were more common on placebo than lisinopril. In the two-dose ATLAS trial in heart failure patients, withdrawals due to adverse events were not different between the low and high groups, either in total number of discontinuation (17 - 18%) or in rare specific events (<1%). The following adverse events, mostly related to ACE inhibition, were reported more commonly in the high dose group: % of patients Events High Dose (N=1568) Low Dose (N=1596) Dizziness 18.9 12.1 Hypotension 10.8 6.7 Creatinine increased 9.9 7.0 Hyperkalemia 6.4 3.5 NPNNPN = non-protein nitrogen increased 9.2 6.5 Syncope 7.0 5.1 Acute Myocardial Infarction In the GISSI-3 trial, in patients treated with lisinopril for six weeks following acute myocardial infarction, discontinuation of therapy occurred in 17.6% of patients. Patients treated with lisinopril had a significantly higher incidence of hypotension and renal dysfunction compared with patients not taking lisinopril. In the GISSI-3 trial, hypotension (9.7%), renal dysfunction (2.0%), cough (0.5%), post infarction angina (0.3%), skin rash and generalized edema (0.01%), and angioedema (0.01%) resulted in withdrawal of treatment. In elderly patients treated with lisinopril, discontinuation due to renal dysfunction was 4.2%. Other clinical adverse experiences occurring in 0.3% to 1.0% of patients with hypertension or heart failure treated with lisinopril in controlled clinical trials and rarer, serious, possibly drug-related events reported in uncontrolled studies or marketing experience are listed below, and within each category are in order of decreasing severity: Body as a Whole: Anaphylactoid reactions (See WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions), syncope, orthostatic effects, chest discomfort, pain, pelvic pain, flank pain, edema, facial edema, virus infection, fever, chills, malaise. Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrest; myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident possibly secondary to excessive hypotension in high risk patients (See WARNINGS, Hypotension ); pulmonary embolism and infarction, arrhythmias (including ventricular tachycardia, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, bradycardia and premature ventricular contractions), palpitations, transient ischemic attacks, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthostatic hypotension, decreased blood pressure, peripheral edema, vasculitis. Digestive: Pancreatitis, hepatitis (hepatocellular or cholestatic jaundice) (See WARNINGS, Hepatic Failure ), vomiting, gastritis, dyspepsia, heartburn, gastrointestinal cramps, constipation, flatulence, dry mouth. Hematologic: Rare cases of bone marrow depression, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia/neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Endocrine: Diabetes mellitus, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Metabolic: Weight loss, dehydration, fluid overload, gout, weight gain. Cases of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients on oral antidiabetic agents or insulin have been reported in post-marketing experience (See PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions ). Musculoskeletal: Arthritis, arthralgia, neck pain, hip pain, low back pain, joint pain, leg pain, knee pain, shoulder pain, arm pain, lumbago. Nervous System/Psychiatric: Stroke, ataxia, memory impairment, tremor, peripheral neuropathy (e.g., dysesthesia), spasm, paresthesia, confusion, insomnia, somnolence, hypersomnia, irritability, nervousness and mood alterations (including depressive symptoms). Respiratory System: Malignant lung neoplasms, hemoptysis, pulmonary infiltrates, bronchospasm, asthma, pleural effusion, pneumonia, eosinophilic pneumonitis, bronchitis, wheezing, orthopnea, painful respiration, epistaxis, laryngitis, sinusitis, pharyngeal pain, pharyngitis, rhinitis, rhinorrhea. Skin: Urticaria, alopecia, herpes zoster, photosensitivity, skin lesions, skin infections, pemphigus, erythema, flushing, diaphoresis, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, psoriasis. Other severe skin reactions have been reported rarely, including toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome; causal relationship has not been established. Special Senses: Visual loss, diplopia, blurred vision, tinnitus, photophobia, taste disturbances, olfactory disturbance. Urogenital System: Acute renal failure, oliguria, anuria, uremia, progressive azotemia, renal dysfunction (See PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), pyelonephritis, dysuria, urinary tract infection, breast pain. Miscellaneous: A symptom complex has been reported which may include a positive ANA, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, arthralgia/arthritis, myalgia, fever, vasculitis, eosinophilia and leukocytosis. Rash, photosensitivity or other dermatological manifestations may occur alone or in combination with these symptoms. Angioedema: Angioedema has been reported in patients receiving lisinopril with an incidence higher in Black than in non-Black patients. