Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 02 June 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Levetiracetam injection is indicated for adjunctive therapy, as an alternative when oral administration is temporarily not feasible, in the treatment of: Partial onset seizures in patients 1 month of age and older with epilepsy (1.1) Myoclonic seizures in patients 12 years of age and older with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (1.2) Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients 6 years of age and older with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (1.3) 1.1 Partial Onset Seizures Levetiracetam is indicated as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial onset seizures in adults and children 1 month of age and older with epilepsy. Levetiracetam injection is for intravenous use only as an alternative for patients when oral administration is temporarily not feasible. 1.2 Myoclonic Seizures in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Levetiracetam is indicated as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of myoclonic seizures in adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Levetiracetam injection is for intravenous use only as an alternative for patients when oral administration is temporarily not feasible. 1.3 Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures Levetiracetam is indicated as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in adults and children 6 years of age and older with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Levetiracetam injection is for intravenous use only as an alternative for patients when oral administration is temporarily not feasible.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Levetiracetam injection is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to levetiracetam. Reactions have included anaphylaxis and angioedema [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]. Known hypersensitivity to levetiracetam; angioedema and anaphylaxis have occurred. (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are discussed in more details in other sections of labeling: Behavioral Abnormalities and Psychotic Symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Somnolence and Fatigue [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] Anaphylaxis and Angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] Serious Dermatological Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] Coordination Difficulties [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] Hematologic Abnormalities [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ] Increase in Blood Pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ] Most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 5% more than placebo) include: Adults: somnolence, asthenia, infection, and dizziness (6.1) Pediatric patients: fatigue, aggression, nasal congestion, decreased appetite, and irritability (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Akorn, Inc. at 1-800-932-5676 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reactions that result from levetiracetam injection use include all of those reported for levetiracetam tablets and oral solution. Equivalent doses of intravenous (IV) levetiracetam and oral levetiracetam result in equivalent Cmax, Cmin, and total systemic exposure to levetiracetam when the IV levetiracetam is administered as a 15-minute infusion. Partial Onset Seizures Adults In controlled clinical studies using levetiracetam tablets in adults with partial onset seizures, the most common adverse reactions in adult patients receiving levetiracetam in combination with other AEDs, for events with rates greater than placebo, were somnolence, asthenia, infection, and dizziness. Of the most common adverse reactions in adults experiencing partial onset seizures, asthenia, somnolence, and dizziness occurred predominantly during the first 4 weeks of treatment with levetiracetam. Table 3 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 1% of adult epilepsy patients receiving levetiracetam tablets in placebo-controlled studies and were numerically more common than in patients treated with placebo. In these studies, either levetiracetam or placebo was added to concurrent AED therapy. Table 3: Adverse Reactions* in Pooled Placebo-Controlled, Add-On Studies in Adults Experiencing Partial Onset Seizures Levetiracetam (N=769) % Placebo (N=439) % Asthenia 15 9 Somnolence 15 8 Headache 14 13 Infection 13 8 Dizziness 9 4 Pain 7 6 Pharyngitis 6 4 Depression 4 2 Nervousness 4 2 Rhinitis 4 3 Anorexia 3 2 Ataxia 3 1 Vertigo 3 1 Amnesia 2 1 Anxiety 2 1 Cough Increased 2 1 Diplopia 2 1 Emotional Lability 2 0 Hostility 2 1 Paresthesia 2 1 Sinusitis 2 1 *Adverse reactions occurred in at least 1% of levetiracetam-treated patients and occurred more frequently than placebo-treated patients In controlled adult clinical studies using levetiracetam tablets, 15% of patients receiving