Data from FDA - Curated by Toby Galbraith - Last updated 03 June 2017

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Lexapro® is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) indicated for: Acute and Maintenance Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in adults and adolescents aged 12-17 years (1.1) Acute Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in adults (1.2) 1.1 Major Depressive Disorder Lexapro (escitalopram) is indicated for the acute and maintenance treatment of major depressive disorder in adults and in adolescents 12 to 17 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. A major depressive episode (DSM-IV) implies a prominent and relatively persistent (nearly every day for at least 2 weeks) depressed or dysphoric mood that usually interferes with daily functioning, and includes at least five of the following nine symptoms: depressed mood, loss of interest in usual activities, significant change in weight and/or appetite, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, increased fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, slowed thinking or impaired concentration, a suicide attempt or suicidal ideation. 1.2 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Lexapro is indicated for the acute treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in adults [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (DSM-IV) is characterized by excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation) that is persistent for at least 6 months and which the person finds difficult to control. It must be associated with at least 3 of the following symptoms: restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge, being easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating or mind going blank, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Serotonin Syndrome and MAOIs: Do not use MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with Lexapro or within 14 days of stopping treatment with Lexapro. Do not use Lexapro within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders. In addition, do not start Lexapro in a patient who is being treated with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue (4.1). Pimozide: Do not use concomitantly (4.2). Known hypersensitivity to escitalopram or citalopram or any of the inactive ingredients (4.3). 4.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with Lexapro or within 14 days of stopping treatment with Lexapro is contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. The use of Lexapro within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders is also contraindicated [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Starting Lexapro in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. 4.2 Pimozide Concomitant use in patients taking pimozide is contraindicated [see Drug Interactions (7.10)]. 4.3 Hypersensitivity to escitalopram or citalopram Lexapro is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to escitalopram or citalopram or any of the inactive ingredients in Lexapro.
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Most commonly observed adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 5% and at least twice the incidence of placebo patients) are: insomnia, ejaculation disorder (primarily ejaculatory delay), nausea, sweating increased, fatigue and somnolence, decreased libido, and anorgasmia (6.1). To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Allergan at 1-800- 433-8871, or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Clinical Trial Data Sources Pediatrics (6 -17 years) Adverse events were collected in 576 pediatric patients (286 Lexapro, 290 placebo) with major depressive disorder in double-blind placebo-controlled studies. Safety and effectiveness of Lexapro in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age has not been established. Adults Adverse events information for Lexapro was collected from 715 patients with major depressive disorder who were exposed to escitalopram and from 592 patients who were exposed to placebo in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. An additional 284 patients with major depressive disorder were newly exposed to escitalopram in open-label trials. The adverse event information for Lexapro in patients with GAD was collected from 429 patients exposed to escitalopram and from 427 patients exposed to placebo in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Adverse events during exposure were obtained primarily by general inquiry and recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse events without first grouping similar types of events into a smaller number of standardized event categories. In the tables and tabulations that follow, standard World Health Organization (WHO) terminology has been used to classify reported adverse events. The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse event of the type listed. An event was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. Adverse Events Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment Major Depressive Disorder Pediatrics (6 -17 years) Adverse events were associated with discontinuation of 3.5% of 286 patients receiving Lexapro and 1% of 290 patients receiving placebo. The most common adverse event (incidence at least 1% for Lexapro and greater than placebo) associated with discontinuation was insomnia (1% Lexapro, 0% placebo). Adults Among the 715 depressed patients who received Lexapro in placebo-controlled trials, 6% discontinued