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema may be fatal. If angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx occurs, treatment with lisinopril should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted immediately (See WARNINGS ). In rare cases, intestinal angioedema has been reported in post marketing experience. Hypotension: In hypertensive patients, hypotension occurred in 1.2% and syncope occurred in 0.1% of patients with an incidence higher in Black than in non-Black patients. Hypotension or syncope was a cause of discontinuation of therapy in 0.5% of hypertensive patients. In patients with heart failure, hypotension occurred in 5.3% and syncope occurred in 1.8% of patients. These adverse experiences were possibly dose-related (see above data from ATLAS Trial) and caused discontinuation of therapy in 1.8% of these patients in the symptomatic trials. In patients treated with lisinopril for six weeks after acute myocardial infarction, hypotension (systolic blood pressure ≤100 mmHg) resulted in discontinuation of therapy in 9.7% of the patients (See WARNINGS). Cough: See PRECAUTIONS, Cough . Pediatric Patients: No relevant differences between the adverse experience profile for pediatric patients and that previously reported for adult patients were identified. Clinical Laboratory Test Findings Serum Electrolytes: Hyperkalemia (See PRECAUTIONS), hyponatremia. Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen: Minor increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, reversible upon discontinuation of therapy, were observed in about 2.0% of patients with essential hypertension treated with lisinopril alone. Increases were more common in patients receiving concomitant diuretics and in patients with renal artery stenosis ( PRECAUTIONS ). Reversible minor increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were observed in approximately 11.6% of patients with heart failure on concomitant diuretic therapy. Frequently, these abnormalities resolved when the dosage of the diuretic was decreased. Hemoglobin and Hematocrit: Small decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit (mean decreases of approximately 0.4 g% and 1.3 vol%, respectively) occurred frequently in patients treated with lisinopril but were rarely of clinical importance in patients without some other cause of anemia. In clinical trials, less than 0.1% of patients discontinued therapy due to anemia. Hemolytic anemia has been reported; a causal relationship to lisinopril cannot be excluded. Liver Function Tests: Rarely, elevations of liver enzymes and/or serum bilirubin have occurred (See WARNINGS, Hepatic Failure ). In hypertensive patients, 2.0% discontinued therapy due to laboratory adverse experiences, principally elevations in blood urea nitrogen (0.6%), serum creatinine (0.5%) and serum potassium (0.4%). In the heart failure trials, 3.4% of patients discontinued therapy due to laboratory adverse experiences; 1.8% due to elevations in blood urea nitrogen and/or creatinine and 0.6% due to elevations in serum potassium. In the myocardial infarction trial, 2.0% of patients receiving lisinopril discontinued therapy due to renal dysfunction (increasing creatinine concentration to over 3 mg/dL or a doubling or more of the baseline serum creatinine concentration); less than 1.0% of patients discontinued therapy due to other laboratory adverse experiences: 0.1% with hyperkalemia and less than 0.1% with hepatic enzyme alterations.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Hypertension Initial Therapy: In patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension not on diuretic therapy, the recommended initial dose is 10 mg once a day. Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. The usual dosage range is 20 to 40 mg per day administered in a single daily dose. The antihypertensive effect may diminish toward the end of the dosing interval regardless of the administered dose, but most commonly with a dose of 10 mg daily. This can be evaluated by measuring blood pressure just prior to dosing to determine whether satisfactory control is being maintained for 24 hours. If it is not, an increase in dose should be considered. Doses up to 80 mg have been used but do not appear to give greater effect. If blood pressure is not controlled with lisinopril alone, a low dose of a diuretic may be added. Hydrochlorothiazide, 12.5 mg has been shown to provide an additive effect. After the addition of a diuretic, it may be possible to reduce the dose of lisinopril. Diuretic Treated Patients: In hypertensive patients who are currently being treated with a diuretic, symptomatic hypotension may occur occasionally following the initial dose of lisinopril. The diuretic should be discontinued, if possible, for two to three days before beginning therapy with lisinopril to reduce the likelihood of hypotension (See WARNINGS ). The dosage of lisinopril should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. If the patient's blood pressure is not controlled with lisinopril alone, diuretic therapy may be resumed as described above. If the diuretic cannot be discontinued, an initial dose of 5 mg should be used under medical supervision for at least two hours and until blood pressure has stabilized for at least an additional hour (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions ). Concomitant administration of lisinopril with potassium supplements, potassium