Data from FDA - Curated by Toby Galbraith - Last updated 12 July 2017

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of ketorolac tromethamine and other treatment options before deciding to use ketorolac. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS ). Acute Pain in Adult Patients Ketorolac tromethamine is indicated for the short-term (≤5 days) management of moderately severe acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level, usually in a postoperative setting. Therapy should always be initiated with IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine, and oral ketorolac tromethamine is to be used only as continuation treatment, if necessary. The total combined duration of use of ketorolac tromethamine injection and oral ketorolac tromethamine is not to exceed 5 days of use because of the potential of increasing the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with the recommended doses (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, and ADVERSE REACTIONS ). Patients should be switched to alternative analgesics as soon as possible, but ketorolac tromethamine therapy is not to exceed 5 days. Ketorolac tromethamine injection has been used concomitantly with morphine and meperidine and has shown an opioid-sparing effect. For breakthrough pain, it is recommended to supplement the lower end of the ketorolac tromethamine injection dosage range with low doses of narcotics prn, unless otherwise contraindicated. Ketorolac tromethamine injection and narcotics should not be administered in the same syringe (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION – Pharmaceutical Information for Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection ).

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS (see also Boxed WARNING ) Ketorolac Tromethamine is contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to ketorolac tromethamine. Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in patients with active peptic ulcer disease, in patients with recent gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation and in patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Ketorolac tromethamine should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS – Anaphylactoid Reactions , and PRECAUTIONS – Pre-existing Asthma ). Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated as prophylactic analgesic before any major surgery. Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS ). Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in patients with advanced renal impairment or in patients at risk for renal failure due to volume depletion (see WARNINGS for correction of volume depletion). Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in labor and delivery because, through its prostaglandin synthesis inhibitory effect, it may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine musculature, thus increasing the risk of uterine hemorrhage. Ketorolac tromethamine inhibits platelet function and is, therefore, contraindicated in patients with suspected or confirmed cerebrovascular bleeding, hemorrhagic diathesis, incomplete hemostasis and those at high risk of bleeding (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ). Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in patients currently receiving aspirin or NSAIDs because of the cumulative risks of inducing serious NSAID-related adverse events. The concomitant use of ketorolac tromethamine and probenecid is contraindicated. The concomitant use of ketorolac tromethamine and pentoxifylline is contraindicated. Ketorolac tromethamine injection is contraindicated for neuraxial (epidural or intrathecal) administration due to its alcohol content.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General Ketorolac tromethamine cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids. The pharmacological activity of ketorolac tromethamine in reducing inflammation may diminish the utility of this diagnostic sign in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions. Hepatic Effects Ketorolac tromethamine should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or a history of liver disease . Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including ketorolac tromethamine. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported. A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with ketorolac tromethamine. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), ketorolac tromethamine should be discontinued. Hematologic Effects Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including ketorolac tromethamine. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including ketorolac tromethamine, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia. NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving ketorolac tromethamine who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored. Pre-existing Asthma Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, ketorolac tromethamine should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with pre-existing asthma. Information for Patients Ketorolac tromethamine is a potent NSAID and may cause serious side effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding or kidney failure, which may result in hospitalization and even fatal outcome. Physicians, when prescribing ketorolac tromethamine, should inform their patients or their guardians of the potential risks of ketorolac tromethamine treatment (see Boxed WARNING , WARNINGS , PRECAUTIONS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS sections), instruct patients to seek medical advice if they develop treatment-related adverse events, and advise patients not to give oral ketorolac tromethamine to other family members and to discard any unused drug. Remember that the total combined duration of use of oral ketorolac tromethamine and IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine is not to exceed 5 days in adults. Ketorolac tromethamine is not indicated for use in pediatric patients. Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed. 1. Ketorolac tromethamine, like other NSAIDs, may cause serious CV side effects, such as MI or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious CV events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS, Cardiovascular Effects ). 