treatment due to an adverse event, as compared to 2% of 592 patients receiving placebo. In two fixed-dose studies, the rate of discontinuation for adverse events in patients receiving 10 mg/day Lexapro was not significantly different from the rate of discontinuation for adverse events in patients receiving placebo. The rate of discontinuation for adverse events in patients assigned to a fixed dose of 20 mg/day Lexapro was 10%, which was significantly different from the rate of discontinuation for adverse events in patients receiving 10 mg/day Lexapro (4%) and placebo (3%). Adverse events that were associated with the discontinuation of at least 1% of patients treated with Lexapro, and for which the rate was at least twice that of placebo, were nausea (2%) and ejaculation disorder (2% of male patients). Generalized Anxiety Disorder Adults Among the 429 GAD patients who received Lexapro 10-20 mg/day in placebo-controlled trials, 8% discontinued treatment due to an adverse event, as compared to 4% of 427 patients receiving placebo. Adverse events that were associated with the discontinuation of at least 1% of patients treated with Lexapro, and for which the rate was at least twice the placebo rate, were nausea (2%), insomnia (1%), and fatigue (1%). Incidence of Adverse Reactions in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials Major Depressive Disorder Pediatrics (6 -17 years) The overall profile of adverse reactions in pediatric patients was generally similar to that seen in adult studies, as shown in Table 2. However, the following adverse reactions (excluding those which appear in Table 2 and those for which the coded terms were uninformative or misleading) were reported at an incidence of at least 2% for Lexapro and greater than placebo: back pain, urinary tract infection, vomiting, and nasal congestion. Adults The most commonly observed adverse reactions in Lexapro patients (incidence of approximately 5% or greater and approximately twice the incidence in placebo patients) were insomnia, ejaculation disorder (primarily ejaculatory delay), nausea, sweating increased, fatigue, and somnolence. Table 2 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred among 715 depressed patients who received Lexapro at doses ranging from 10 to 20 mg/day in placebo-controlled trials. Events included are those occurring in 2% or more of patients treated with Lexapro and for which the incidence in patients treated with Lexapro was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients. TABLE 2 Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions observed with a frequency of ≥ 2% and greater than placebo for Major Depressive Disorder 1Primarily ejaculatory delay. 2Denominator used was for males only (N=225 Lexapro; N=188 placebo). 3Denominator used was for females only (N=490 Lexapro; N=404 placebo). Adverse Reaction Lexapro Placebo (N=715) % (N=592) % Autonomic Nervous System Disorders Dry Mouth 6% 5% Sweating Increased 5% 2% Central & Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Dizziness 5% 3% Gastrointestinal Disorders Nausea 15% 7% Diarrhea 8% 5% Constipation 3% 1% Indigestion 3% 1% Abdominal Pain 2% 1% General Influenza-like Symptoms 5% 4% Fatigue 5% 2% Psychiatric Disorders Insomnia 9% 4% Somnolence 6% 2% Appetite Decreased 3% 1% Libido Decreased 3% 1% Respiratory System Disorders Rhinitis 5% 4% Sinusitis 3% 2% Urogenital Ejaculation Disorder1,2 9% <1% Impotence2 3% <1% Anorgasmia3 2% <1% Generalized Anxiety Disorder Adults The most commonly observed adverse reactions in Lexapro patients (incidence of approximately 5% or greater and approximately twice the incidence in placebo patients) were nausea, ejaculation disorder (primarily ejaculatory delay), insomnia, fatigue, decreased libido, and anorgasmia. Table 3 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent of treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred among 429 GAD patients who received Lexapro 10 to 20 mg/day in placebo-controlled trials. Events included are those occurring in 2% or more of patients treated with Lexapro and for which the incidence in patients treated with Lexapro was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients. TABLE 3 Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions observed with a frequency of ≥ 2% and greater than placebo for Generalized Anxiety Disorder 1Primarily ejaculatory delay. 2Denominator used was for males only (N=182 Lexapro; N=195 placebo). 3Denominator used was for females only (N=247 Lexapro; N=232 placebo). Adverse Reactions Lexapro Placebo (N=429) % (N=427) % Autonomic Nervous System Disorders Dry Mouth 9% 5% Sweating Increased 4% 1% Central & Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Headache 24% 17% Paresthesia 2% 1% Gastrointestinal Disorders Nausea 18% 8% Diarrhea 8% 6% Constipation 5% 4% Indigestion 3% 2% Vomiting 3% 1% Abdominal Pain 2% 1% Flatulence 2% 1% Toothache 2% 0% General Fatigue 8% 2% Influenza-like Symptoms 5% 4% Musculoskeletal System Disorder Neck/Shoulder Pain 3% 1% Psychiatric Disorders Somnolence 13% 7% Insomnia 12% 6% Libido Decreased 7% 2% Dreaming Abnormal 3% 2% Appetite Decreased 3% 1% Lethargy 3% 1% Respiratory System Disorders Yawning 2% 1% Urogenital Ejaculation Disorder1,2 14% 2% Anorgasmia3 6% <1% Menstrual Disorder 2% 1% Dose Dependency of Adverse Reactions The potential dose dependency of common adverse reactions (defined as an incidence rate of ≥5% in either the 10 mg or 20 mg Lexapro groups) was examined on the basis of the combined incidence of adverse reactions in