salt substitutes, or potassium-sparing diuretics may lead to increases of serum potassium (See PRECAUTIONS ). Dosage Adjustment in Renal Impairment: The usual dose of lisinopril tablet (10 mg) is recommended for patients with creatinine clearance > 30 mL/min (serum creatinine of up to approximately 3 mg/dL). For patients with creatinine clearance ≥ 10 mL/min ≤ 30 mL/min (serum creatinine ≥3 mg/dL), the first dose is 5 mg once daily. For patients with creatinine clearance < 10 mL/min (usually on hemodialysis) the recommended initial dose is 2.5 mg. The dosage may be titrated upward until blood pressure is controlled or to a maximum of 40 mg daily. Renal Status Creatinine Clearance mL/min Initial Dose mg/day Normal Renal Function to Mild Impairment >30 10 Moderate to Severe Impairment ≥10 ≤30 5 Dialysis PatientsSee WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid Reactions During Membrane Exposure. <10 2.5* *Dosage or dosing interval should be adjusted depending on the blood pressure response. Heart Failure Lisinopril tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy with diuretics and (usually) digitalis. The recommended starting dose is 5 mg once a day. When initiating treatment with lisinopril in patients with heart failure, the initial dose should be administered under medical observation, especially in those patients with low blood pressure (systolic blood pressure below 100 mmHg). The mean peak blood pressure lowering occurs six to eight hours after dosing. Observation should continue until blood pressure is stable. The concomitant diuretic dose should be reduced, if possible, to help minimize hypovolemia which may contribute to hypotension (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions ). The appearance of hypotension after the initial dose of lisinopril does not preclude subsequent careful dose titration with the drug, following effective management of the hypotension. The usual effective dosage range is 5 mg to 40 mg per day administered as a single daily dose. The dose of lisinopril can be increased by increments of no greater than 10 mg, at intervals of no less than 2 weeks to the highest tolerated dose, up to a maximum of 40 mg daily. Dose adjustment should be based on the clinical response of individual patients. Dosage Adjustment in Patients with Heart Failure and Renal Impairment or Hyponatremia: In patients with heart failure who have hyponatremia (serum sodium < 130 mEq/L) or moderate to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance ≤ 30 mL/min or serum creatinine > 3 mg/dL), therapy with lisinopril should be initiated at a dose of 2.5 mg once a day under close medical supervision (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions). Acute Myocardial Infarction In hemodynamically stable patients within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, the first dose of lisinopril is 5 mg given orally, followed by 5 mg after 24 hours, 10 mg after 48 hours and then 10 mg of lisinopril once daily. Dosing should continue for six weeks. Patients should receive, as appropriate, the standard recommended treatments such as thrombolytics, aspirin, and beta-blockers. Patients with a low systolic blood pressure (≤ 120 mmHg) when treatment is started or during the first 3 days after the infarct should be given a lower 2.5 mg oral dose of lisinopril (See WARNINGS). If hypotension occurs (systolic blood pressure ≤ 100 mmHg) a daily maintenance dose of 5 mg may be given with temporary reductions to 2.5 mg if needed. If prolonged hypotension occurs (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg for more than 1 hour) lisinopril should be withdrawn. For patients who develop symptoms of heart failure, see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Heart Failure . Dosage Adjustment in Patients With Myocardial Infarction with Renal Impairment: In acute myocardial infarction, treatment with lisinopril should be initiated with caution in patients with evidence of renal dysfunction, defined as serum creatinine concentration exceeding 2 mg/dL. No evaluation of dosing adjustments in myocardial infarction patients with severe renal impairment has been performed. Use in Elderly In general, the clinical response was similar in younger and older patients given similar doses of lisinopril. Pharmacokinetic studies, however indicate that maximum blood levels and area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) are doubled in older patients, so that dosage adjustments should be made with particular caution. Pediatric Hypertensive Patients ≥ 6 years of age The usual recommended starting dose is 0.07 mg/kg once daily (up to 5 mg total). Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. Doses above 0.61 mg/kg (or in excess of 40 mg) have not been studied in pediatric patients (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism and Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects). Lisinopril is not recommended in pediatric patients < 6 years or in pediatric patients with glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism and Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects and PRECAUTIONS). Preparation of Suspension (for 200 mL of a 1.0 mg/mL suspension): Add 10 mL of Purified Water USP to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle containing ten 20 mg tablets of lisinopril and shake for at least one minute. Add 30 mL of Bicitra ®† diluent and 160 mL of Ora-Sweet SF™†† to the concentrate in the PET bottle and gently shake for several seconds to disperse the ingredients. The suspension should be stored at or below 25°C (77°F) and can be stored for up to four weeks. Shake the suspension before each use. † Registered trademark of Alza Corporation †† Trademark of Paddock Laboratories, Inc.