Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 22 December 2016

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) is indicated for use in the management of severe spasticity. Patients should first respond to a screening dose of intrathecal baclofen prior to consideration for long term infusion via an implantable pump. For spasticity of spinal cord origin, chronic infusion of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL via an implantable pump should be reserved for patients unresponsive to oral baclofen therapy, or those who experience intolerable CNS side effects at effective doses. Patients with spasticity due to traumatic brain injury should wait at least one year after the injury before consideration of long term intrathecal baclofen therapy. LIORESAL INTRATHECAL is intended for use by the intrathecal route in single bolus test doses (via spinal catheter or lumbar puncture) and, for chronic use, only in implantable pumps approved by the FDA specifically for the administration of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL into the intrathecal space. Spasticity of Spinal Cord Origin: Evidence supporting the efficacy of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL was obtained in randomized, controlled investigations that compared the effects of either a single intrathecal dose or a three day intrathecal infusion of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL to placebo in patients with severe spasticity and spasms due to either spinal cord trauma or multiple sclerosis. LIORESAL INTRATHECAL was superior to placebo on both principal outcome measures employed: change from baseline in the Ashworth rating of spasticity and the frequency of spasms. Spasticity of Cerebral Origin: The efficacy of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL was investigated in three controlled clinical trials; two enrolled patients with cerebral palsy and one enrolled patients with spasticity due to previous brain injury. The first study, a randomized controlled cross-over trial of 51 patients with cerebral palsy, provided strong, statistically significant results; LIORESAL INTRATHECAL was superior to placebo in reducing spasticity as measured by the Ashworth Scale. A second cross-over study was conducted in 11 patients with spasticity arising from brain injury. Despite the small sample size, the study yielded a nearly significant test statistic (p=0.066) and provided directionally favorable results. The last study, however, did not provide data that could be reliably analyzed. LIORESAL INTRATHECAL therapy may be considered an alternative to destructive neurosurgical procedures. Prior to implantation of a device for chronic intrathecal infusion of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL, patients must show a response to LIORESAL INTRATHECAL in a screening trial (see Dosage and Administration).

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Hypersensitivity to baclofen. LIORESAL INTRATHECAL is not recommended for intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous or epidural administration.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS Children should be of sufficient body mass to accommodate the implantable pump for chronic infusion. Please consult pump manufacturer's manual for specific recommendations. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 4 have not been established. Screening Patients should be infection-free prior to the screening trial with LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) because the presence of a systemic infection may interfere with an assessment of the patient’s response to bolus LIORESAL INTRATHECAL. Pump Implantation Patients should be infection-free prior to pump implantation because the presence of infection may increase the risk of surgical complications. Moreover, a systemic infection may complicate dosing. Pump Dose Adjustment and Titration In most patients, it will be necessary to increase the dose gradually over time to maintain effectiveness; a sudden requirement for substantial dose escalation typically indicates a catheter complication (i.e., catheter kink or dislodgement). Reservoir refilling must be performed by fully trained and qualified personnel following the directions provided by the pump manufacturer. Inadvertent injection into the subcutaneous tissue can occur if the reservoir refill septum is not properly accessed. Subcutaneous injection may result in symptoms of a systemic overdose or early depletion of the reservoir. Refill intervals should be carefully calculated to prevent depletion of the reservoir, as this would result in the return of severe spasticity and possibly symptoms of withdrawal. Strict aseptic technique in filling is required to avoid bacterial contamination and serious infection. A period of observation appropriate to the clinical situation should follow each refill or