Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 15 May 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Kineret is an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist indicated for: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Reduction in signs and symptoms and slowing the progression of structural damage in moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis, in patients 18 years of age or older who have failed 1 or more disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (1.1) Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS) Treatment of Neonatal-Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID) (1.2) 1.1 Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Kineret is indicated for the reduction in signs and symptoms and slowing the progression of structural damage in moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in patients 18 years of age or older who have failed 1 or more disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).

Kineret can be used alone or in combination with DMARDs other than Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) blocking agents [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

1.2 Cryopyrin-Associated

Periodic Syndromes (CAPS)

Kineret is indicated for the treatment of Neonatal-Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID).

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Kineret is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to E coli-derived proteins, Kineret, or any components of the product [see Hypersensitivity Reactions (5.3)]. Known hypersensitivity to E coli-derived proteins, Kineret, or to any component of the product. (4)
Adverse reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug can not be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Most common adverse reactions (incidence?

5 %) are injection site reaction, worsening of rheumatoid arthritis, upper respiratory tract infection, headache, nausea, diarrhea, sinusitis, arthralgia, flu like-symptoms, and abdominal pain (6.1) NOMID The most common AEs during the first 6 months of treatment (incidence >10 %) are injection site reaction, headache, vomiting, arthralgia, pyrexia, and nasopharyngitis (6.2) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact 1-866-547-0644 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

6.1 Clinical Studies Experience in RA The most serious adverse reactions were: Serious Infections - [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Neutropenia, particularly when used in combination with TNF blocking agents The most common adverse reaction with Kineret is injection-site reactions.

These reactions were the most common reason for withdrawing from studies.

The data described herein reflect exposure to Kineret in 3025 patients, including 2124 exposed for at least 6 months and 884 exposed for at least one year.

Studies 1 and 4 used the recommended dose of 100 mg per day.

The patients studied were representative of the general population of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Injection-site Reactions The most common and consistently reported treatment-related adverse event associated with Kineret is injection-site reaction (ISR).

In Studies 1 and 4, 71 % of patients developed an ISR, which was typically reported within the first 4 weeks of therapy.

The majority of ISRs were reported as mild (72.6 % mild, 24.1 % moderate and 3.2 % severe).

The ISRs typically lasted for 14 to 28 days and were characterized by 1 or more of the following: erythema, ecchymosis, inflammation, and pain.

Infections In Studies 1 and 4 combined, the incidence of infection was 39 % in the Kineret-treated patients and 37 % in placebo-treated patients during the first 6 months of blinded treatment.

The incidence of serious infections in Studies 1 and 4 was 2 % in Kineret-treated patients and 1 % in patients receiving placebo over 6 months.

The incidence of serious infection over 1 year was 3 % in Kineret-treated patients and 2 % in patients receiving placebo.

These infections consisted primarily of bacterial events such as cellulitis, pneumonia, and bone and joint infections.

Majority of patients (73 %) continued on study drug after the infection resolved.

No serious opportunistic infections were reported.

Patients with asthma appeared to be at higher risk of developing serious infections when treated with Kineret (8 of 177 patients, 4.5 %) compared to placebo (0 of 50 patients, 0 %).

In open-label extension studies, the overall rate of serious infections was stable over time and comparable to that observed in controlled trials.

In clinical studies and postmarketing experience, cases of opportunistic infections have been observed and included fungal, mycobacterial and bacterial pathogens.

Infections have been noted in all organ systems and have been reported in patients receiving Kineret alone or in combination with immunosuppressive agents.

In patients who received both Kineret and etanercept for up to 24 weeks, the incidence of serious infections was 7 %.

The most common infections consisted of bacterial pneumonia (4 cases) and cellulitis (4 cases).

One patient with pulmonary fibrosis and pneumonia died due to respiratory failure.

Malignancies Among 5300 RA patients treated with Kineret in clinical trials for a mean of 15 months (approximately 6400 patient years of treatment), 8 lymphomas were observed for a rate of 0.12 cases/100 patient years.

This is 3.6 fold higher than the rate of lymphomas expected in the general population, based on the National Cancer Institute 's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database.3 An increased rate of lymphoma, up to several fold, has been reported in the RA population, and may be further increased in patients with more severe disease activity.