levetiracetam and 12% receiving placebo either discontinued or had a dose reduction as a result of an adverse reaction. Table 4 lists the most common (>1%) adverse reactions that resulted in discontinuation or dose reduction and that occurred more frequently in levetiracetam-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients. Table 4: Adverse Reactions that Resulted in Discontinuation or Dose Reduction in Pooled Placebo-Controlled Studies in Adults Experiencing Partial Onset Seizures Adverse Reaction Levetiracetam (N=769) % Placebo (N=439) % Somnolence 4 2 Dizziness 1 0 Pediatric Patients 4 Years to <16 Years The adverse reaction data presented below was obtained from a pooled analysis of two controlled pediatric clinical studies using an oral formulation in pediatric patients 4 to 16 years of age with partial onset seizures. The most common adverse reactions in pediatric patients receiving levetiracetam in combination with other AEDs, for events with rates greater than placebo, were fatigue, aggression, nasal congestion, decreased appetite, and irritability. Table 5 lists adverse reactions from the pooled pediatric controlled studies (4 to 16 years of age) that occurred in at least 2% of pediatric levetiracetam-treated patients and were numerically more common than in pediatric patients treated with placebo. In these studies, either levetiracetam or placebo was added to concurrent AED therapy. Table 5: Adverse Reactions* in Pooled Placebo-Controlled, Add-On Studies in Pediatric Patients Ages 4 to 16 Years Experiencing Partial Onset Seizures Levetiracetam (N=165) % Placebo (N=131) % Headache 19 15 Nasopharyngitis 15 12 Vomiting 15 12 Somnolence 13 9 Fatigue 11 5 Aggression 10 5 Abdominal Pain Upper 9 8 Cough 9 5 Nasal Congestion 9 2 Decreased Appetite 8 2 Abnormal Behavior 7 4 Dizziness 7 5 Irritability 7 1 Pharyngolaryngeal Pain 7 4 Diarrhea 6 2 Lethargy 6 5 Insomnia 5 3 Agitation 4 1 Anorexia 4 3 Head Injury 4 0 Constipation 3 1 Contusion 3 1 Depression 3 1 Fall 3 2 Influenza 3 1 Mood Altered 3 1 Affect Lability 2 1 Anxiety 2 1 Arthralgia 2 0 Confusional State 2 0 Conjunctivitis 2 0 Ear Pain 2 1 Gastroenteritis 2 0 Joint Sprain 2 1 Mood Swings 2 1 Neck Pain 2 1 Rhinitis 2 0 Sedation 2 1 *Adverse reactions occurred in at least 2% of pediatric levetiracetam-treated patients and occurred more frequently than placebo-treated patients In the controlled pooled pediatric clinical studies in patients 4 to 16 years of age, 7% of patients receiving levetiracetam and 9% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. Pediatric Patients 1 Month to <4 Years In the 7-day controlled pediatric clinical study using an oral formulation of levetiracetam in children 1 month to less than 4 years of age with partial onset seizures, the most common adverse reactions in patients receiving levetiracetam in combination with other AEDs, for events with rates greater than placebo, were somnolence and irritability. Because of the shorter exposure period, incidences of adverse reactions are expected to be lower than in other pediatric studies in older patients. Therefore, other controlled pediatric data, presented above, should also be considered to apply to this age group. Table 6 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 5% of pediatric epilepsy patients (ages 1 month to <4 years) treated with levetiracetam in the placebo-controlled study and were numerically more common than in patients treated with placebo. In this study, either levetiracetam or placebo was added to concurrent AED therapy. Table 6: Adverse Reactions* in a Placebo-Controlled, Add-On Study in Pediatric Patients Ages 1 Month to <4 Years Experiencing Partial Onset Seizures Levetiracetam (N=60) % Placebo (N=56) % Somnolence 13 2 Irritability 12 0 *Adverse reactions occurred in at least 5% of levetiracetam-treated patients and occurred more frequently than placebo-treated patients In the 7-day controlled pediatric clinical study in patients 1 month to <4 years of age, 3% of patients receiving levetiracetam and 2% receiving placebo either discontinued or had a dose reduction as a result of an adverse reaction. There was no adverse reaction that resulted in discontinuation for more than one patient. Myoclonic Seizures Although the pattern of adverse reactions in this study seems somewhat different from that seen in patients with partial seizures, this is likely due to the much smaller number of patients in this study compared to partial seizure studies. The adverse reaction pattern for patients with JME is expected to be essentially the same as for patients with partial seizures. In the controlled clinical study using levetiracetam tablets in patients with myoclonic seizures, the most common adverse reactions in patients receiving levetiracetam in combination with other AEDs, for events with rates greater than placebo, were somnolence, neck pain, and pharyngitis. Table 7 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 