Data from FDA - Curated by Toby Galbraith - Last updated 10 August 2017

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE JANUVIA is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (1.1) Important Limitations of Use: JANUVIA should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. (1.2) JANUVIA has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. (1.2, 5.1) 1.1 Monotherapy and Combination Therapy JANUVIA® is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [See Clinical Studies (14).] 1.2 Important Limitations of Use JANUVIA should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, as it would not be effective in these settings. JANUVIA has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using JANUVIA. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.1).]

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to sitagliptin, such as anaphylaxis or angioedema. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ; Adverse Reactions (6.2).] History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to sitagliptin, such as anaphylaxis or angioedema (5.4, 6.2)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of patients treated with JANUVIA and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo are: upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis and headache. In the add-on to sulfonylurea and add-on to insulin studies, hypoglycemia was also more commonly reported in patients treated with JANUVIA compared to placebo. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., at 1-877-888-4231 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In controlled clinical studies as both monotherapy and combination therapy with metformin, pioglitazone, or rosiglitazone and metformin, the overall incidence of adverse reactions, hypoglycemia, and discontinuation of therapy due to clinical adverse reactions with JANUVIA were similar to placebo. In combination with glimepiride, with or without metformin, the overall incidence of clinical adverse reactions with JANUVIA was higher than with placebo, in part related to a higher incidence of hypoglycemia (see Table 3); the incidence of discontinuation due to clinical adverse reactions was similar to placebo. Two placebo-controlled monotherapy studies, one of 18- and one of 24-week duration, included patients treated with JANUVIA 100 mg daily, JANUVIA 200 mg daily, and placebo. Five placebo-controlled add-on combination therapy studies were also conducted: one with metformin; one with pioglitazone; one with metformin and rosiglitazone; one with glimepiride (with or without metformin); and one with insulin (with or without metformin). In these trials, patients with inadequate glycemic control on a stable dose of the background therapy were randomized to add-on therapy with JANUVIA 100 mg daily or placebo. The adverse reactions, excluding hypoglycemia, reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with JANUVIA 100 mg daily and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo, are shown in Table 1 for the clinical trials of at least 18 weeks duration. Incidences of hypoglycemia are shown in Table 3. Table 1: Placebo-Controlled Clinical Studies of JANUVIA Monotherapy or Add-on Combination Therapy with Pioglitazone, Metformin + Rosiglitazone, or Glimepiride +/- Metformin: Adverse Reactions (Excluding Hypoglycemia) Reported in ≥5% of Patients and More Commonly than in Patients Given Placebo, Regardless of Investigator Assessment of CausalityIntent-to-treat population Number of Patients (%) Monotherapy (18 or 24 weeks) JANUVIA 100 mg Placebo N = 443 N = 363 Nasopharyngitis 23 (5.2) 12 (3.3) Combination with Pioglitazone (24 weeks) JANUVIA 100 mg + Pioglitazone Placebo + Pioglitazone N = 175 N = 178 Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 11 (6.3) 6 (3.4) Headache 9 (5.1) 7 (3.9) Combination with Metformin + Rosiglitazone (18 weeks) JANUVIA 100 mg + Metformin + Rosiglitazone Placebo + Metformin + Rosiglitazone N = 181 N = 97 Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 10 (5.5) 5 (5.2) Nasopharyngitis 11 (6.1) 4 (4.1) Combination with Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) (24 weeks) JANUVIA 100 mg + Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) Placebo + Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) N = 222 N = 219 Nasopharyngitis 14 (6.3) 10 (4.6) Headache 13 (5.9) 5 (2.3) In the 24-week study of patients receiving JANUVIA as add-on combination therapy with metformin, there were no adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given placebo. In the 24-week study of patients receiving JANUVIA as add-on therapy to insulin (with or without metformin), there were no adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given placebo, except for hypoglycemia (see Table 3). In the study of JANUVIA as add-on combination therapy with metformin and rosiglitazone (Table 1), through Week 54 the adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with JANUVIA and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo were: upper respiratory tract infection (JANUVIA, 15.5%; placebo, 6.2%), nasopharyngitis (11.0%, 9.3%), peripheral edema (8.3%, 5.2%), and headache (5.5%, 4.1%). In a pooled analysis of the two monotherapy studies, the add-on to metformin study, and the add-on to pioglitazone study, the incidence of selected gastrointestinal adverse reactions in patients treated with JANUVIA was as follows: abdominal pain (JANUVIA 100 mg, 2.3%; placebo, 2.1%), nausea (1.4%, 0.6%), and diarrhea (3.0%, 2.3%). In an additional, 24-week, placebo-controlled factorial study of initial therapy with sitagliptin in combination with metformin, the adverse reactions reported (regardless of investigator assessment of causality) in ≥5% of patients are shown in Table 2. Table 2: Initial Therapy with Combination of Sitagliptin and Metformin: Adverse Reactions Reported (Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality) in ≥5% of Patients Receiving Combination Therapy (and Greater than in Patients Receiving Metformin alone, Sitagliptin alone, and Placebo)Intent-to-treat population. Number of Patients (%) Placebo Sitagliptin (JANUVIA) 100 mg QD Metformin 500 or 1000 mg