manipulation of the drug reservoir. Extreme caution must be used when filling an FDA approved implantable pump equipped with an injection port that allows direct access to the intrathecal catheter. Direct injection into the catheter through the catheter access port may cause a life-threatening overdose. Additional considerations pertaining to dosage adjustment: It may be important to titrate the dose to maintain some degree of muscle tone and allow occasional spasms to: 1) help support circulatory function, 2) possibly prevent the formation of deep vein thrombosis, 3) optimize activities of daily living and ease of care. Except in overdose related emergencies, the dose of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL should ordinarily be reduced slowly if the drug is discontinued for any reason. An attempt should be made to discontinue concomitant oral antispasticity medication to avoid possible overdose or adverse drug interactions, either prior to screening or following implant and initiation of chronic LIORESAL INTRATHECAL infusion. Reduction and discontinuation of oral anti-spasmotics should be done slowly and with careful monitoring by the physician. Abrupt reduction or discontinuation of concomitant antispastics should be avoided. Drowsiness: Drowsiness has been reported in patients on LIORESAL INTRATHECAL. Patients should be cautioned regarding the operation of automobiles or other dangerous machinery, and activities made hazardous by decreased alertness. Patients should also be cautioned that the central nervous system depressant effects of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) may be additive to those of alcohol and other CNS depressants. Intrathecal mass: Cases of intrathecal mass at the tip of the implanted catheter have been reported, most of them involving pharmacy compounded analgesic admixtures. The most frequent symptoms associated with intrathecal mass are: 1) decreased therapeutic response (worsening spasticity, return of spasticity when previously well controlled, withdrawal symptoms, poor response to escalating doses, or frequent or large dosage increases), 2) pain, 3) neurological deficit/dysfunction. Clinicians should monitor patients on intraspinal therapy carefully for any new neurological signs or symptoms. In patients with new neurological signs or symptoms suggestive of an intrathecal mass, consider a neurosurgical consultation, since many of the symptoms of inflammatory mass are not unlike the symptoms experienced by patients with severe spasticity from their disease. In some cases, performance of an imaging procedure may be appropriate to confirm or rule-out the diagnosis of an intrathecal mass. Precautions in special patient populations: Careful dose titration of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL is needed when spasticity is necessary to sustain upright posture and balance in locomotion or whenever spasticity is used to obtain optimal function and care. Patients suffering from psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, or confusional states should be treated cautiously with LIORESAL INTRATHECAL and kept under careful surveillance, because exacerbations of these conditions have been observed with oral administration. LIORESAL INTRATHECAL should be used with caution in patients with a history of autonomic dysreflexia. The presence of nociceptive stimuli or abrupt withdrawal of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) may cause an autonomic dysreflexic episode. Because LIORESAL is primarily excreted unchanged by the kidneys, it should be given with caution in patients with impaired renal function and it may be necessary to reduce the dosage. LABORATORY TESTS No specific laboratory tests are deemed essential for the management of patients on LIORESAL INTRATHECAL. DRUG INTERACTIONS There is inadequate systematic experience with the use of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL in combination with other medications to predict specific drug-drug interactions. Interactions attributed to the combined use of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL and epidural morphine include hypotension and dyspnea. CARCINOGENESIS, MUTAGENESIS, AND IMPAIRMENT OF FERTILITY No increase in tumors was seen in rats receiving baclofen orally for two years. Adequate genotoxicity assays of baclofen have not been performed. PREGNANCY There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. In animal studies, baclofen had adverse effects on embryofetal development when administered orally to pregnant rats. LIORESAL INTRATHECAL should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Baclofen given orally increased the incidence of fetal structural abnormalities (omphaloceles) in rats. Reductions in food intake and body weight gain were observed in the dams. Fetal structural abnormalities were not observed in mice or rabbits NURSING MOTHERS In mothers treated with oral LIORESAL (baclofen USP) in therapeutic doses, the active substance passes into the milk. It is not known whether detectable levels of drug are present in milk of nursing mothers receiving LIORESAL INTRATHECAL. As a general rule, nursing should be undertaken while a patient is receiving LIORESAL INTRATHECAL only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risks to the infant. PEDIATRIC USE Children should be of sufficient body mass to accommodate the implantable pump for chronic infusion. Please consult pump manufacturer's manual for specific recommendations. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 4 have not been established. Considerations based on experience with oral LIORESAL (baclofen USP) A dose-related increase in incidence of ovarian cysts was observed in female rats treated chronically with oral LIORESAL. Ovarian cysts have been found by palpation in about 4% of the multiple sclerosis patients who were treated with oral LIORESAL for up to one year. In most cases these cysts disappeared spontaneously while patients continued to receive the drug. Ovarian cysts are estimated to occur spontaneously in approximately 1% to 5% of the normal female population.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Spasticity of Spinal Cord Origin – Clinical Studies: Commonly Observed in Patients with Spasticity of Spinal Origin — In pre- and post-marketing clinical trials, the most commonly observed adverse events associated with use of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) which were not seen at an equivalent incidence among placebo-treated patients were: somnolence, dizziness, nausea, hypotension, headache, convulsions and hypotonia. Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment — 8/474 patients with spasticity of spinal cord origin receiving long term infusion of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL in pre- and post-marketing clinical studies in the U.S. discontinued treatment due to adverse events. These include: pump pocket infections (3), meningitis (2), wound dehiscence (1), gynecological fibroids (1) and pump overpressurization (1) with unknown, if any, sequela. Eleven patients who developed coma secondary to overdose had their treatment temporarily suspended, but all were subsequently re-started and were not, therefore, considered to be true discontinuations. Fatalities — See Warnings. Incidence in Controlled Trials — Experience with LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) obtained in parallel, placebo-controlled, randomized studies provides only a limited basis for estimating the incidence of adverse events because the studies were of very brief duration (up to three days of infusion) and involved only a total of 63 patients. The following events occurred among the 31 patients receiving LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) in two randomized, placebo-controlled trials: hypotension (2), dizziness (2), headache (2), dyspnea (1). No adverse events were reported among the 32 patients receiving placebo in these studies. Events Observed during the Pre- and Post-marketing Evaluation of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL — Adverse events associated with the use of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL reflect experience gained with 576 patients followed prospectively in the United States. They received LIORESAL INTRATHECAL for periods of one day (screening) (N = 576) to over eight years (maintenance) (N = 10). The usual screening bolus dose administered prior to pump implantation in these studies was typically 50 mcg. The maintenance dose ranged from 12 mcg to 2003 mcg per day. Because of the open, uncontrolled nature of the experience, a causal linkage between events observed and the administration of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL cannot be reliably assessed in many cases and many of the adverse events reported are known to occur in association with the underlying conditions being treated. Nonetheless, many of the more commonly reported reactions—hypotonia, somnolence, dizziness, paresthesia, nausea/vomiting and headache—appear clearly drug-related. Adverse experiences reported during all U.S. studies (both controlled and uncontrolled) are shown in the following table. Eight of 474 patients who received chronic infusion via implanted pumps had adverse experiences which led to a discontinuation of long term treatment in the pre- and post-marketing studies. INCIDENCE OF MOST FREQUENT (≥1%) ADVERSE EVENTS IN PATIENTS WITH SPASTICITY OF SPINAL ORIGIN IN PROSPECTIVELY MONITORED CLINICAL TRIALS a Following administration of test bolus b Two month period following implant c Beyond two months following implant N= total number of patients entering each period %=% of patients evaluated Percent of Patients Reporting Events N = 576 N = 474 N = 430 Screeninga