5% of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy patients experiencing myoclonic seizures treated with levetiracetam tablets and were numerically more common than in patients treated with placebo. In this study, either levetiracetam or placebo was added to concurrent AED therapy. Table 7: Adverse Reactions* in a Placebo-Controlled, Add-On Study in Patients 12 Years of Age and Older with Myoclonic Seizures Levetiracetam (N=60) % Placebo (N=60) % Somnolence 12 2 Neck pain 8 2 Pharyngitis 7 0 Depression 5 2 Influenza 5 2 Vertigo 5 3 *Adverse reactions occurred in at least 5% of levetiracetam-treated patients and occurred more frequently than placebo-treated patients In the placebo-controlled study using levetiracetam tablets in patients with JME, 8% of patients receiving levetiracetam and 2% receiving placebo either discontinued or had a dose reduction as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions that led to discontinuation or dose reduction and that occurred more frequently in levetiracetam-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients are presented in Table 8. Table 8: Adverse Reactions that Resulted in Discontinuation or Dose Reduction in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Adverse Reaction Levetiracetam (N=60) % Placebo (N=60) % Anxiety 3 2 Depressed mood 2 0 Depression 2 0 Diplopia 2 0 Hypersomnia 2 0 Insomnia 2 0 Irritability 2 0 Nervousness 2 0 Somnolence 2 0 Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures Although the pattern of adverse reactions in this study seems somewhat different from that seen in patients with partial seizures, this is likely due to the much smaller number of patients in this study compared to partial seizure studies. The adverse reaction pattern for patients with primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures is expected to be essentially the same as for patients with partial seizures. In the controlled clinical study that included patients 4 years of age and older with PGTC seizures, the most common adverse reaction in patients receiving levetiracetam oral formulation in combination with other AEDs, for events with rates greater than placebo was nasopharyngitis. Table 9 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 5% of idiopathic generalized epilepsy patients experiencing PGTC seizures treated with levetiracetam and were numerically more common than in patients treated with placebo. In this study, either levetiracetam or placebo was added to concurrent AED therapy. Table 9: Adverse Reactions* in a Placebo-Controlled, Add-On Study in Patients 4 Years of Age and Older with PGTC Seizures Levetiracetam (N=79) % Placebo (N=84) % Nasopharyngitis 14 5 Fatigue 10 8 Diarrhea 8 7 Irritability 6 2 Mood swings 5 1 *Adverse reactions occurred in at least 5% of levetiracetam-treated patients and occurred more frequently than placebo-treated patients In the placebo-controlled study, 5% of patients receiving levetiracetam and 8% receiving placebo either discontinued or had a dose reduction during the treatment period as a result of an adverse reaction. This study was too small to adequately characterize the adverse reactions that could be expected to result in discontinuation of treatment in this population. It is expected that the adverse reactions that would lead to discontinuation in this population would be similar to those resulting in discontinuation in other epilepsy trials (see tables 4 and 8). In addition, the following adverse reactions were seen in other controlled adult studies of levetiracetam: balance disorder, disturbance in attention, eczema, memory impairment, myalgia, and blurred vision. Comparison of Gender, Age and Race The overall adverse reaction profile of levetiracetam was similar between females and males. There are insufficient data to support a statement regarding the distribution of adverse reactions by age and race. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of levetiracetam. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The following adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving levetiracetam worldwide. The listing is alphabetized: abnormal liver function test, acute kidney injury, anaphylaxis, angioedema, agranulocytosis, choreoathetosis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), dyskinesia, erythema multiforme, hepatic failure, hepatitis, hyponatremia, muscular weakness, pancreatitis, pancytopenia (with bone marrow suppression identified in some of these cases), panic attack, thrombocytopenia, and weight loss. Alopecia has been reported with levetiracetam use; recovery was observed in majority of cases where levetiracetam was discontinued.