two fixed-dose trials. The overall incidence rates of adverse events in 10 mg Lexapro-treated patients (66%) was similar to that of the placebo-treated patients (61%), while the incidence rate in 20 mg/day Lexapro-treated patients was greater (86%). Table 4 shows common adverse reactions that occurred in the 20 mg/day Lexapro group with an incidence that was approximately twice that of the 10 mg/day Lexapro group and approximately twice that of the placebo group. TABLE 4 Incidence of Common Adverse Reactions in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder Adverse Reaction Placebo 10 mg/day 20 mg/day (N=311) Lexapro Lexapro (N=310) (N=125) Insomnia 4% 7% 14% Diarrhea 5% 6% 14% Dry Mouth 3% 4% 9% Somnolence 1% 4% 9% Dizziness 2% 4% 7% Sweating Increased <1% 3% 8% Constipation 1% 3% 6% Fatigue 2% 2% 6% Indigestion 1% 2% 6% Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction with SSRIs Although changes in sexual desire, sexual performance, and sexual satisfaction often occur as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder, they may also be a consequence of pharmacologic treatment. In particular, some evidence suggests that SSRIs can cause such untoward sexual experiences. Reliable estimates of the incidence and severity of untoward experiences involving sexual desire, performance, and satisfaction are difficult to obtain, however, in part because patients and physicians may be reluctant to discuss them. Accordingly, estimates of the incidence of untoward sexual experience and performance cited in product labeling are likely to underestimate their actual incidence. TABLE 5 Incidence of Sexual Side Effects in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials Adverse Event Lexapro Placebo In Males Only (N=407) (N=383) Ejaculation Disorder (primarily ejaculatory delay) 12% 1% Libido Decreased 6% 2% Impotence 2% <1% In Females Only (N=737) (N=636) Libido Decreased 3% 1% Anorgasmia 3% <1% There are no adequately designed studies examining sexual dysfunction with escitalopram treatment. Priapism has been reported with all SSRIs. While it is difficult to know the precise risk of sexual dysfunction associated with the use of SSRIs, physicians should routinely inquire about such possible side effects. Vital Sign Changes Lexapro and placebo groups were compared with respect to (1) mean change from baseline in vital signs (pulse, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure) and (2) the incidence of patients meeting criteria for potentially clinically significant changes from baseline in these variables. These analyses did not reveal any clinically important changes in vital signs associated with Lexapro treatment. In addition, a comparison of supine and standing vital sign measures in subjects receiving Lexapro indicated that Lexapro treatment is not associated with orthostatic changes. Weight Changes Patients treated with Lexapro in controlled trials did not differ from placebo-treated patients with regard to clinically important change in body weight. Laboratory Changes Lexapro and placebo groups were compared with respect to (1) mean change from baseline in various serum chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis variables, and (2) the incidence of patients meeting criteria for potentially clinically significant changes from baseline in these variables. These analyses revealed no clinically important changes in laboratory test parameters associated with Lexapro treatment. ECG Changes Electrocardiograms from Lexapro (N=625) and placebo (N=527) groups were compared with respect to outliers defined as subjects with QTc changes over 60 msec from baseline or absolute values over 500 msec post-dose, and subjects with heart rate increases to over 100 bpm or decreases to less than 50 bpm with a 25% change from baseline (tachycardic or bradycardic outliers, respectively). None of the patients in the Lexapro group had a QTcF interval >500 msec or a prolongation >60 msec compared to 0.2% of patients in the placebo group. The incidence of tachycardic outliers was 0.2% in the Lexapro and the placebo group. The incidence of bradycardic outliers was 0.5% in the Lexapro group and 0.2% in the placebo group. QTcF interval was evaluated in a randomized, placebo and active (moxifloxacin 400 mg) controlled cross-over, escalating multiple-dose study in 113 healthy subjects. The maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) difference from placebo arm were 4.5 (6.4) and 10.7 (12.7) msec for 10 mg and supratherapeutic 30 mg escitalopram given once daily, respectively. Based on the established exposure-response relationship, the predicted QTcF change from placebo arm (95% confidence interval) under the Cmax for the dose of 20 mg is 6.6 (7.9) msec. Escitalopram 30 mg given once daily resulted in mean Cmax of 1.7-fold higher than the mean Cmax for the maximum recommended therapeutic dose at steady state (20 mg). The exposure under supratherapeutic 30 mg dose is similar to the steady state concentrations expected in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers following a therapeutic dose of 20 mg. Other Reactions Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Lexapro Following is a list of treatment-emergent adverse events, as defined in the introduction to the ADVERSE REACTIONS section, reported by the 1428 patients treated with Lexapro for periods of up to one year in double-blind or open-label clinical trials during its premarketing evaluation. The listing does not include those events already listed in Tables 2 & 3 , those events for which a drug cause was remote and at a rate less than 1% or lower than placebo, those events which were so general as to be uninformative, and those events reported only once which did not have a substantial probability of being acutely life threatening. Events are categorized by body system. Events of major clinical importance are described in the Warnings and Precautions section (5). Cardiovascular - hypertension, palpitation. Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders - light-headed feeling, migraine. Gastrointestinal Disorders - abdominal cramp, heartburn, gastroenteritis. General - allergy, chest pain, fever, hot flushes, pain in limb. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders - increased weight. Musculoskeletal System Disorders - arthralgia, myalgia jaw stiffness. Psychiatric Disorders - appetite increased, concentration impaired, irritability. Reproductive Disorders/Female - menstrual cramps, menstrual disorder. Respiratory System Disorders - bronchitis, coughing, nasal congestion, sinus congestion, sinus headache. Skin and Appendages Disorders - rash. Special Senses - vision blurred, tinnitus. Urinary System Disorders - urinary frequency, urinary tract infection. 6.2 Post-Marketing Experience Adverse Reactions Reported Subsequent to the Marketing of Escitalopram The following additional adverse reactions have been identified from spontaneous reports of escitalopram received worldwide. These adverse reactions have been chosen for inclusion because of a combination of seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to escitalopram and have not been listed elsewhere in labeling. However, because these adverse reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These events include: Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: anemia, agranulocytis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia. Cardiac Disorders: atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, cardiac failure, myocardial infarction, tachycardia, torsade de pointes, ventricular arrhythmia, ventricular tachycardia. Ear and labyrinth disorders: vertigo Endocrine Disorders: diabetes mellitus, hyperprolactinemia, SIADH. Eye Disorders: angle closure glaucoma, diplopia, mydriasis, visual disturbance. Gastrointestinal Disorder: dysphagia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastroesophageal reflux, pancreatitis, rectal hemorrhage. General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: abnormal gait, asthenia, edema, fall, feeling abnormal, malaise. Hepatobiliary Disorders: fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure, hepatic necrosis, hepatitis. Immune System Disorders: allergic reaction, anaphylaxis. Investigations: bilirubin increased, decreased weight, electrocardiogram QT prolongation, hepatic enzymes increased, hypercholesterolemia, INR increased, prothrombin decreased. Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia. Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: muscle cramp, muscle stiffness, muscle weakness, rhabdomyolysis. Nervous System Disorders: akathisia, amnesia, ataxia, choreoathetosis, cerebrovascular accident, dysarthria, dyskinesia, dystonia, extrapyramidal disorders, grand mal seizures (or convulsions), hypoaesthesia, myoclonus, nystagmus, Parkinsonism, restless legs, seizures, syncope, tardive dyskinesia, tremor. Pregnancy, Puerperium and Perinatal Conditions: spontaneous abortion. Psychiatric Disorders: acute psychosis, aggression, agitation, anger, anxiety, apathy, completed suicide, confusion, depersonalization, depression aggravated, delirium, delusion, disorientation, feeling unreal, hallucinations (visual and auditory), mood swings, nervousness, nightmare, panic reaction, paranoia, restlessness, self-harm or thoughts of self-harm, suicide attempt, suicidal ideation, suicidal tendency. Renal and Urinary Disorders: acute renal failure, dysuria, urinary retention. Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: menorrhagia, priapism. Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: dyspnea, epistaxis, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: alopecia, angioedema, dermatitis, ecchymosis, erythema multiforme, photosensitivity reaction, Stevens Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, urticaria. Vascular Disorders: deep vein thrombosis, flushing, hypertensive crisis, hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, phlebitis, thrombosis.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Lexapro should be administered once daily, in the morning or evening, with or without food. Lexapro should generally be administered once daily, morning or evening with or without food (2.1, 2.2). Indication Recommended Dose MDD (2.1) Adolescents (2.1) Initial: 10 mg once daily Recommended: 10 mg once daily Maximum: 20 mg once daily Adults (2.1) Initial: 10 mg once daily Recommended: 10 mg once daily Maximum: 20 mg once daily GAD (2.2) Adults (2.2) Initial: 10 mg once daily Recommended: 10 mg once daily No additional benefits seen at 20 mg/day dose (2.1). 10 mg/day is the recommended dose for most elderly patients and patients with hepatic impairment (2.3). No dosage adjustment for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. Use caution in patients with severe renal impairment (2.3). Discontinuing Lexapro: A gradual dose reduction is recommended (2.4). 