bidData pooled for the patients given the lower and higher doses of metformin. Sitagliptin 50 mg bid + Metformin 500 or 1000 mg bid N = 176 N = 179 N = 364 N = 372 Upper Respiratory Infection 9 (5.1) 8 (4.5) 19 (5.2) 23 (6.2) Headache 5 (2.8) 2 (1.1) 14 (3.8) 22 (5.9) In a 24-week study of initial therapy with JANUVIA in combination with pioglitazone, there were no adverse reactions reported (regardless of investigator assessment of causality) in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given pioglitazone alone. No clinically meaningful changes in vital signs or in ECG (including in QTc interval) were observed in patients treated with JANUVIA. In a pooled analysis of 19 double-blind clinical trials that included data from 10,246 patients randomized to receive sitagliptin 100 mg/day (N=5429) or corresponding (active or placebo) control (N=4817), the incidence of acute pancreatitis was 0.1 per 100 patient-years in each group (4 patients with an event in 4708 patient-years for sitagliptin and 4 patients with an event in 3942 patient-years for control). [See Warnings and Precautions (5.1).] Hypoglycemia In all (N=9) studies, adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia. A concurrent blood glucose measurement was not required although most (74%) reports of hypoglycemia were accompanied by a blood glucose measurement ≤70 mg/dL. When JANUVIA was coadministered with a sulfonylurea or with insulin, the percentage of patients with at least one adverse reaction of hypoglycemia was higher than in the corresponding placebo group (Table 3). Table 3: Incidence and Rate of HypoglycemiaAdverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia; a concurrent glucose measurement was not required; intent-to-treat population. in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Studies when JANUVIA was used as Add-On Therapy to Glimepiride (with or without Metformin) or Insulin (with or without Metformin), Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality Add-On to Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) (24 weeks) JANUVIA 100 mg + Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) Placebo + Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) N = 222 N = 219 Overall (%) 27 (12.2) 4 (1.8) Rate (episodes/patient-year)Based on total number of events (i.e., a single patient may have had multiple events). 0.59 0.24 Severe (%)Severe events of hypoglycemia were defined as those events requiring medical assistance or exhibiting depressed level/loss of consciousness or seizure. 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Add-On to Insulin (+/- Metformin) (24 weeks) JANUVIA 100 mg + Insulin (+/- Metformin) Placebo + Insulin (+/- Metformin) N = 322 N = 319 Overall (%) 50 (15.5) 25 (7.8) Rate (episodes/patient-year) 1.06 0.51 Severe (%) 2 (0.6) 1 (0.3) In a pooled analysis of the two monotherapy studies, the add-on to metformin study, and the add-on to pioglitazone study, the overall incidence of adverse reactions of hypoglycemia was 1.2% in patients treated with JANUVIA 100 mg and 0.9% in patients treated with placebo. In the study of JANUVIA as add-on combination therapy with metformin and rosiglitazone, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 2.2% in patients given add-on JANUVIA and 0.0% in patients given add-on placebo through Week 18. Through Week 54, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 3.9% in patients given add-on JANUVIA and 1.0% in patients given add-on placebo. In the 24-week, placebo-controlled factorial study of initial therapy with JANUVIA in combination with metformin, the incidence of hypoglycemia was 0.6% in patients given placebo, 0.6% in patients given JANUVIA alone, 0.8% in patients given metformin alone, and 1.6% in patients given JANUVIA in combination with metformin. In the study of JANUVIA as initial therapy with pioglitazone, one patient taking JANUVIA experienced a severe episode of hypoglycemia. There were no severe hypoglycemia episodes reported in other studies except in the study involving coadministration with insulin. Laboratory Tests Across clinical studies, the incidence of laboratory adverse reactions was similar in patients treated with JANUVIA 100 mg compared to patients treated with placebo. A small increase in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed due to an increase in neutrophils. This increase in WBC (of approximately 200 cells/microL vs placebo, in four pooled placebo-controlled clinical studies, with a mean baseline WBC count of approximately 6600 cells/microL) is not considered to be clinically relevant. In a 12-week study of 91 patients with chronic renal insufficiency, 37 patients with moderate renal insufficiency were randomized to JANUVIA 50 mg daily, while 14 patients with the same magnitude of renal impairment were randomized to placebo. Mean (SE) increases in serum creatinine were observed in patients treated with JANUVIA [0.12 mg/dL (0.04)] and in patients treated with placebo [0.07 mg/dL (0.07)]. The clinical significance of this added increase in serum creatinine relative to placebo is not known. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience Additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of JANUVIA as monotherapy and/or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, urticaria, cutaneous vasculitis, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]; hepatic enzyme elevations; acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic and necrotizing pancreatitis [see Indications and Usage (1.2); Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]; worsening renal function, including acute renal failure (sometimes requiring dialysis) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]; severe and disabling arthralgia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]; bullous pemphigoid [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]; constipation; vomiting; headache; myalgia; pain in extremity; back pain; pruritus.