Thirty-seven malignancies other than lymphoma were observed.

Of these, the most common were breast, respiratory system, and digestive system.

There were 3 melanomas observed in Study 4 and its long-term open-label extension, greater than the 1 expected case.

The significance of this finding is not known.

While patients with RA, particularly those with highly active disease, may be at a higher risk (up to several fold) for the development of lymphoma, the role of IL-1 blockers in the development of malignancy is not known.

Hematologic Events In placebo-controlled studies with Kineret, 8 % of patients receiving Kineret had decreases in total white blood counts of at least one WHO toxicity grade, compared with 2 % of placebo patients.

Nine Kineret-treated patients (0.4 %) developed neutropenia (ANC < 1 x 109/L).

9 % of patients receiving Kineret had increases in eosinophil differential percentage of at least one WHO toxicity grade, compared with 3 % of placebo patients.

Of patients treated concurrently with Kineret and etanercept 2 % developed neutropenia (ANC < 1 x 109/L).

While neutropenic, one patient developed cellulitis which recovered with antibiotic therapy.

2 % of patients receiving Kineret had decreases in platelets, all of WHO toxicity grade one, compared to 0 % of placebo patients.

Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylactic reactions, angioedema, urticaria, rash, and pruritus have been reported with Kineret.

Immunogenicity As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity.

In Studies 1 and 4, from which data is available for up to 36 months, 49 % of patients tested positive for anti-anakinra binding antibodies at one or more time points using a biosensor assay.

Of the 1615 patients with available data at Week 12 or later, 30 (2 %) tested positive for neutralizing antibodies in a cell-based bioassay.

Of the 13 patients with available follow-up data, 5 patients remained positive for neutralizing antibodies at the end of the studies.

No correlation between antibody development and adverse events was observed.

The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assays.

Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors, including sample handling, concomitant medications, and underlying disease.

For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to Kineret with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.

Lipids Cholesterol elevations were observed in some patients treated with Kineret.

Other Adverse Events Table 1 reflects adverse events in Studies 1 and 4, that occurred with a frequency of?

5 % in Kineret-treated patients over a 6-month period.

Table 1: Percent of RA Patients Reporting Adverse Events (Studies 1 and 4) Placebo Kineret 100 mg/day Preferred term (n = 733) (n = 1565) Injection Site Reaction 29 % 71 % Worsening of RA 29 % 19 % Upper Respiratory Tract Infections 17 % 14 % Headache 9 % 12 % Nausea 7 % 8 % Diarrhea 5 % 7 % Sinusitis 7 % 7 % Arthralgia 6 % 6 % Flu Like Symptoms 6 % 6 % Abdominal Pain 5 % 5 % 6.2 Clinical Study Experience in NOMID The data described herein reflect an open-label study in 43 NOMID patients exposed to Kineret for up to 60 months adding up to a total exposure of 159.8 patient years.

Patients were treated with a starting dose of 1 to 2 mg/kg/day and an average maintenance dose of 3-4 mg/kg/day adjusted depending on the severity of disease.

Among pediatric NOMID patients, doses up to 7.6 mg/kg/day have been maintained for up to 15 months.

There were 24 serious adverse events (SAEs) reported in 14 of the 43 treated patients.

The most common type of SAEs reported were infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Five SAEs were related to lumbar puncture, which was part of the study procedure.

There were no permanent discontinuations of study drug treatment due to AEs.

Doses were adjusted in 5 patients because of AEs; all were dose increases in connection with disease flares.

The reporting frequency of AEs was highest during the first 6 months of treatment.

The incidence of AEs did not increase over time, and no new types of AEs emerged.

The most commonly reported AEs during the first 6 months of treatment (incidence >10 %) were injection site reaction (ISR), headache, vomiting, arthralgia, pyrexia, and nasopharyngitis (Table 2).

The most commonly reported AEs during the 60-month study period, calculated as the number of events/patient years of exposure, were arthralgia, headache, pyrexia, upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, and rash.

The AE profiles for different age groups <2 years, 2-11 years, and 12-17 years corresponded to the AE profile for patients?18 years, with the exception of infections and related symptoms being more frequent in patients <2 years.