2. Ketorolac tromethamine, like other NSAIDs, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal Effects: Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation ). 3. Ketorolac tromethamine, like other NSAIDs, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, SJS, and TEN, which may result in hospitalizations and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Patients should be advised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible. 4. Patients should promptly report signs or symptoms of unexplained weight gain or edema to their physicians. 5. Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and "flu-like" symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy. 6. Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactoid reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help (see WARNINGS ). 7. In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, ketorolac tromethamine should be avoided because it will cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus. Laboratory Tests Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, ketorolac tromethamine should be discontinued. Drug Interactions Ketorolac is highly bound to human plasma protein (mean 99.2%). There is no evidence in animal or human studies that ketorolac tromethamine induces or inhibits hepatic enzymes capable of metabolizing itself or other drugs. Warfarin, Digoxin, Salicylate, and Heparin The in vitro binding of warfarin to plasma proteins is only slightly reduced by ketorolac tromethamine (99.5% control vs 99.3%) when ketorolac plasma concentrations reach 5 to 10 mcg/mL. Ketorolac does not alter digoxin protein binding. In vitro studies indicate that, at therapeutic concentrations of salicylate (300 mcg/mL), the binding of ketorolac was reduced from approximately 99.2% to 97.5%, representing a potential twofold increase in unbound ketorolac plasma levels. Therapeutic concentrations of digoxin, warfarin, ibuprofen, naproxen, piroxicam, acetaminophen, phenytoin and tolbutamide did not alter ketorolac tromethamine protein binding. In a study involving 12 adult volunteers, oral ketorolac tromethamine was coadministered with a single dose of 25 mg warfarin , causing no significant changes in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin. In another study, ketorolac tromethamine dosed IV or IM was given with two doses of 5000 U of heparin to 11 healthy volunteers, resulting in a mean template bleeding time of 6 minutes (3.2 to 11.4 min) compared to a mean of 6.0 minutes (3.4 to 7.5 min) for heparin alone and 5.1 minutes (3.5 to 8.5 min) for placebo. Although these results do not indicate a significant interaction between ketorolac tromethamine and warfarin or heparin, the administration of ketorolac tromethamine to patients taking anticoagulants should be done extremely cautiously and patients should be closely monitored (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS – Hematologic Effects ). The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs, in general, on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that the users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than the users of either drug alone. Aspirin When ketorolac tromethamine is administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free ketorolac tromethamine is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of ketorolac tromethamine and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects. Diuretics Clinical studies, as well as postmarketing observations, have shown that ketorolac tromethamine can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see WARNINGS – Renal Effects ), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy. Probenecid Concomitant administration of oral ketorolac tromethamine and probenecid resulted in decreased clearance and volume of distribution of ketorolac and significant increases in ketorolac plasma levels (total AUC increased approximately threefold from 5.4 to 17.8 mcg/h/mL) and terminal half-life increased approximately twofold from 6.6 to 15.1 hours. Therefore, concomitant use of ketorolac tromethamine and probenecid is contraindicated. Lithium NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity. Methotrexate NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate. ACE Inhibitors/Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists Concomitant use of ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor antagonists may increase the risk of renal impairment, particularly in volume-depleted patients. Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor antagonists. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Antiepileptic Drugs Sporadic cases of seizures have been reported during concomitant use of ketorolac tromethamine and antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin, carbamazepine). Psychoactive Drugs Hallucinations have been reported when ketorolac tromethamine was used in patients taking psychoactive drugs (fluoxetine, thiothixene, alprazolam). Pentoxifylline When ketorolac tromethamine is administered concurrently with pentoxifylline , there is an increased tendency to bleeding. Nondepolarizing Muscle Relaxants In postmarketing experience there have been reports of a possible interaction between ketorolac tromethamine IV/IM and nondepolarizing muscle relaxants that resulted in apnea. The concurrent use of ketorolac tromethamine with muscle relaxants has not been formally studied. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) There is an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding when selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are combined with NSAIDs. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with SSRIs. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility An 18-month study in mice with oral doses of ketorolac tromethamine tablets at 2 mg/kg/day (0.9 times the human systemic exposure at the recommended IM or IV dose of 30 mg qid, based on area-under-the-plasma-concentration curve [AUC]), and a 24-month study in rats at 5 mg/kg/day (0.5 times the human AUC) showed no evidence of tumorigenicity. Ketorolac tromethamine was not mutagenic in the Ames test, unscheduled DNA synthesis and repair, and in forward mutation assays. Ketorolac tromethamine did not cause chromosome breakage in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. At 1590 mcg/mL and at higher concentrations, ketorolac tromethamine increased the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovarian cells. Impairment of fertility did not occur in male or female rats at oral doses of 9 mg/kg (0.9 times the human AUC) and 16 mg/kg (1.6 times the human AUC) of ketorolac tromethamine, respectively. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C Reproduction studies have been performed during organogenesis using daily oral doses of ketorolac tromethamine tablets at 3.6 mg/kg (0.37 times the human AUC) in rabbits and at 10 mg/kg (1.0 times the human AUC) in rats. Results of these studies did not reveal evidence of teratogenicity to the fetus. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. Nonteratogenic Effects Because of the known effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during pregnancy (particularly late pregnancy) should be avoided. Oral doses of ketorolac tromethamine tablets at 1.5 mg/kg (0.14 times the human AUC), administered after gestation day 17, caused dystocia and higher pup mortality in rats. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of ketorolac tromethamine in pregnant women. Ketorolac tromethamine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Labor and Delivery The use of ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in labor and delivery because, through its prostaglandin synthesis inhibitory effect, it may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine contractions, thus increasing the risk of uterine hemorrhage (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ). Effects on Fertility The use of ketorolac tromethamine, as with any drug known to inhibit cyclooxygenase/ prostaglandin synthesis, may impair fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who have difficulty conceiving or are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of ketorolac tromethamine should be considered. Nursing Mothers Limited data from one published study that included 10 breastfeeding women 2-6 days postpartum showed low levels of ketorolac in breast milk and were undetectable (less than 5 ng/mL) in 4 of the patients. After a single administration of 10 mg of ketorolac tromethamin, the maximum milk concentration observed was 7.3 ng/mL, and the maximum milk-to-plasma ratio was 0.037. After 1 day of dosing (10 mg every 6 hours), the maximum milk concentration was 7.9 ng/mL, and the maximum milk-to-plasma ratio was 0.025. Assuming a daily intake of 400-1,000 mL of human milk per day and a maternal body weight of 60 kg, the calculated maximum daily infant exposure was 0.00263 mg/kg/day, which is 0.4% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose. Exercise caution when ketorolac is administered to a nursing woman. Available information has not shown any specific adverse events in nursing infants; however, instruct patients to contact their infant’s healthcare provider if they note any adverse events. Pediatric Use Ketorolac tromethamine is not indicated for use in pediatric patients. The safety and effectiveness of ketorolac tromethamine in pediatric patients below the age of 17 have not been established. Geriatric Use (≥65 Years of Age) Because ketorolac tromethamine may be cleared more slowly by the elderly (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ) who are also more sensitive to the dose-related adverse effects of NSAIDs (see WARNINGS – Gastrointestinal Effects – Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation ), extreme caution and reduced dosages (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ) and careful clinical monitoring must be used when treating the elderly with ketorolac tromethamine.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Adverse reaction rates increase with higher doses of ketorolac tromethamine. Practitioners should be alert for the severe complications of treatment with ketorolac tromethamine, such as G.I. ulceration, bleeding and perforation, postoperative bleeding, acute renal failure, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions and liver failure (see Boxed WARNING, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). These NSAID-related complications can be serious in certain patients for whom ketorolac tromethamine is indicated, especially when the drug is used inappropriately. In patients taking ketorolac tromethamine or other NSAIDs in clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse experiences in approximately 1% to 10% of patients are: Gastrointestinal (GI) experiences including: abdominal pain constipation/diarrhea dyspepsia flatulence GI fullness GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal) gross bleeding/perforation heartburn nausea* stomatitis vomiting Other experiences: abnormal renal function anemia dizziness drowsiness edema elevated liver enzymes headaches* hypertension increased bleeding time injection site pain pruritus purpura rashes tinnitus sweating *Incidence greater than 10% Additional adverse experiences reported occasionally (<1% in patients taking ketorolac tromethamine or other NSAIDs in clinical trials) include: Body as a Whole: fever, infections, sepsis Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure, palpitation, pallor, tachycardia, syncope Dermatologic: alopecia, photosensitivity, urticaria Gastrointestinal: anorexia, dry mouth, eructation, esophagitis, excessive thirst, gastritis, glossitis, hematemesis, hepatitis, increased appetite, jaundice, melena, rectal bleeding Hemic and Lymphatic: ecchymosis, eosinophilia, epistaxis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia Metabolic and Nutritional: weight change Nervous System: abnormal dreams, abnormal thinking, anxiety, asthenia, confusion, depression, euphoria, extrapyramidal symptoms, hallucinations, hyperkinesis, inability to concentrate, insomnia, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, stupor, tremors, vertigo, malaise Reproductive, female: infertility Respiratory: asthma, cough, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, rhinitis