Titrationb Maintenancec Adverse Event Percent Percent Percent Hypotonia 5.4 13.5 25.3 Somnolence 5.7 5.9 20.9 Dizziness 1.7 1.9 7.9 Paresthesia 2.4 2.1 6.7 Nausea and Vomiting 1.6 2.3 5.6 Headache 1.6 2.5 5.1 Constipation 0.2 1.5 5.1 Convulsion 0.5 1.3 4.7 Urinary Retention 0.7 1.7 1.9 Dry Mouth 0.2 0.4 3.3 Accidental Injury 0.0 0.2 3.5 Asthenia 0.7 1.3 1.4 Confusion 0.5 0.6 2.3 Death 0.2 0.4 3.0 Pain 0.0 0.6 3.0 Speech Disorder 0.0 0.2 3.5 Hypotension 1.0 0.2 1.9 Ambylopia 0.5 0.2 2.3 Diarrhea 0.0 0.8 2.3 Hypoventilation 0.2 0.8 2.1 Coma 0.0 1.5 0.9 Impotence 0.2 0.4 1.6 Peripheral Edema 0.0 0.0 2.3 Urinary Incontinence 0.0 0.8 1.4 Insomnia 0.0 0.4 1.6 Anxiety 0.2 0.4 0.9 Depression 0.0 0.0 1.6 Dyspnea 0.3 0.0 1.2 Fever 0.5 0.2 0.7 Pneumonia 0.2 0.2 1.2 Urinary Frequency 0.0 0.6 0.9 Urticaria 0.2 0.2 1.2 Anorexia 0.0 0.4 0.9 Diplopia 0.0 0.4 0.9 Dysautonomia 0.2 0.2 0.9 Hallucinations 0.3 0.4 0.5 Hypertension 0.2 0.6 0.5 In addition to the more common (1% or more) adverse events reported in the prospectively followed 576 domestic patients in pre- and post-marketing studies, experience from an additional 194 patients exposed to LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) from foreign studies has been reported. The following adverse events, not described in the table, and arranged in decreasing order of frequency, and classified by body system, were reported: Nervous System: Abnormal gait, thinking abnormal, tremor, amnesia, twitching, vasodilitation, cerebrovascular accident, nystagmus, personality disorder, psychotic depression, cerebral ischemia, emotional lability, euphoria, hypertonia, ileus, drug dependence, incoordination, paranoid reaction and ptosis. Digestive System: Flatulence, dysphagia, dyspepsia and gastroenteritis. Cardiovascular: Postural hypotension, bradycardia, palpitations, syncope, arrhythmia ventricular, deep thrombophlebitis, pallor and tachycardia. Respiratory: Respiratory disorder, aspiration pneumonia, hyperventilation, pulmonary embolus and rhinitis. Urogenital: Hematuria and kidney failure. Skin and Appendages: Alopecia and sweating. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Weight loss, albuminuria, dehydration and hyperglycemia. Special Senses: Abnormal vision, abnormality of accommodation, photophobia, taste loss and tinnitus. Body as a Whole: Suicide, lack of drug effect, abdominal pain, hypothermia, neck rigidity, chest pain, chills, face edema, flu syndrome and overdose. Hemic and Lymphatic System: Anemia. Spasticity of Cerebral Origin – Clinical Studies: Commonly Observed — In pre-marketing clinical trials, the most commonly observed adverse events associated with use of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) which were not seen at an equivalent incidence among placebo-treated patients included: agitation, constipation, somnolence, leukocytosis, chills, urinary retention and hypotonia. Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment — Nine of 211 patients receiving LIORESAL INTRATHECAL in pre-marketing clinical studies in the U.S. discontinued long term infusion due to adverse events associated with intrathecal therapy. The nine adverse events leading to discontinuation were: infection (3), CSF leaks (2), meningitis (2), drainage (1), and unmanageable trunk control (1). Fatalities — Three deaths, none of which were attributed to LIORESAL INTRATHECAL, were reported in patients in clinical trials involving patients with spasticity of cerebral origin. See Warnings on other deaths reported in spinal spasticity patients. Incidence in Controlled Trials — Experience with LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) obtained in parallel, placebo-controlled, randomized studies provides only a limited basis for estimating the incidence of adverse events because the studies involved a total of 62 patients exposed to a single 50 mcg intrathecal bolus. The following events occurred among the 62 patients receiving LIORESAL INTRATHECAL in two randomized, placebo-controlled trials involving cerebral palsy and head injury patients, respectively: agitation, constipation, somnolence, leukocytosis, nausea, vomiting, nystagmus, chills, urinary retention, and hypotonia. Events Observed during the Pre-marketing Evaluation of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL — Adverse events associated with the use of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL reflect experience gained with a total of 211 U.S. patients with spasticity of cerebral origin, of whom 112 were pediatric patients (under age 16 at enrollment). They received LIORESAL INTRATHECAL for periods of one day (screening) (N=211) to 84 months (maintenance) (N=1). The usual screening bolus dose administered prior to pump implantation in these studies was 50-75 mcg. The maintenance dose ranged from 22 mcg to 1400 mcg per day. Doses used in this patient population for long term infusion are generally