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Levetiracetam injection is for intravenous use only. (2.1) Partial Onset Seizures 1 Month to <6 Months: 7 mg/kg twice daily; increase by 7 mg/kg twice daily every 2 weeks to recommended dose of 21 mg/kg twice daily (2.1) 6 Months to <4 Years: 10 mg/kg twice daily; increase by 10 mg/kg twice daily every 2 weeks to recommended dose of 25 mg/kg twice daily (2.1) 4 Years to <16 Years: 10 mg/kg twice daily; increase by 10 mg/kg twice daily every 2 weeks to recommended dose of 30 mg/kg twice daily (2.1) Adults 16 Years and Older: 500 mg twice daily; increase by 500 mg twice daily every 2 weeks to a recommended dose of 1,500 mg twice daily (2.1) Myoclonic Seizures in Adults and Pediatric Patients 12 Years and Older 500 mg twice daily; increase by 500 mg twice daily every 2 weeks to recommended dose of 1,500 mg twice daily (2.2) Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures 6 Years to < 16 Years: 10 mg/kg twice daily; increase by 10 mg/kg twice daily every 2 weeks to recommended dose of 30 mg/kg twice daily (2.3) Adults 16 Years and Older: 500 mg twice daily; increase by 500 mg twice daily every 2 weeks to recommended dose of 1,500 mg twice daily (2.3) Switching From or To Oral Levetiracetam When switching from oral levetiracetam, the initial total daily dosage/frequency of levetiracetam injection should be equivalent to those of oral levetiracetam. At the end of the intravenous treatment period, the patient may be switched to levetiracetam oral administration at the equivalent daily dosage and frequency. (2.4, 2.5) See full prescribing information for preparation and administration instructions (2.6) and dosage adjustment in adult patients with renal impairment. (2.7) 2.1 Dosing for Partial Onset Seizures Adults 16 Years and Older Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 1,000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Additional dosing increments may be given (1,000 mg/day additional every 2 weeks) to a maximum recommended daily dose of 3,000 mg. There is no evidence that doses greater than 3,000 mg/day confer additional benefit. Pediatric Patients 1 Month to <6 Months Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 14 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (7 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 14 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 42 mg/kg (21 mg/kg twice daily). In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 35 mg/kg in this age group. The effectiveness of lower doses has not been studied. 6 Months to <4 Years Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose in 2 weeks by an increment of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 50 mg/kg (25 mg/kg twice daily). If a patient cannot tolerate a daily dose of 50 mg/kg, the daily dose may be reduced. In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 47 mg/kg in this age group. 4 Years to <16 Years Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 60 mg/kg (30 mg/kg twice daily). If a patient cannot tolerate a daily dose of 60 mg/kg, the daily dose may be reduced. In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 44 mg/kg. The maximum daily dose was 3,000 mg/day. 2.2 Dosing for Myoclonic Seizures in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Initiate treatment with a dose of 1,000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Increase the dosage by 1,000 mg/day every 2 weeks to the recommended daily dose of 3,000 mg. The effectiveness of doses lower than 3,000 mg/day has not been studied. 2.3 Dosing for Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures Adults 16 Years and Older Initiate treatment with a dose of 1,000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Increase dosage by 1,000 mg/day every 2 weeks to the recommended daily dose of 3,000 mg. The effectiveness of doses lower than 3,000 mg/day has not been adequately studied. Pediatric Patients Ages 6 to <16 Years Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 20 mg/kg (10 mg/kg twice daily) to the recommended daily dose of 60 mg/kg (30 mg/kg twice daily). The effectiveness of doses lower than 60 mg/kg/day has not been adequately studied. 2.4 Switching from Oral Dosing When switching from oral levetiracetam, the initial total daily intravenous dosage of levetiracetam should be equivalent to the total daily dosage and frequency of oral levetiracetam. 2.5 Switching to Oral Dosing At the end of the intravenous treatment period, the patient may be switched to levetiracetam oral administration at the equivalent daily dosage and frequency of the intravenous administration. 2.6 Preparation and Administration Instructions Levetiracetam injection is for intravenous use only and should be diluted in 100 mL of a compatible diluent prior to administration. If a smaller volume is required (e.g. pediatric patients), the amount of diluent should be calculated to not exceed a maximum levetiracetam concentration of 15 mg per mL of diluted solution. Consideration should also be given to the total daily fluid intake of the patient. Levetiracetam injection should be administered as a 15-minute IV infusion. One vial of levetiracetam injection contains 500 mg levetiracetam (500 mg/5 mL). Levetiracetam injection may be mixed with the following diluents and antiepileptic drugs and may be stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags. The diluted solution should not be stored for more than 4 hours at controlled room temperature [15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F)]. Diluents: Sodium chloride (0.9%) injection, USP Lactated Ringer’s injection Dextrose 5% injection, USP Other Antiepileptic Drugs: Lorazepam Diazepam Valproate sodium There are no data to support the physical compatibility of levetiracetam injection with antiepileptic drugs that are not listed above. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Product with particulate matter or discoloration should not be used. Any unused portion of the levetiracetam injection vial contents should be discarded. Adults See Table 1 for the recommended preparation and administration of levetiracetam injection for adults to achieve a dose of 500 mg, 1,000 mg, or 1,500 mg. Table 1: Preparation and Administration of Levetiracetam Injection for Adults Dose Withdraw Volume Volume of Diluent Infusion Time 500 mg 5 mL (5 mL vial) 100 mL 15 minutes 1,000 mg 10 mL (two 5 mL vials) 100 mL 15 minutes 1,500 mg 15 mL (three 5 mL vials) 100 mL 15 minutes For example, to prepare a 1,000 mg dose, dilute 10 mL of levetiracetam injection in 100 mL of a compatible diluent and administer intravenously as a 15-minute infusion. Pediatric Patients When using levetiracetam injection for pediatric patients, dosing is weight-based (mg per kg). The following calculation should be used to determine the appropriate daily dose of levetiracetam injection for pediatric patients: Daily dose (mg/kg/day) x patient weight (kg) Total daily dose (mL/day) = ----------------------------------------------------------- 100 mg/mL 2.7 Dosage Adjustments in Adult Renal Impairment Levetiracetam dosing must be individualized according to the patient's renal function status. Recommended dosage adjustments for adults with renal impairment are shown in Table 2. Information is unavailable for dosage adjustments in pediatric patients with renal impairment. In order to calculate the dose recommended for adult patients with renal impairment, creatinine clearance adjusted for body surface area must be calculated. To do this an estimate of the patient’s creatinine clearance (CLcr) in mL/min must first be calculated using the following formula: [140-age (years)] x weight (kg) CLcr = ----------------------------------------- (x 0.85 for female patients) 72 x serum creatinine (mg/dL) Then CLcr is adjusted for body surface area (BSA) as follows: CLcr (mL/min) CLcr (mL/min/1.73m2) = ----------------------------- x 1.73 BSA subject (m2) Table 2: Dosage Adjustment Regimen for Adult Patients with Renal Impairment Group Creatinine Clearance (mL/min/1.73m2) Dosage (mg) Frequency Normal >80 500 to 1,500 Every 12 hours Mild 50 to 80 500 to 1,000 Every 12 hours Moderate 30 to 50 250 to 750 Every 12 hours Severe <30 250 to 500 Every 12 hours ESRD patients using dialysis ------- 500 to 1,000* Every 24 hours* * Following dialysis, a 250 to 500 mg supplemental dose is recommended
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Plasma levels of levetiracetam may be decreased and therefore need to be monitored closely during pregnancy. Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm. (5.9, 8.1) 8.1 Pregnancy Levetiracetam blood levels may decrease during pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ]. Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. In animal studies, levetiracetam produced evidence of developmental toxicity, including teratogenic effects, at doses similar to or greater than human therapeutic doses. Levetiracetam should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Oral administration of levetiracetam to female rats throughout pregnancy and lactation led to increased incidences of minor fetal skeletal abnormalities and retarded offspring growth pre- and/or postnatally at doses ≥350 mg/kg/day (equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose of 3,000 mg [MRHD] on a mg/m2 basis) and with increased pup mortality and offspring behavioral alterations at a dose of 1,800 mg/kg/day (6 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). The developmental no effect dose was 70 mg/kg/day (0.2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). There was no overt maternal toxicity at the doses used in this study. Oral administration of levetiracetam to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in increased embryofetal mortality and increased incidences of minor fetal skeletal abnormalities at doses ≥600 mg/kg/day (4 times MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) and in decreased fetal weights and increased incidences of fetal malformations at a dose of 1,800 mg/kg/day (12 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). The developmental no effect dose was 200 mg/kg/day (equivalent to the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). Maternal toxicity was also observed at 1,800 mg/kg/day. When levetiracetam was administered orally to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis, fetal weights were decreased and the incidence of fetal skeletal variations was increased at a dose of 3,600 mg/kg/day (12 times the MRHD). 