2.1 Major Depressive Disorder Initial Treatment Adolescents The recommended dose of Lexapro is 10 mg once daily. A flexible-dose trial of Lexapro (10 to 20 mg/day) demonstrated the effectiveness of Lexapro [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. If the dose is increased to 20 mg, this should occur after a minimum of three weeks. Adults The recommended dose of Lexapro is 10 mg once daily. A fixed-dose trial of Lexapro demonstrated the effectiveness of both 10 mg and 20 mg of Lexapro, but failed to demonstrate a greater benefit of 20 mg over 10 mg [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. If the dose is increased to 20 mg, this should occur after a minimum of one week. Maintenance Treatment It is generally agreed that acute episodes of major depressive disorder require several months or longer of sustained pharmacological therapy beyond response to the acute episode. Systematic evaluation of continuing Lexapro 10 or 20 mg/day in adults patients with major depressive disorder who responded while taking Lexapro during an 8-week, acute-treatment phase demonstrated a benefit of such maintenance treatment [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use Lexapro for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient. Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment. 2.2 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Initial Treatment Adults The recommended starting dose of Lexapro is 10 mg once daily. If the dose is increased to 20 mg, this should occur after a minimum of one week. Maintenance Treatment Generalized anxiety disorder is recognized as a chronic condition. The efficacy of Lexapro in the treatment of GAD beyond 8 weeks has not been systematically studied. The physician who elects to use Lexapro for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient. 2.3 Special Populations 10 mg/day is the recommended dose for most elderly patients and patients with hepatic impairment. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. Lexapro should be used with caution in patients with severe renal impairment. 2.4 Discontinuation of Treatment with Lexapro Symptoms associated with discontinuation of Lexapro and other SSRIs and SNRIs have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate. 2.5 Switching a Patient To or From a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Intended to Treat Psychiatric Disorders At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders and initiation of therapy with Lexapro. Conversely, at least 14 days should be allowed after stopping Lexapro before starting an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders [see Contraindications (4.1)]. 2.6 Use of Lexapro with Other MAOIs such as Linezolid or Methylene Blue Do not start Lexapro in a patient who is being treated with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue because there is an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. In a patient who requires more urgent treatment of a psychiatric condition, other interventions, including hospitalization, should be considered [see Contraindications (4.1)]. In some cases, a patient already receiving Lexapro therapy may require urgent treatment with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. If acceptable alternatives to linezolid or intravenous methylene blue treatment are not available and the potential benefits of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue treatment are judged to outweigh the risks of serotonin syndrome in a particular patient, Lexapro should be stopped promptly, and linezolid or intravenous methylene blue can be administered. The patient should be monitored for symptoms of serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue, whichever comes first. Therapy with Lexapro may be resumed 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. The risk of administering methylene blue by non-intravenous routes (such as oral tablets or by local injection) or in intravenous doses much lower than 1 mg/kg with Lexapro is unclear. The clinician should, nevertheless, be aware of the possibility of emergent symptoms of serotonin syndrome with such use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Use only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus (8.1). Nursing Mothers: Caution should be exercised when administered to a nursing woman (8.3) Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness of Lexapro has not been established in pediatric MDD patients less than 12 years of age (8.4). 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C In a rat embryo/fetal development study, oral administration of escitalopram (56, 112, or 150 mg/kg/day) to pregnant animals during the period of organogenesis resulted in decreased fetal body weight and associated delays in ossification at the two higher doses (approximately ≥ 56 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 20 mg/day on a body surface area [mg/m2] basis). Maternal toxicity (clinical signs and decreased body weight gain and food consumption), mild at 56 mg/kg/day, was present at all dose levels. The developmental no-effect dose of 56 mg/kg/day is approximately 28 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. No teratogenicity was observed at any of the doses tested (as high as 75 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). When female rats were treated with escitalopram (6, 12, 24, or 48 mg/kg/day) during pregnancy and through weaning, slightly increased offspring mortality and growth retardation were noted at 48 mg/kg/day which is approximately 24 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. Slight maternal toxicity (clinical signs and