Special Senses: abnormal taste, abnormal vision, blurred vision, hearing loss Urogenital: cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, increased urinary frequency, interstitial nephritis, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria, renal failure, urinary retention Other rarely observed reactions (reported from postmarketing experience in patients taking ketorolactromethamine or other NSAIDs) are: Body as a Whole: angioedema, death, hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reaction, laryngeal edema, tongue edema (see WARNINGS ), myalgia Cardiovascular: arrhythmia, bradycardia, chest pain, flushing, hypotension, myocardial infarction, vasculitis Dermatologic: exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Lyell’s syndrome, bullous reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis Gastrointestinal: acute pancreatitis, liver failure, ulcerative stomatitis, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease) Hemic and Lymphatic: agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, post operative wound hemorrhage (rarely requiring blood transfusion — see Boxed WARNING , WARNINGS , and PRECAUTIONS ) Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia Nervous System: aseptic meningitis, convulsions, coma, psychosis Respiratory: bronchospasm, respiratory depression, pneumonia Special Senses: conjunctivitis Urogenital: flank pain with or without hematuria and/or azotemia, hemolytic uremic syndrome Postmarketing Surveillance Study A large postmarketing observational, nonrandomized study, involving approximately 10,000 patients receiving ketorolac tromethamine, demonstrated that the risk of clinically serious gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was dose-dependent (see Tables 3A and 3B). This was particularly true in elderly patients who received an average daily dose greater than 60 mg/day of ketorolac tromethamine (see Table 3A). Table 3: Incidence of Clinically Serious G.I. Bleeding as Related to Age, Total Daily Dose, and History of G.I. Perforation, Ulcer, Bleeding (PUB) after up to 5 Days of Treatment with Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection A. Adult Patients without History of PUB Age of Patients Total Daily Dose of Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection ≤60 mg >60 to 90 mg >90 to 120 mg >120 mg <65 years of age 0.4% 0.4% 0.9% 4.6% ≥65 years of age 1.2% 2.8% 2.2% 7.7% B. Adult Patients with History of PUB Age of Patients Total Daily Dose of Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection ≤60 mg >60 to 90 mg >90 to 120 mg >120 mg <65 years of age 2.1% 4.6% 7.8% 15.4% ≥65 years of age 4.7% 3.7% 2.8% 25.0%

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of ketorolac tromethamine and other treatment options before deciding to use ketorolac tromethamine. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals. In adults, the combined duration of use of IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine and oral ketorolac tromethamine is not to exceed 5 days. In adults, the use of oral ketorolac tromethamine is only indicated as continuation therapy to IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine. See package insert for ketorolac tromethamine tablets for transition from IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine (single- or multiple-dose) to multiple-dose oral ketorolac tromethamine. Note: Oral formulation should not be given as an initial dose. Use minimum effective dose for the individual patient. Total duration of treatment in adult patients: the combined duration of use of IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine and oral ketorolac tromethamine is not to exceed 5 days. KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE INJECTION Ketorolac tromethamine injection may be used as a single or multiple dose on a regular or “prn” schedule for the management of moderately severe, acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level, usually in a postoperative setting. Hypovolemia should be corrected prior to the administration of ketorolac tromethamine (see WARNINGS – Renal Effects ). Patients should be switched to alternative analgesics as soon as possible, but ketorolac tromethamine therapy is not to exceed 5 days. When administering ketorolac tromethamine injection, the IV bolus must be given over no less than 15 seconds. The IM administration should be given slowly and deeply into the muscle. The analgesic effect begins in ~30 minutes with maximum effect in 1 to 2 hours after dosing IV or IM. Duration of analgesic effect is usually 4 to 6 hours. Single-Dose Treatment: The following regimen should be limited to single administration use only IM Dosing Patients <65 years of age: One dose of 60 mg. Patients ≥65 years of age, renally impaired and/or less than 50 kg (110 lbs) of body weight: One dose of 30 mg. IV Dosing Patients <65 years of age: One dose of 30 mg. Patients ≥65 years of age, renally impaired and/or less than 50 kg (110 lbs) of body weight: One dose of 15 mg. Multiple-Dose Treatment (IV or IM) Patients <65 years of age: The recommended dose is 30 mg ketorolac tromethamine injection every 6 hours. The maximum daily dose for these populations should not exceed 120 mg. For patients ≥65 years of age, renally impaired patients (see WARNINGS ), and patients less than 50 kg (110 lbs): The recommended dose is 15 mg ketorolac tromethamine injection every 6 hours. The maximum daily dose for these populations should not exceed 60 mg. For breakthrough pain, do not increase the dose or the frequency of ketorolac tromethamine. Consideration should be given to supplementing these regimens with low doses of opioids “prn” unless otherwise contraindicated. Pharmaceutical Information for Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection Ketorolac tromethamine injection should not be mixed in a small volume (e.g., in a syringe) with morphine sulfate, meperidine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride or hydroxyzine hydrochloride; this will result in precipitation of ketorolac from solution. NOTE: Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when lidocaine is administered to a nursing woman.