1,200 mg/kg/day (4 times the MRHD) was a developmental no effect dose. There was no evidence of maternal toxicity in this study. Treatment of rats during the last third of gestation and throughout lactation produced no adverse developmental or maternal effects at doses of up to 1,800 mg/kg/day (6 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). Pregnancy Registry To provide information regarding the effects of in utero exposure to levetiracetam, physicians are advised to recommend that pregnant patients taking levetiracetam enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) pregnancy registry. This can be done by calling the toll free number 1‑888-233-2334, and must be done by the patients themselves. Information on the registry can also be found at the website http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/. 8.2 Labor and Delivery The effect of levetiracetam on labor and delivery in humans is unknown. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Levetiracetam is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from levetiracetam, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of levetiracetam in the adjunctive treatment of partial onset seizures in pediatric patients age 1 month to 16 years with epilepsy have been established [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ]. The dosing recommendation in these pediatric patients varies according to age group and is weight-based [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) ]. The safety and effectiveness of levetiracetam as adjunctive treatment of myoclonic seizures in adolescents 12 years of age and older with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy have been established [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ]. The safety and effectiveness of levetiracetam as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older with idiopathic generalized epilepsy have been established [see Clinical Studies (14.3) ]. A 3-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to assess the neurocognitive and behavioral effects of levetiracetam as adjunctive therapy in 98 (levetiracetam N=64, placebo N=34) pediatric patients, ages 4 years to 16 years, with partial seizures that were inadequately controlled. The target dose was 60 mg/kg/day. Neurocognitive effects were measured by the Leiter-R Attention and Memory (AM) Battery, which measures various aspects of a child’s memory and attention. Although no substantive differences were observed between the placebo and drug treated groups in the median change from baseline in this battery, the study was not adequate to assess formal statistical non-inferiority of the drug and placebo. The Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6 to 18), a standardized validated tool used to assess a child’s competencies and behavioral/emotional problems, was also assessed in this study. An analysis of the CBCL/6 to 18 indicated, on average, a worsening in levetiracetam-treated patients in aggressive behavior, one of the eight syndrome scores [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Studies of levetiracetam in juvenile rats (dosing from day 4 through day 52 of age) and dogs (dosing from week 3 through week 7 of age) at doses of up to 1,800 mg/kg/day (approximately 7 and 24 times, respectively, the maximum recommended pediatric dose of 60 mg/kg/day on a mg/m2 basis) did not indicate a potential for age-specific toxicity. 8.5 Geriatric Use There were 347 subjects in clinical studies of levetiracetam that were 65 years old and over. No overall differences in safety were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. There were insufficient numbers of elderly subjects in controlled trials of epilepsy to adequately assess the effectiveness of levetiracetam in these patients. Levetiracetam is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 8.6 Renal Impairment Clearance of levetiracetam is decreased in patients with renal impairment and is correlated with creatinine clearance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with impaired renal function and supplemental doses should be given to patients after dialysis [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) ].
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers Levetiracetam is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from levetiracetam, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA209934
Agency product number 44YRR34555
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 17478-035
Date Last Revised 20-11-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 647121
Marketing authorisation holder Akorn, Inc.