lower than those required for patients with spasticity of spinal cord origin. Because of the open, uncontrolled nature of the experience, a causal linkage between events observed and the administration of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL cannot be reliably assessed in many cases. Nonetheless, many of the more commonly reported reactions—somnolence, dizziness, headache, nausea, hypotension, hypotonia and coma—appear clearly drug-related. The most frequent (≥1%) adverse events reported during all clinical trials are shown in the following table. Nine patients discontinued long term treatment due to adverse events. INCIDENCE OF MOST FREQUENT (≥ 1%) ADVERSE EVENTS IN PATIENTS WITH SPASTICITY OF CEREBRAL ORIGIN IN PROSPECTIVELY MONITORED CLINICAL TRIALS a Following administration of test bolus b Two month period following implant c Beyond two months following implant N= Total number of patients entering each period. 211 patients received drug; (1 of 212) received placebo only. Percent of Patients Reporting Events N = 211 N = 153 N = 150 Screeninga Titrationb Maintenancec Adverse Event Percent Percent Percent Hypotonia 2.4 14.4 34.7 Somnolence 7.6 10.5 18.7 Headache 6.6 7.8 10.7 Nausea and Vomiting 6.6 10.5 4.0 Vomiting 6.2 8.5 4.0 Urinary Retention 0.9 6.5 8.0 Convulsion 0.9 3.3 10.0 Dizziness 2.4 2.6 8.0 Nausea 1.4 3.3 7.3 Hypoventilation 1.4 1.3 4.0 Hypertonia 0.0 0.7 6.0 Paresthesia 1.9 0.7 3.3 Hypotension 1.9 0.7 2.0 Increased Salivation 0.0 2.6 2.7 Back Pain 0.9 0.7 2.0 Constipation 0.5 1.3 2.0 Pain 0.0 0.0 4.0 Pruritus 0.0 0.0 4.0 Diarrhea 0.5 0.7 2.0 Peripheral Edema 0.0 0.0 3.3 Thinking Abnormal 0.5 1.3 0.7 Agitation 0.5 0.0 1.3 Asthenia 0.0 0.0 2.0 Chills 0.5 0.0 1.3 Coma 0.5 0.0 1.3 Dry Mouth 0.5 0.0 1.3 Pneumonia 0.0 0.0 2.0 Speech Disorder 0.5 0.7 0.7 Tremor 0.5 0.0 1.3 Urinary Incontinence 0.0 0.0 2.0 Urination Impaired 0.0 0.0 2.0 The more common (1% or more) adverse events reported in the prospectively followed 211 patients exposed to LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) have been reported. In the total cohort, the following adverse events, not described in the table, and arranged in decreasing order of frequency, and classified by body system, were reported: Nervous System: Akathisia, ataxia, confusion, depression, opisthotonos, amnesia, anxiety, hallucinations, hysteria, insomnia, nystagmus, personality disorder, reflexes decreased, and vasodilitation. Digestive System: Dysphagia, fecal incontinence, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and tongue disorder. Cardiovascular: Bradycardia. Respiratory: Apnea, dyspnea and hyperventilation. Urogenital: Abnormal ejaculation, kidney calculus, oliguria and vaginitis. Skin and Appendages: Rash, sweating, alopecia, contact dermatitis and skin ulcer. Special Senses: Abnormality of accommodation. Body as a Whole: Death, fever, abdominal pain, carcinoma, malaise and hypothermia. Hemic and Lymphatic System: Leukocytosis and petechial rash. Postmarketing Experience: The following adverse events have been reported during post-approval use of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency. Musculoskeletal: The onset of scoliosis or worsening of a pre-existing scoliosis has been reported. Urogenital: Sexual dysfunction in men and women, including decreased libido and orgasm dysfunction, have been reported. Erectile dysfunction in men has also been reported. Priapism has been reported following baclofen withdrawal.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Refer to the manufacturer's manual for the implantable pump approved for intrathecal infusion for specific instructions and precautions for programming the pump and/or refilling the reservoir. There are various pumps with varying reservoir volumes and there are various refill kits available. It is important to be familiar with all of these products in order to select the appropriate refill kit for the particular pump in use. Screening Phase: Prior to pump implantation and initiation of chronic infusion of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection), patients must demonstrate a positive clinical response to a LIORESAL INTRATHECAL bolus dose administered intrathecally in a screening trial. The screening trial employs LIORESAL INTRATHECAL at a concentration of 50 mcg/mL. A 1 mL ampule (50 mcg/mL) is available for use in the screening trial. The screening procedure is as follows. An initial bolus containing 50 micrograms in a volume of 1 milliliter is administered into the intrathecal space by barbotage over a period of not less than one minute. The patient is observed over the ensuing 4 to 8 hours. A positive response consists of a significant decrease in muscle tone and/or frequency and/or severity of spasms. If the initial response is less than desired, a second bolus injection may be administered 24 hours after the first. The second screening bolus