Interactions

Clinically Significant Drug Interactions: The administration of local anesthetic solutions containing epinephrine or norepinephrine to patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants may produce severe prolonged hypertension. Phenothiazines and butyrophenones may reduce or reverse the pressor effect of epinephrine. Concurrent use of these agents should generally be avoided. In situations when concurrent therapy is necessary, careful patient monitoring is essential. Concurrent administration of vasopressor drugs (for the treatment of hypotension related to obstetric blocks) and ergot-type oxytoxic drugs may cause severe persistent hypertension or cerebrovascular accidents.

More information

Category Value
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 76420-772
Date Last Revised 02-06-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
List of excipients Inactive Ingredients Inactive ingredients: nonoxynol-9, water
Storage and handling Other information Protect from freezing and avoid excessive heat
Marketing authorisation holder Asclemed USA, Inc.
Warnings WARNING Ketorolac tromethamine, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is indicated for the short-term (up to 5 days in adults) management of moderately severe acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level. Oral ketorolac tromethamine is indicated only as continuation treatment following IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine, if necessary. The total combined duration of use of oral ketorolac tromethamine and ketorolac tromethamine injection should not exceed 5 days. Ketorolac tromethamine is not indicated for use in pediatric patients and it is NOT indicated for minor or chronic painful conditions. Increasing the dose of ketorolac tromethamine beyond the label recommendations will not provide better efficacy but will increase the risk of developing serious adverse events. GASTROINTESTINAL RISK Ketorolac tromethamine can cause peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding and/or perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Therefore, ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED in patients with active peptic ulcer disease, in patients with recent gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, and in patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS ). CARDIOVASCULAR RISK NSAIDs may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk (see WARNINGS and CLINICAL STUDIES ). Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS ). RENAL RISK Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED in patients with advanced renal impairment and in patients at risk for renal failure due to volume depletion (see WARNINGS ). RISK OF BLEEDING Ketorolac tromethamine inhibits platelet function and is, therefore, CONTRAINDICATED in patients with suspected or confirmed cerebrovascular bleeding, patients with hemorrhagic diathesis, incomplete hemostasis and those at high risk of bleeding (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ). Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED as prophylactic analgesic before any major surgery. HYPERSENSITIVITY Hypersensitivity reactions, ranging from bronchospasm to anaphylactic shock, have occurred and appropriate counteractive measures must be available when administering the first dose of ketorolac tromethamine injection (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS ). Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED in patients with previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to ketorolac tromethamine or allergic manifestations to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). INTRATHECAL OR EPIDURAL ADMINISTRATION Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED for intrathecal or epidural administration due to its alcohol content. RISK DURING LABOR AND DELIVERY The use of ketorolac tromethamine in labor and delivery is CONTRAINDICATED because it may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine contractions. CONCOMITANT USE WITH NSAIDs Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED in patients currently receiving aspirin or NSAIDs because of the cumulative risk of inducing serious NSAID-related side effects. SPECIAL POPULATIONS Dosage should be adjusted for patients 65 years or older, for patients under 50 kg (110 lbs.) of body weight (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ) and for patients with moderately elevated serum creatinine (see WARNINGS ). Doses of ketorolac tromethamine injection are not to exceed 60 mg (total dose per day) in these patients. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Ketorolac Tromethamine Tablets Ketorolac tromethamine tablets are indicated only as continuation therapy to ketorolac tromethamine injection, and the combined duration of use of ketorolac tromethamine injection and ketorolac tromethamine tablets is not to exceed 5 (five) days, because of the increased risk of serious adverse events. The recommended total daily dose of ketorolac tromethamine tablets (maximum 40 mg) is significantly lower than for ketorolac tromethamine injection (maximum 120 mg) (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).