decreased body weight gain and food consumption) was seen at this dose. Slightly increased offspring mortality was also seen at 24 mg/kg/day. The no-effect dose was 12 mg/kg/day which is approximately 6 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. In animal reproduction studies, racemic citalopram has been shown to have adverse effects on embryo/fetal and postnatal development, including teratogenic effects, when administered at doses greater than human therapeutic doses. In two rat embryo/fetal development studies, oral administration of racemic citalopram (32, 56, or 112 mg/kg/day) to pregnant animals during the period of organogenesis resulted in decreased embryo/fetal growth and survival and an increased incidence of fetal abnormalities (including cardiovascular and skeletal defects) at the high dose. This dose was also associated with maternal toxicity (clinical signs, decreased body weight gain). The developmental no-effect dose was 56 mg/kg/day. In a rabbit study, no adverse effects on embryo/fetal development were observed at doses of racemic citalopram of up to 16 mg/kg/day. Thus, teratogenic effects of racemic citalopram were observed at a maternally toxic dose in the rat and were not observed in the rabbit. When female rats were treated with racemic citalopram (4.8, 12.8, or 32 mg/kg/day) from late gestation through weaning, increased offspring mortality during the first 4 days after birth and persistent offspring growth retardation were observed at the highest dose. The no-effect dose was 12.8 mg/kg/day. Similar effects on offspring mortality and growth were seen when dams were treated throughout gestation and early lactation at doses ≥ 24 mg/kg/day. A no-effect dose was not determined in that study. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women; therefore, escitalopram should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Pregnancy-Nonteratogenic Effects Neonates exposed to Lexapro and other SSRIs or serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding. Such complications can arise immediately upon delivery. Reported clinical findings have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These features are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of SSRIs and SNRIs or, possibly, a drug discontinuation syndrome. It should be noted that, in some cases, the clinical picture is consistent with serotonin syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Infants exposed to SSRIs in pregnancy may have an increased risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). PPHN occurs in 1 - 2 per 1,000 live births in the general population and is associated with substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Several recent epidemiologic studies suggest a positive statistical association between SSRI use (including Lexapro) in pregnancy and PPHN. Other studies do not show a significant statistical association. Physicians should also note the results of a prospective longitudinal study of 201 pregnant women with a history of major depression, who were either on antidepressants or had received antidepressants less than 12 weeks prior to their last menstrual period, and were in remission. Women who discontinued antidepressant medication during pregnancy showed a significant increase in relapse of their major depression compared to those women who remained on antidepressant medication throughout pregnancy. When treating a pregnant woman with Lexapro, the physician should carefully consider both the potential risks of taking an SSRl, along with the established benefits of treating depression with an antidepressant. This decision can only be made on a case by case basis [see Dosage and Administration (2.1.)]. 8.2 Labor and Delivery The effect of Lexapro on labor and delivery in humans is unknown. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Escitalopram is excreted in human breast milk. Limited data from women taking 10-20 mg escitalopram showed that exclusively breast-fed infants receive approximately 3.9% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose of escitalopram and 1.7% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose of desmethylcitalopram. There were two reports of infants experiencing excessive somnolence, decreased feeding, and weight loss in association with breastfeeding from a racemic citalopram-treated mother; in one case, the infant was reported to recover completely upon discontinuation of racemic citalopram by its mother and, in the second case, no follow-up information was available. Caution should be exercised and breastfeeding infants should be observed for adverse reactions when Lexapro is administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of Lexapro have been established in adolescents (12 to 17 years of age) for the treatment of major depressive disorder [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Although maintenance efficacy in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder has not been systematically evaluated, maintenance efficacy can be extrapolated from adult data along with comparisons of escitalopram pharmacokinetic parameters in adults and adolescent patients. The safety and effectiveness of Lexapro have not been established in pediatric (younger than 12 years of age) patients with major depressive disorder. In a 24-week, open- label safety study in 118 children (aged 7 to 11 years) who had major depressive disorder, the safety findings were consistent with the known safety and tolerability profile for Lexapro. Safety and effectiveness of Lexapro has not been established in pediatric patients less than 18 years of age with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Decreased appetite and weight loss have been observed in association with the use of SSRIs. Consequently, regular monitoring of weight and growth should be performed in children and adolescents treated with an SSRI such as Lexapro. 