dose consists of 75 micrograms in 1.5 milliliters. Again, the patient should be observed for an interval of 4 to 8 hours. If the response is still inadequate, a final bolus screening dose of 100 micrograms in 2 milliliters may be administered 24 hours later. Pediatric Patients: The starting screening dose for pediatric patients is the same as in adult patients, i.e., 50 mcg. However, for very small patients, a screening dose of 25 mcg may be tried first. Patients who do not respond to a 100 mcg intrathecal bolus should not be considered candidates for an implanted pump for chronic infusion. Post-Implant Dose Titration Period: To determine the initial total daily dose of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL following implant, the screening dose that gave a positive effect should be doubled and administered over a 24-hour period, unless the efficacy of the bolus dose was maintained for more than 8 hours, in which case the starting daily dose should be the screening dose delivered over a 24-hour period. No dose increases should be given in the first 24 hours (i.e., until the steady state is achieved). Adult Patients with Spasticity of Spinal Cord Origin: After the first 24 hours, for adult patients, the daily dosage should be increased slowly by 10-30% increments and only once every 24 hours, until the desired clinical effect is achieved. Adult Patients with Spasticity of Cerebral Origin: After the first 24 hours, the daily dose should be increased slowly by 5-15% only once every 24 hours, until the desired clinical effect is achieved. Pediatric Patients: After the first 24 hours, the daily dose should be increased slowly by 5-15% only once every 24 hours, until the desired clinical effect is achieved. If there is not a substantive clinical response to increases in the daily dose, check for proper pump function and catheter patency. Patients must be monitored closely in a fully equipped and staffed environment during the screening phase and dose-titration period immediately following implant. Resuscitative equipment should be immediately available for use in case of life-threatening or intolerable side effects. Maintenance Therapy: Spasticity of Spinal Cord Origin Patients: The clinical goal is to maintain muscle tone as close to normal as possible, and to minimize the frequency and severity of spasms to the extent possible, without inducing intolerable side effects. Very often, the maintenance dose needs to be adjusted during the first few months of therapy while patients adjust to changes in life style due to the alleviation of spasticity. During periodic refills of the pump, the daily dose may be increased by 10-40%, but no more than 40%, to maintain adequate symptom control. The daily dose may be reduced by 10-20% if patients experience side effects. Most patients require gradual increases in dose over time to maintain optimal response during chronic therapy. A sudden large requirement for dose escalation suggests a catheter complication (i.e., catheter kink or dislodgement). Maintenance dosage for long term continuous infusion of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) has ranged from 12 mcg/day to 2003 mcg/day, with most patients adequately maintained on 300 micrograms to 800 micrograms per day. There is limited experience with daily doses greater than 1000 mcg/day. Determination of the optimal LIORESAL INTRATHECAL dose requires individual titration. The lowest dose with an optimal response should be used. Spasticity of Cerebral Origin Patients: The clinical goal is to maintain muscle tone as close to normal as possible and to minimize the frequency and severity of spasms to the extent possible, without inducing intolerable side effects, or to titrate the dose to the desired degree of muscle tone for optimal functions. Very often the maintenance dose needs to be adjusted during the first few months of therapy while patients adjust to changes in life style due to the alleviation of spasticity. During periodic refills of the pump, the daily dose may be increased by 5-20%, but no more than 20%, to maintain adequate symptom control. The daily dose may be reduced by 10-20% if patients experience side effects. Many patients require gradual increases in dose over time to maintain optimal response during chronic therapy. A sudden large requirement for dose escalation suggests a catheter complication (i.e., catheter kink or dislodgement). Maintenance dosage for long term continuous infusion of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL (baclofen injection) has ranged from 22 mcg/day to 1400 mcg/day, with most patients adequately maintained on 90 micrograms to 703 micrograms per day. In clinical trials, only 3 of 150 patients required daily doses greater than 1000 mcg/day. Pediatric Patients: Use same dosing recommendations for patients with spasticity of cerebral origin. Pediatric patients under 