Infections The reporting rate for infections was higher during the first 6 months of treatment (2.3 infections/patient-year) compared to after the first 6 months (1.7 infections/patient year).

The most common infections were upper respiratory tract infection, sinusitis, ear infections, and nasopharyngitis.

There were no deaths or permanent treatment discontinuations due to infections.

In one patient Kineret administration was temporarily stopped during an infection and in 5 patients the dose of Kineret was increased due to disease flares in connection with infections.

Thirteen infections in 7 patients were classified as serious, the most common being pneumonia and gastroenteritis occurring in 3 and 2 patients, respectively.

No serious opportunistic infections were reported.

The reporting frequency for infections was highest in patients <12 years of age.

Hematologic Events After start of Kineret treatment neutropenia was reported in 2 patients.

One of these patients experienced an upper respiratory tract infection and an otitis media infection.

Both episodes of neutropenia resolved over time with continued Kineret treatment.

Injection Site Reactions In total, 17 injection site reactions (ISRs) were reported in 10 patients during the 60-month study period.

Out of the 17 ISRs, 11 (65 %) occurred during the first month and 13 (76 %) were reported during the first 6 months.

No ISR was reported after Year 2 of treatment.

The majority of ISRs were reported as mild (76 % mild, 24 % moderate).

No patient permanently or temporarily discontinued Kineret treatment due to injection site reactions.

Immunogenicity The immunogenicity of Kineret in NOMID patients was not evaluated.

Table 2.

Most common (>10 % of patients) treatment-emergent adverse events during the first 6 months of Kineret treatment

Safety population (N=43) Total exposure in patient years= 20.8 Preferred term N (%) Number of events/patient year Injection site reaction 7 (16.3 %) 0.5 Headache 6 (14.0 %) 0.7 Vomiting 6 (14.0 %) 0.6 Arthralgia 5 (11.6 %) 0.6 Pyrexia 5 (11.6 %) 0.4 Nasopharyngitis 5 (11.6 %) 0.3 The most common adverse reactions occurring after the first 6-month period of treatment with Kineret (up to 60 months of treatment) included: arthralgia, headache, pyrexia, upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, and rash.

6.3 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of Kineret.

Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Hepato-biliary disorders: elevations of transaminases, non-infectious hepatitis Hematologic events: thrombocytopenia, including severe thrombocytopenia (i.e platelet counts <10x109/L)

Usage information

Dosing and administration

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) The recommended dose of Kineret for the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is 100 mg/day administered daily by subcutaneous injection.

The dose should be administered at approximately the same time every day (2.1) Physicians should consider a dose of 100 mg of Kineret administered every other day for RA patients who have severe renal insufficiency or end stage renal disease (defined as creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min, as estimated from serum creatinine levels) (2.3) Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS) The recommended starting dose of Kineret is 1-2 mg/kg daily for NOMID patients.

The dose can be individually adjusted to a maximum of 8 mg/kg daily to control active inflammation.

(2.2) Physicians should consider administration of the prescribed Kineret dose every other day for NOMID patients who have severe renal insufficiency or end stage renal disease (defined as creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min, as estimated from serum creatinine levels) (2.3) See full prescribing information for administration instructions (2.4) 2.1 Active Rheumatoid Arthritis The recommended dose of Kineret for the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is 100 mg/day administered daily by subcutaneous injection.

Higher doses did not result in a higher response.

The dose should be administered at approximately the same time every day.

2.2 Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS) The recommended starting dose of Kineret is 1-2 mg/kg for NOMID patients.

The dose can be individually adjusted to a maximum of 8 mg/kg daily to control active inflammation.

Adjust doses in 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg increments.

Once daily administration is generally recommended, but the dose may be split into twice daily administrations.

Each syringe is intended for a single use.

A new syringe must be used for each dose.

Any unused portion after each dose should be discarded.

2.3 Renal Impairment Physicians should consider administration of the prescribed dose of Kineret every other day for patients who have severe renal insufficiency or end stage renal disease (defined as creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min, as estimated from serum creatinine levels) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

2.4 Administration Instructions on appropriate use should be given by the healthcare provider to the patient or caregiver.

Patients or caregivers should not be allowed to administer Kineret until the patient or caregiver has demonstrated a thorough understanding of procedures and an ability to inject the product correctly.