8.5 Geriatric Use Approximately 6% of the 1144 patients receiving escitalopram in controlled trials of Lexapro in major depressive disorder and GAD were 60 years of age or older; elderly patients in these trials received daily doses of Lexapro between 10 and 20 mg. The number of elderly patients in these trials was insufficient to adequately assess for possible differential efficacy and safety measures on the basis of age. Nevertheless, greater sensitivity of some elderly individuals to effects of Lexapro cannot be ruled out. SSRIs and SNRIs, including Lexapro, have been associated with cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients, who may be at greater risk for this adverse event [see Hyponatremia (5.6)]. In two pharmacokinetic studies, escitalopram half-life was increased by approximately 50% in elderly subjects as compared to young subjects and Cmax was unchanged [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 10 mg/day is the recommended dose for elderly patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. Of 4422 patients in clinical studies of racemic citalopram, 1357 were 60 and over, 1034 were 65 and over, and 457 were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but again, greater sensitivity of some elderly individuals cannot be ruled out.
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers Escitalopram is excreted in human breast milk. Limited data from women taking 10-20 mg escitalopram showed that exclusively breast-fed infants receive approximately 3.9% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose of escitalopram and 1.7% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose of desmethylcitalopram. There were two reports of infants experiencing excessive somnolence, decreased feeding, and weight loss in association with breastfeeding from a racemic citalopram-treated mother; in one case, the infant was reported to recover completely upon discontinuation of racemic citalopram by its mother and, in the second case, no follow-up information was available. Caution should be exercised and breastfeeding infants should be observed for adverse reactions when Lexapro is administered to a nursing woman.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Concomitant use with SSRIs, SNRIs or Tryptophan is not recommended (7.2). Use caution when concomitant use with drugs that affect Hemostasis (NSAIDs, Aspirin, Warfarin) (7.6). 7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) [See Dosage and Administration (2.5 and 2.6), Contraindications (4.1) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. 7.2 Serotonergic Drugs [See Dosage and Administration (2.5 and 2.6), Contraindications (4.1) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. 7.3 Triptans There have been rare postmarketing reports of serotonin syndrome with use of an SSRI and a triptan. If concomitant treatment of Lexapro with a triptan is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. 7.4 CNS Drugs Given the primary CNS effects of escitalopram, caution should be used when it is taken in combination with other centrally acting drugs. 7.5 Alcohol Although Lexapro did not potentiate the cognitive and motor effects of alcohol in a clinical trial, as with other psychotropic medications, the use of alcohol by patients taking Lexapro is not recommended. 7.6 Drugs That Interfere With Hemostasis (NSAIDs, Aspirin, Warfarin, etc.) Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies of the case-control and cohort design that have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate the risk of bleeding. Altered anticoagulant effects, including increased bleeding, have been reported when SSRIs and SNRIs are coadministered with warfarin. Patients receiving warfarin therapy should be carefully monitored when Lexapro is initiated or discontinued. 7.7 Cimetidine In subjects who had received 21 days of 40 mg/day racemic citalopram, combined administration of 400 mg twice a day cimetidine for 8 days resulted in an increase in citalopram AUC and Cmax of 43% and 39%, respectively. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. 7.8 Digoxin In subjects who had received 21 days of 40 mg/day racemic citalopram, combined administration of citalopram and digoxin (single dose of 1 mg) did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of either citalopram or digoxin. 7.9 Lithium Coadministration of racemic citalopram (40 mg/day for 10 days) and lithium (30 mmol/day for 5 days) had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of citalopram or lithium. Nevertheless, plasma lithium levels should be monitored with appropriate adjustment to the lithium dose in accordance with standard clinical practice. Because lithium may enhance the serotonergic effects of escitalopram, caution should be exercised when Lexapro and lithium are coadministered. 7.10 Pimozide and Celexa In a controlled study, a single dose of pimozide 2 mg co-administered with racemic citalopram 40 mg given once daily for 11 days was associated with a mean increase in QTc values of approximately 10 msec compared to pimozide given alone. Racemic citalopram did not alter the mean AUC or Cmax of pimozide. The mechanism of this pharmacodynamic interaction is not known. 