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The recommended dose of JANUVIA is 100 mg once daily. JANUVIA can be taken with or without food. (2.1) Dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with moderate or severe renal insufficiency or end-stage renal disease. (2.2) Dosage Adjustment in Patients With Moderate, Severe and End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) (2.2) 50 mg once daily 25 mg once daily Moderate CrCl ≥30 to <50 mL/min ~Serum Cr levels [mg/dL] Men: >1.7– ≤3.0; Women: >1.5– ≤2.5 Severe and ESRD CrCl <30 mL/min ~Serum Cr levels [mg/dL] Men: >3.0; Women: >2.5; or on dialysis 2.1 Recommended Dosing The recommended dose of JANUVIA is 100 mg once daily. JANUVIA can be taken with or without food. 2.2 Patients with Renal Insufficiency For patients with mild renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance [CrCl] greater than or equal to 50 mL/min, approximately corresponding to serum creatinine levels of less than or equal to 1.7 mg/dL in men and less than or equal to 1.5 mg/dL in women), no dosage adjustment for JANUVIA is required. For patients with moderate renal insufficiency (CrCl greater than or equal to 30 to less than 50 mL/min, approximately corresponding to serum creatinine levels of greater than 1.7 to less than or equal to 3.0 mg/dL in men and greater than 1.5 to less than or equal to 2.5 mg/dL in women), the dose of JANUVIA is 50 mg once daily. For patients with severe renal insufficiency (CrCl less than 30 mL/min, approximately corresponding to serum creatinine levels of greater than 3.0 mg/dL in men and greater than 2.5 mg/dL in women) or with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, the dose of JANUVIA is 25 mg once daily. JANUVIA may be administered without regard to the timing of dialysis. Because there is a need for dosage adjustment based upon renal function, assessment of renal function is recommended prior to initiation of JANUVIA and periodically thereafter. Creatinine clearance can be estimated from serum creatinine using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).] There have been postmarketing reports of worsening renal function in patients with renal insufficiency, some of whom were prescribed inappropriate doses of sitagliptin. 2.3 Concomitant Use with an Insulin Secretagogue (e.g., Sulfonylurea) or with Insulin When JANUVIA is used in combination with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or with insulin, a lower dose of the insulin secretagogue or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.3).]
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Safety and effectiveness of JANUVIA in children under 18 years have not been established. (8.4) There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. To report drug exposure during pregnancy call 1-800-986-8999. (8.1) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category B: Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits. Doses of sitagliptin up to 125 mg/kg (approximately 12 times the human exposure at the maximum recommended human dose) did not impair fertility or harm the fetus. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., maintains a registry to monitor the pregnancy outcomes of women exposed to JANUVIA while pregnant. Health care providers are encouraged to report any prenatal exposure to JANUVIA by calling the Pregnancy Registry at 1-800-986-8999. Sitagliptin administered to pregnant female rats and rabbits from gestation day 6 to 20 (organogenesis) was not teratogenic at oral doses up to 250 mg/kg (rats) and 125 mg/kg (rabbits), or approximately 30- and 20-times human exposure at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 100 mg/day based on AUC comparisons. Higher doses increased the incidence of rib malformations in offspring at 1000 mg/kg, or approximately 100 times human exposure at the MRHD. Sitagliptin administered to female rats from gestation day 6 to lactation day 21 decreased body weight in male and female offspring at 1000 mg/kg. No functional or behavioral toxicity was observed in offspring of rats. Placental transfer of sitagliptin administered to pregnant rats was approximately 45% at 2 hours and 80% at 24 hours postdose. Placental transfer of sitagliptin administered to pregnant rabbits was approximately 66% at 2 hours and 30% at 24 hours. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Sitagliptin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats at a milk to plasma ratio of 4:1. It is not known whether sitagliptin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when JANUVIA is administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of JANUVIA in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the total number of subjects (N=3884) in pre-approval clinical safety and efficacy studies of JANUVIA, 725 patients were 65 years and over, while 61 patients were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between subjects 65 years and over and younger subjects. While this and other reported clinical experience have not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection in the elderly, and it may be useful to assess renal function in these patients prior to initiating dosing and periodically thereafter [see Dosage and Administration (2.2); Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers Sitagliptin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats at a milk to plasma ratio of 4:1. It is not known whether sitagliptin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when JANUVIA is administered to a nursing woman.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS 7.1 Digoxin There was a slight increase in the area under the curve (AUC, 11%) and mean peak drug concentration (Cmax, 18%) of digoxin with the coadministration of 100 mg sitagliptin for 10 days. Patients receiving digoxin should be monitored appropriately. No dosage adjustment of digoxin or JANUVIA is recommended.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA021995
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0006-0112,0006-0277,0006-0221
Date Last Revised 18-01-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Storage and handling Storage Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F), excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]
Marketing authorisation holder Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.