Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 18 February 2018

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS & USAGE Haloperidol decanoate injection, 50 mg/mL and haloperidol decanoate injection, 100 mg/mL are indicated for the treatment of schizophrenic patients who require prolonged parenteral antipsychotic therapy.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Since the pharmacologic and clinical actions of haloperidol decanoate injection, 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL are attributed to haloperidol as the active medication, Contraindications, Warnings, and additional information are those of haloperidol, modified only to reflect the prolonged action. Haloperidol is contraindicated in severe toxic central nervous system depression or comatose states from any cause and in individuals who are hypersensitive to this drug or have Parkinson's disease.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis Class Effect: In clinical trial and/or postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia/neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents, including haloperidol decanoate. Agranulocytosis has also been reported. Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC) and history of drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia. Patients with a history of a clinically significant low WBC or a drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and discontinuation of haloperidol decanoate should be considered at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors. Patients with clinically significant neutropenia should be carefully monitored for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treated promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1000/mm3) should discontinue haloperidol decanoate and have their WBC followed until recovery. Other Haloperidol decanoate injection, 50 mg/mL and haloperidol decanoate injection, 100 mg/mL should be administered cautiously to patients: • with severe cardiovascular disorders, because of the possibility of transient hypotension and/or precipitation of anginal pain. Should hypotension occur and a vasopressor be required, epinephrine should not be used since haloperidol may block its vasopressor activity, and paradoxical further lowering of the blood pressure may occur. Instead, metaraminol, phenylephrine or norepinephrine should be used. • receiving anticonvulsant medications, with a history of seizures, or with EEG abnormalities, because haloperidol may lower the convulsive threshold. If indicated, adequate anticonvulsant therapy should be concomitantly maintained. • with known allergies, or with a history of allergic reactions to drugs. • receiving anticoagulants, since an isolated instance of interference occurred with the effects of one anticoagulant (phenindione). If concomitant antiparkinson medication is required, it may have to be continued after haloperidol decanoate injection, 50 mg/mL or haloperidol decanoate injection, 100 mg/mL is discontinued because of the prolonged action of haloperidol decanoate. If both drugs are discontinued simultaneously, extrapyramidal symptoms may occur. The physician should keep in mind the possible increase in intraocular pressure when anticholinergic drugs, including antiparkinson agents, are administered concomitantly with haloperidol decanoate. When haloperidol decanoate is used to control mania in cyclic disorders, there may be a rapid mood swing to depression. Severe neurotoxicity (rigidity, inability to walk or talk) may occur in patients with thyrotoxicosis who are also receiving antipsychotic medication, including haloperidol. Information for Patients Haloperidol decanoate may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of hazardous tasks such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle. The ambulatory patient should be warned accordingly. The use of alcohol with this drug should be avoided due to possible additive effects and hypotension. Drug Interactions Drug-drug interactions can be pharmacodynamic (combined pharmacologic effects) or pharmacokinetic (alteration of plasma levels). The risks of using haloperidol in combination with other drugs have been evaluated as described below. Pharmacodynamic Interactions Since QT-prolongation has been observed during haloperidol treatment, caution is advised when prescribing to a patient with QT- prolongation conditions (long QT-syndrome, hypokalemia, electrolyte imbalance) or to patients receiving medications known to prolong the QT-interval or known to cause electrolyte imbalance. As with other antipsychotic agents, it should be noted that haloperidol may be capable of potentiating CNS depressants such as anesthetics, opiates, and alcohol. Ketoconazole is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Increases in QTc have been observed when haloperidol was given in combination with the metabolic inhibitors ketoconazole (400 mg/day) and paroxetine (20 mg/day). It may be necessary to reduce the haloperidol dosage. Pharmacokinetic Interactions The Effect of Other Drugs on Haloperidol Decanoate Haloperidol is metabolized by several