7.11 Sumatriptan There have been rare postmarketing reports describing patients with weakness, hyperreflexia, and incoordination following the use of an SSRI and sumatriptan. If concomitant treatment with sumatriptan and an SSRI (e.g., fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram) is clinically warranted, appropriate observation of the patient is advised. 7.12 Theophylline Combined administration of racemic citalopram (40 mg/day for 21 days) and the CYP1A2 substrate theophylline (single dose of 300 mg) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. The effect of theophylline on the pharmacokinetics of citalopram was not evaluated. 7.13 Warfarin Administration of 40 mg/day racemic citalopram for 21 days did not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Prothrombin time was increased by 5%, the clinical significance of which is unknown. 7.14 Carbamazepine Combined administration of racemic citalopram (40 mg/day for 14 days) and carbamazepine (titrated to 400 mg/day for 35 days) did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine, a CYP3A4 substrate. Although trough citalopram plasma levels were unaffected, given the enzyme-inducing properties of carbamazepine, the possibility that carbamazepine might increase the clearance of escitalopram should be considered if the two drugs are coadministered. 7.15 Triazolam Combined administration of racemic citalopram (titrated to 40 mg/day for 28 days) and the CYP3A4 substrate triazolam (single dose of 0.25 mg) did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of either citalopram or triazolam. 7.16 Ketoconazole Combined administration of racemic citalopram (40 mg) and ketoconazole (200 mg), a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, decreased the Cmax and AUC of ketoconazole by 21% and 10%, respectively, and did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of citalopram. 7.17 Ritonavir Combined administration of a single dose of ritonavir (600 mg), both a CYP3A4 substrate and a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, and escitalopram (20 mg) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of either ritonavir or escitalopram. 7.18 CYP3A4 and -2C19 Inhibitors In vitro studies indicated that CYP3A4 and -2C19 are the primary enzymes involved in the metabolism of escitalopram. However, coadministration of escitalopram (20 mg) and ritonavir (600 mg), a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of escitalopram. Because escitalopram is metabolized by multiple enzyme systems, inhibition of a single enzyme may not appreciably decrease escitalopram clearance. 7.19 Drugs Metabolized by Cytochrome P4502D6 In vitro studies did not reveal an inhibitory effect of escitalopram on CYP2D6. In addition, steady state levels of racemic citalopram were not significantly different in poor metabolizers and extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers after multiple-dose administration of citalopram, suggesting that coadministration, with escitalopram, of a drug that inhibits CYP2D6, is unlikely to have clinically significant effects on escitalopram metabolism. However, there are limited in vivo data suggesting a modest CYP2D6 inhibitory effect for escitalopram, i.e., coadministration of escitalopram (20 mg/day for 21 days) with the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (single dose of 50 mg), a substrate for CYP2D6, resulted in a 40% increase in Cmax and a 100% increase in AUC of desipramine. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown. Nevertheless, caution is indicated in the coadministration of escitalopram and drugs metabolized by CYP2D6. 7.20 Metoprolol Administration of 20 mg/day Lexapro for 21 days in healthy volunteers resulted in a 50% increase in Cmax and 82% increase in AUC of the beta-adrenergic blocker metoprolol (given in a single dose of 100 mg). Increased metoprolol plasma levels have been associated with decreased cardioselectivity. Coadministration of Lexapro and metoprolol had no clinically significant effects on blood pressure or heart rate. 7.21 Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) There are no clinical studies of the combined use of ECT and escitalopram.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA021323
Agency product number 5U85DBW7LO
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 63629-3318
Date Last Revised 22-05-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Marketing authorisation holder Bryant Ranch Prepack
Warnings WARNINGS: SUICIDALITY AND ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone considering the use of Lexapro or any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent, or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide. Patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior. Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Lexapro is not approved for use in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age. [See Warnings and Precautions: Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk (5.1), Patient Counseling Information: Information for Patients (17.1), and Use in Specific Populations: Pediatric Use (8.4)]. WARNING: Suicidality and Antidepressant Drugs See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents and young adults taking antidepressants for major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Lexapro is not approved for use in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age (5.1).