The prescribed dose of Kineret should be administered according to the instructions for use and any unused portions discarded.

After administration of Kineret it is essential to follow the proper procedure for disposal of syringes and any residual drug.

See the “Information for Patients” insert for detailed instructions on the handling and injection of

Kineret.

Do not use Kineret beyond the expiration date shown on the carton.

Visually inspect the solution for particulate matter and discoloration before administration.

There may be trace amounts of small, translucent-to-white amorphous particles of protein in the solution.

The prefilled syringe should not be used if the solution is discolored or cloudy, or if foreign particulate matter is present.

If the number of translucent-to-white amorphous particles in a given syringe appears excessive, do not use this syringe.

Use in special populations

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pediatric use: Kineret is indicated for use in pediatric patients with NOMID (8.4) Geriatric use: Because there is a higher incidence of infections in the elderly population in general, caution should be used in treating the elderly (8.5) Renal impairment: This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function (8.6) 8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic effects: Pregnancy Category B: There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Kineret in pregnant women.

Reproductive studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 25 times the maximum recommended human dose (on a mg/ kg basis at a maternal dose of 200 mg/kg/day) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Kineret.

Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, Kineret should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether Kineret is secreted in human milk.

Because many drugs are secreted in human milk, caution should be exercised if Kineret is administered to nursing women.

8.4 Pediatric Use The NOMID study included 36 pediatric patients: 13 below 2 years, 18 between 2 and 11 years, and 5 between 12 and 17 years of age.

A subcutaneous Kineret starting dose of 1-2 mg/kg/day was administered in all age groups.

An average maintenance dose of 3-4 mg/kg/day was adequate to maintain clinical response throughout the study irrespective of age but a higher dose was, on occasion, required in severely affected patients.

The prefilled syringe does not allow doses lower than 20 mg to be administered.

Kineret was studied in a single randomized, blinded multi-center trial in 86 patients with polyarticular course Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA; ages 2-17 years) receiving a dose of 1 mg/kg subcutaneously daily, up to a maximum dose of 100 mg.

The 50 patients who achieved a clinical response after a 12-week open-label run-in were randomized to Kineret (25 patients) or placebo (25 patients), administered daily for an additional 16 weeks.

A subset of these patients continued open-label treatment with Kineret for up to 1 year in a companion extension study.

An adverse event profile similar to that seen in adult RA patients was observed in these studies.

These study data are insufficient to demonstrate efficacy and, therefore, Kineret is not recommended for pediatric use in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.

8.5 Geriatric Use A total of 752 RA patients?

65 years of age, including 163 patients?

75 years of age, were studied in clinical trials.

No differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals can not be ruled out.

Because there is a higher incidence of infections in the elderly population in general, caution should be used in treating the elderly.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function.

8.6 Renal Impairment This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.7 Hepatic Impairment No formal studies have been conducted examining the pharmacokinetics of Kineret administered subcutaneously in patients with hepatic impairment.

Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether Kineret is secreted in human milk. Because many drugs are secreted in human milk, caution should be exercised if Kineret is administered to nursing women.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS No drug-drug interaction studies in human subjects have been conducted.

Toxicologic and toxicokinetic studies in rats did not demonstrate any alterations in the clearance or toxicologic profile of either methotrexate or Kineret when the two agents were administered together.

A higher rate of serious infections has been observed in RA patients treated with concurrent Kineret and etanercept therapy than in patients treated with etanercept alone.

Use of Kineret in combination with TNF blocking agents is not recommended (7) 7.1 TNF Blocking Agents A higher rate of serious infections has been observed in patients treated with concurrent Kineret and etanercept therapy than in patients treated with etanercept alone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Two percent of patients treated concurrently with Kineret and etanercept developed neutropenia (ANC < 1 x 109/L).

Use of Kineret in combination with TNF blocking agents is not recommended.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number BLA103950
Agency product number 9013DUQ28K
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 66658-234
Date Last Revised 06-07-2015
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 727711
Storage and handling Storage Kineret should be stored in the refrigerator at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). DO NOT FREEZE OR SHAKE. Protect from light. Rx only
Marketing authorisation holder Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB (publ)