routes, including the glucuronidation and the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Inhibition of these routes of metabolism by another drug may result in increased haloperidol concentrations and potentially increase the risk of certain adverse events, including QT-prolongation. Drugs Characterized as Substrates, Inhibitors or Inducers of CYP3A4, CYP2D6 or Glucuronidation In pharmacokinetic studies, mild to moderately increased haloperidol concentrations have been reported when haloperidol was given concomitantly with drugs characterized as substrates or inhibitors of CYP3A4 or CYP2D6 isoenzymes, such as itraconazole, nefazodone, buspirone, venlafaxine, alprazolam, fluvoxamine, quinidine, fluoxetine, sertraline, chlorpromazine, and promethazine. When prolonged treatment (1 to 2 weeks) with enzyme-inducing drugs such as rifampin or carbamazepine is added to haloperidol therapy, this results in a significant reduction of haloperidol plasma levels. Rifampin In a study of 12 schizophrenic patients coadministered oral haloperidol and rifampin, plasma haloperidol levels were decreased by a mean of 70% and mean scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were increased from baseline. In 5 other schizophrenic patients treated with oral haloperidol and rifampin, discontinuation of rifampin produced a mean 3.3-fold increase in haloperidol concentrations. Carbamazepine In a study in 11 schizophrenic patients co-administered haloperidol and increasing doses of carbamazepine, haloperidol plasma concentrations decreased linearly with increasing carbamazepine concentrations. Thus, careful monitoring of clinical status is warranted when enzyme inducing drugs such as rifampin or carbamazepine are administered or discontinued in haloperidol-treated patients. During combination treatment, the haloperidol dose should be adjusted, when necessary. After discontinuation of such drugs, it may be necessary to reduce the dosage of haloperidol. Valproate Sodium valproate, a drug known to inhibit glucuronidation, does not affect haloperidol plasma concentrations. Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis & Impairment Of Fertility No mutagenic potential of haloperidol decanoate was found in the Ames Salmonella microsomal activation assay. Negative or inconsistent positive findings have been obtained in in vitro and in vivo studies of effects of short-acting haloperidol on chromosome structure and number. The available cytogenetic evidence is considered too inconsistent to be conclusive at this time. Carcinogenicity studies using oral haloperidol were conducted in Wistar rats (dosed at up to 5 mg/kg daily for 24 months) and in Albino Swiss mice (dosed at up to 5 mg/kg daily for 18 months. In the rat study survival was less than optimal in all dose groups, reducing the number of rats at risk for developing tumors. However, although a relatively greater number of rats survived to the end of the study in high-dose male and female groups, these animalsdid not have a greater incidence of tumors than control animals. Therefore, although not optimal, this study does suggest the absence of a haloperidol related increase in the incidence of neoplasia in rats at doses up to 20 times the usual daily human dose for chronic or resistant patients. In female mice at 5 and 20 times the highest initial daily dose for chronic or resistant patients, there was a statistically significant increase in mammary gland neoplasia and total tumor incidence; at 20 times the same daily dose there was a statistically significant increase in pituitary gland neoplasia. In male mice, no statistically significant differences in incidences of total tumors or specific tumor types were noted. Antipsychotic drugs elevate prolactin levels; the elevation persists during chronic administration. Tissue culture experiments indicate that approximately one-third of human breast cancers are prolactin dependent in vitro, a factor of potential importance if the prescription of these drugs is contemplated in a patient with a previously detected breast cancer. Although disturbances such as galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported, the clinical significance of elevated serum prolactin levels is unknown for most patients. An increase in mammary neoplasms has been found in rodents after chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs. Neither clinical studies nor epidemiologic studies conducted to date, however, have shown an association between chronic administration of these drugs and mammary tumorigenesis; the available evidence is considered too limited to be conclusive at this time. Pregnancy Usage in Pregnancy Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C Rodents given up to 3 times the usual maximum human dose of haloperidol decanoate showed an increase in incidence of resorption, fetal mortality, and pup mortality. No fetal abnormalities were observed. Cleft palate has been observed in mice given oral haloperidol at 15 times the usual maximum human dose. Cleft palate in mice appears to be a nonspecific response to stress or nutritional imbalance as well as to a variety of drugs, and there is no evidence to relate this phenomenon to predictable human risk for most of these agents. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. There are reports, however, of cases of limb malformations observed following maternal use of haloperidol along with other drugs which have suspected teratogenic potential during the first trimester of pregnancy. Causal relationships were not established with these cases. Since such experience does not exclude the possibility of fetal damage due to haloperidol, haloperidol decanoate should be used during pregnancy or in women likely to become pregnant only if the benefit clearly justifies a potential risk to the fetus. Non-Teratogenic Effects Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs (including haloperidol) during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorder in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization. Haloperidol decanoate should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nursing Mothers Since haloperidol is excreted in human breast milk, infants should not be nursed during drug treatment with haloperidol decanoate. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of haloperidol decanoate in children have not been established. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of haloperidol did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not consistently identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. However, the prevalence of tardive dyskinesia appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women (see WARNINGS, Tardive Dyskinesia). Also, the pharmacokinetics of haloperidol in geriatric patients generally warrants the use of lower doses (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling: • WARNINGS, Increased mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis • WARNINGS, Cardiovascular Effects • WARNINGS, Tardive Dyskinesia • WARNINGS, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome • WARNINGS, Falls • WARNINGS, Combined Use of Haloperidol and Lithium • WARNINGS, General • PRECAUTIONS, Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis • PRECAUTIONS, Other • PRECAUTIONS, Usage in Pregnancy Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug, and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The data described below reflect exposure to haloperidol in 410 patients who participated in 13 clinical trials with haloperidol decanoate (15 to 500 mg/month) in the treatment of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. These clinical trials comprised: • 1 double-blind, active comparator-controlled trial with fluphenazine decanoate. • 2 trials comparing the decanoate formulation to oral haloperidol. • 9 open-label trials. • 1 dose-response trial. The most common adverse reactions in haloperidol decanoate-treated patients in the double-blind, active comparator-controlled clinical trial with fluphenazine decanoate (≥5%) were: Parkinsonism, and oculogyric crisis. Adverse Reactions Reported at ≥1% Incidence in a Double-Blind Active Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trial Adverse reactions occurring in ≥1% of haloperidol decanoate-treated patients in a double-blind, clinical trial with the active comparator fluphenazine decanoate are shown in Table 1. Table 1. Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥1% of Haloperidol Decanoate-treated Patients in a Double-Blind Active Comparator-Controlled Clinical Trial with Fluphenazine Decanaote System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction Haloperidol decanoate (n=36) % Fluphenazine decanoate (n=36) % Gastrointestinal Disorders Abdominal pain 2.8 0 Nervous System Disorders Extrapyramidal disordera: Parkinsonism Oculogyric crisis Akinesia Akathisia Tremor Headache 30.6 5.6 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 44.4 0 22.2 13.9 0 0 a Precise incidence for extrapyramidal disorder cannot be determined; reporting rates of some individual symptoms of extrapyramidal disorder are lower for haloperidol decanoate than for the active comparator, but the terms are included here because the events are considered associated with the drug Additional Adverse Reactions Reported in Double-Blind, Comparator, Open-Label and Dose-Response Clinical Trials Additional adverse reactions that are listed below were reported by haloperidol decanoate-treated patients in comparator, open-label, and dose-response clinical trials, or at <1% incidence in a double-blind, active comparator-controlled clinical trial with fluphenazine decanoate. Cardiac Disorders: Tachycardia Endocrine Disorders: Hyperprolactinemia Eye Disorders: Vision blurred Gastrointestinal Disorders: Constipation, Dry mouth, Salivary hypersecretion General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: Injection site reaction Investigations: Weight increased Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: Muscle rigidity Nervous System Disorders: Dyskinesia, Dystonia, Cogwheel rigidity, Hypertonia, Masked Facies, Sedation, Somnolence Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: Erectile dysfunction Adverse Reactions Identified in Clinical Trials with Haloperidol (Non-Decanoate Formulations) The adverse reactions listed below were identified with non-decanoate formulations, and reflect exposure to the active moiety haloperidol in the following: • 284 patients who participated in 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials with haloperidol (injection or oral formulation, 2 to 20 mg/day); two trials were in the treatment of schizophrenia and one in the treatment of bipolar disorder. • 1295 patients who participated in 16 double-blind, active comparator-controlled clinical trials with haloperidol (injection or oral formulation, 1 to 45 mg/day) in the treatment of schizophrenia. Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: Torticollis, Trismus, Muscle twitching Nervous System Disorders: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Tardive dyskinesia, Bradykinesia, Hyperkinesia, Hypokinesia, Dizziness, Nystagmus Psychiatric Disorders: Loss of libido, Restlessness Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: Amenorrhea, Galactorrhea, Dysmenorrhea, Menorrhagia, Breast discomfort Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Acneiform skin reactions Vascular Disorders: Hypotension, Orthostatic hypotension Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions relating to the active moiety haloperidol have been identified during postapproval use of haloperidol or haloperidol decanoate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Pancytopenia, Agranulocytosis, Thrombocytopenia, Leukopenia, Neutropenia Cardiac Disorders: Ventricular fibrillation, Torsade de pointes, Ventricular tachycardia, Extrasystoles Endocrine Disorders: Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion Gastrointestinal Disorders: Vomiting, Nausea General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: Sudden death, Face edema, Edema, Hyperthermia, Hypothermia, Injection site abscess Hepatobiliary Disorders: Acute hepatic failure, Hepatitis, Cholestasis, Jaundice, Liver function test abnormal Immune System Disorders: Anaphylactic reaction, Hypersensitivity Investigations: Electrocardiogram QT prolonged, Weight decreased Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Hypoglycemia Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: Rhabdomyolysis Nervous System Disorders: Convulsion, Opisthotonus, Tardive dystonia Pregnancy, Puerperium and Perinatal Conditions: Drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal Psychiatric Disorders: Agitation, Confusional state, Depression, Insomnia Renal and Urinary Disorders: Urinary retention Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: Priapism, Gynecomastia Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: Laryngeal edema, Bronchospasm, Laryngospasm, Dyspnea Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Dermatitis exfoliative, Hypersensitivity vasculitis, Photosensitivity reaction, Urticaria, Pruritis, Rash, Hyperhidrosis To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Gland Pharma at 864-879-9994 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION Haloperidol decanoate injection, 50 mg/mL or haloperidol decanoate injection, 100 mg/mL should be administered by deep intramuscular injection. A 21 gauge needle is recommended. The maximum volume per injection site should not exceed 3 mL. DO NOT ADMINISTER INTRAVENOUSLY. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Haloperidol decanoate injection, 50 mg/mL or haloperidol decanoate injection, 100 mg/mL are intended for use in schizophrenic patients who require prolonged parenteral antipsychotic therapy. These patients should be previously stabilized on antipsychotic medication before considering a conversion to haloperidol decanoate. Furthermore, it is recommended that patients being considered for haloperidol decanoate therapy have been treated with, and tolerate well, short-acting haloperidol in order to reduce the possibility of an unexpected adverse sensitivity to haloperidol. Close clinical supervision is required during the initial period of dose adjustment in order to minimize the risk of overdosage or reappearance of psychotic symptoms before the next injection. During dose adjustment or episodes of exacerbation of symptoms of schizophrenia, haloperidol decanoate therapy can be supplemented with short-acting forms of haloperidol. The dose of haloperidol decanoate injection, 50 mg/mL or haloperidol decanoate injection, 100 mg/mL should be expressed in terms of its haloperidol content. The starting dose of haloperidol decanoate should be based on the patient's age, clinical history, physical condition, and response to previous antipsychotic therapy. The preferred approach to determining the minimum effective dose is to begin with lower initial doses and to adjust the dose upward as needed. For patients previously maintained on low doses of antipsychotics (e.g. up to the equivalent of 10 mg/day oral haloperidol), it is recommended that the initial dose of haloperidol decanoate be 10 to15 times the previous daily dose in oral haloperidol equivalents; limited clinical experience suggests that lower initial doses may be adequate. Initial Therapy Conversion from oral haloperidol