12 years seemed to require a lower daily dose in clinical trials. Average daily dose for patients under 12 years was 274 mcg/day, with a range of 24 to 1199 mcg/day. Dosage requirement for pediatric patients over 12 years does not seem to be different from that of adult patients. Determination of the optimal LIORESAL INTRATHECAL dose requires individual titration. The lowest dose with an optimal response should be used. Potential need for dose adjustments in chronic use : During long term treatment, approximately 5% (28/627) of patients become refractory to increasing doses. There is not sufficient experience to make firm recommendations for tolerance treatment; however, this “tolerance” has been treated on occasion, in hospital, by a “drug holiday” consisting of the gradual reduction of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL over a 2 to 4 week period and switching to alternative methods of spasticity management. After the “drug holiday,” LIORESAL INTRATHECAL may be restarted at the initial continuous infusion dose. Stability Parenteral drug products should be inspected for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Delivery Specifications The specific concentration that should be used depends upon the total daily dose required as well as the delivery rate of the pump. LIORESAL INTRATHECAL may require dilution when used with certain implantable pumps. Please consult manufacturer's manual for specific recommendations. Preparation Instruction: Screening Use the 1 mL screening ampule only (50 mcg/mL) for bolus injection into the subarachnoid space. For a 50 mcg bolus dose, use 1 mL of the screening ampule. Use 1.5 mL of 50 mcg/mL baclofen injection for a 75 mcg bolus dose. For the maximum screening dose of 100 mcg, use 2 mL of 50 mcg/mL baclofen injection (2 screening ampules). Maintenance For patients who require concentrations other than 500 mcg/mL or 2000 mcg/mL, LIORESAL INTRATHECAL must be diluted. LIORESAL INTRATHECAL must be diluted with sterile preservative free Sodium Chloride for Injection, U.S.P. Delivery Regimen: LIORESAL INTRATHECAL is most often administered in a continuous infusion mode immediately following implant. For those patients implanted with programmable pumps who have achieved relatively satisfactory control on continuous infusion, further benefit may be attained using more complex schedules of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL delivery. For example, patients who have increased spasms at night may require a 20% increase in their hourly infusion rate. Changes in flow rate should be programmed to start two hours before the time of desired clinical effect.
Pregnancy and lactation
NURSING MOTHERS In mothers treated with oral LIORESAL (baclofen USP) in therapeutic doses, the active substance passes into the milk. It is not known whether detectable levels of drug are present in milk of nursing mothers receiving LIORESAL INTRATHECAL. As a general rule, nursing should be undertaken while a patient is receiving LIORESAL INTRATHECAL only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risks to the infant.

Interactions

DRUG INTERACTIONS There is inadequate systematic experience with the use of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL in combination with other medications to predict specific drug-drug interactions. Interactions attributed to the combined use of LIORESAL INTRATHECAL and epidural morphine include hypotension and dyspnea.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA020075
Agency product number H789N3FKE8
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 58281-563,58281-562,58281-561,58281-560
Date Last Revised 07-10-2016
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Storage and handling Storage: Does not require refrigeration. Do not store above 86°F (30°C). Do not freeze. Do not heat sterilize.
Marketing authorisation holder Medtronic Neuromodulation
Warnings Abrupt discontinuation of intrathecal baclofen, regardless of the cause, has resulted in sequelae that include high fever, altered mental status, exaggerated rebound spasticity, and muscle rigidity, that in rare cases has advanced to rhabdomyolysis, multiple organ-system failure and death. Prevention of abrupt discontinuation of intrathecal baclofen requires careful attention to programming and monitoring of the infusion system, refill scheduling and procedures, and pump alarms. Patients and caregivers should be advised of the importance of keeping scheduled refill visits and should be educated on the early symptoms of baclofen withdrawal. Special attention should be given to patients at apparent risk (e.g. spinal cord injuries at T-6 or above, communication difficulties, history of withdrawal symptoms from oral or intrathecal baclofen). Consult the technical manual of the implantable infusion system for additional postimplant clinician and patient information (see WARNINGS).