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Milk of lactating rats contains radioactivity following administration of 14C lisinopril. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ACE inhibitors, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue lisinopril, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Hypotension – Patients on Diuretic Therapy: Patients on diuretics and especially those in whom diuretic therapy was recently instituted, may occasionally experience an excessive reduction of blood pressure after initiation of therapy with lisinopril. The possibility of hypotensive effects with lisinopril can be minimized by either discontinuing the diuretic or increasing the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with lisinopril. If it is necessary to continue the diuretic, initiate therapy with lisinopril at a dose of 5 mg daily, and provide close medical supervision after the initial dose until blood pressure has stabilized (See WARNINGS , and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). When a diuretic is added to the therapy of a patient receiving lisinopril, an additional antihypertensive effect is usually observed. Studies with ACE inhibitors in combination with diuretics indicate that the dose of the ACE inhibitor can be reduced when it is given with a diuretic (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Antidiabetics: Epidemiological studies have suggested that concomitant administration of ACE inhibitors and antidiabetic medicines (insulins, oral hypoglycemic agents) may cause an increased blood-glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. This phenomenon appeared to be more likely to occur during the first weeks of combined treatment and in patients with renal impairment. In diabetic patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents or insulin, glycemic control should be closely monitored for hypoglycemia, especially during the first month of treatment with an ACE inhibitor. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors): In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ACE inhibitors, including lisinopril, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving lisinopril and NSAID therapy. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, including lisinopril, may be attenuated by NSAIDs. Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on lisinopril and other agents that affect the RAS. Do not co-administer aliskiren with lisinopril in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with lisinopril in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 ml/min). Other Agents: Lisinopril has been used concomitantly with nitrates and/or digoxin without evidence of clinically significant adverse interactions. This included post myocardial infarction patients who were receiving intravenous or transdermal nitroglycerin. No clinically important pharmacokinetic interactions occurred when lisinopril was used concomitantly with propranolol or hydrochlorothiazide. The presence of food in the stomach does not alter the bioavailability of lisinopril. Agents Increasing Serum Potassium: Lisinopril attenuates potassium loss caused by thiazide-type diuretics. Use of lisinopril with potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., spironolactone, eplerenone, triamterene or amiloride), potassium supplements, or potassium-containing salt substitutes may lead to significant increases in serum potassium. Therefore, if concomitant use of these agents is indicated because of demonstrated hypokalemia, they should be used with caution and with frequent monitoring of serum potassium. Potassium-sparing agents should generally not be used in patients with heart failure who are receiving lisinopril. Lithium: Lithium toxicity has been reported in patients receiving lithium concomitantly with drugs which cause elimination of sodium, including ACE inhibitors. Lithium toxicity was usually reversible upon discontinuation of lithium and the ACE inhibitor. It is recommended that serum lithium levels be monitored frequently if lisinopril is administered concomitantly with lithium. Gold: Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy including lisinopril.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA203508
Agency product number E7199S1YWR
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 43353-009
Date Last Revised 29-06-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 197884
Marketing authorisation holder Aphena Pharma Solutions - Tennessee, LLC
Warnings WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. • When pregnancy is detected, discontinue lisinopril as soon as possible. • Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. See Warnings: Fetal Toxicity.