to haloperidol decanoate can be achieved by using an initial dose of haloperidol decanoate that is 10 to 20 times the previous daily dose in oral haloperidol equivalents. In patients who are elderly, debilitated, or stable on low doses of oral haloperidol (e.g. up to the equivalent of 10 mg/day oral haloperidol), a range of 10 to 15 times the previous daily dose in oral haloperidol equivalents is appropriate for initial conversion. In patients previously maintained on higher doses of antipsychotics for whom a low dose approach risks recurrence of psychiatric decompensation and in patients whose long-term use of haloperidol has resulted in a tolerance to the drug, 20 times the previous daily dose in oral haloperidol equivalents should be considered for initial conversion, with downward titration on succeeding injections. The initial dose of haloperidol decanoate should not exceed 100 mg regardless of previous antipsychotic dose requirements. If, therefore, conversion requires more than 100 mg of haloperidol decanoate as an initial dose, that dose should be administered in two injections, i.e. a maximum of 100 mg initially followed by the balance in 3 to 7 days. Maintenance Therapy The maintenance dosage of haloperidol decanoate must be individualized with titration upward or downward based on therapeutic response. The usual maintenance range is 10 to 15 times the previous daily dose in oral haloperidol equivalents dependent on the clinical response of the patient. HALOPERIDOL DECANOATE DOSING RECOMMENDATIONS Patients Monthly 1st Month Maintenance Stabilized on low daily oral doses (up to 10 mg/day) 10 to15 × Daily Oral Dose 10 to15 × Previous Daily Oral Dose Elderly or Debilitated High dose Risk of relapse Tolerant to oral haloperidol 20 × Daily Oral Dose 10 to15 × Previous Daily Oral Dose Closeclinical supervision is required during initiation and stabilization of haloperidol decanoate therapy. Haloperidol decanoate is usually administered monthly or every 4 weeks. However, variation in patient response may dictate a need for adjustment of the dosing interval as well as the dose (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Clinical experience with haloperidol decanoate at doses greater than 450 mg per month has been limited.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Since haloperidol is excreted in human breast milk, infants should not be nursed during drug treatment with haloperidol decanoate.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Drug-drug interactions can be pharmacodynamic (combined pharmacologic effects) or pharmacokinetic (alteration of plasma levels). The risks of using haloperidol in combination with other drugs have been evaluated as described below. Pharmacodynamic Interactions Since QT-prolongation has been observed during haloperidol treatment, caution is advised when prescribing to a patient with QT- prolongation conditions (long QT-syndrome, hypokalemia, electrolyte imbalance) or to patients receiving medications known to prolong the QT-interval or known to cause electrolyte imbalance. As with other antipsychotic agents, it should be noted that haloperidol may be capable of potentiating CNS depressants such as anesthetics, opiates, and alcohol. Ketoconazole is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Increases in QTc have been observed when haloperidol was given in combination with the metabolic inhibitors ketoconazole (400 mg/day) and paroxetine (20 mg/day). It may be necessary to reduce the haloperidol dosage. Pharmacokinetic Interactions The Effect of Other Drugs on Haloperidol Decanoate Haloperidol is metabolized by several routes, including the glucuronidation and the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Inhibition of these routes of metabolism by another drug may result in increased haloperidol concentrations and potentially increase the risk of certain adverse events, including QT-prolongation. Drugs Characterized as Substrates, Inhibitors or Inducers of CYP3A4, CYP2D6 or Glucuronidation In pharmacokinetic studies, mild to moderately increased haloperidol concentrations have been reported when haloperidol was given concomitantly with drugs characterized as substrates or inhibitors of CYP3A4 or CYP2D6 isoenzymes, such as itraconazole, nefazodone, buspirone, venlafaxine, alprazolam, fluvoxamine, quinidine, fluoxetine, sertraline, chlorpromazine, and promethazine. When prolonged treatment (1 to 2 weeks) with enzyme-inducing drugs such as rifampin or carbamazepine is added to haloperidol therapy, this results in a significant reduction of haloperidol plasma levels. Rifampin In a study of 12 schizophrenic patients coadministered oral haloperidol and rifampin, plasma haloperidol levels were decreased by a mean of 70% and mean scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were increased from baseline. In 5 other schizophrenic patients treated with oral haloperidol and rifampin, discontinuation of rifampin produced a mean 3.3-fold increase in haloperidol concentrations. Carbamazepine In a study in 11 schizophrenic patients co-administered haloperidol and increasing doses of carbamazepine, haloperidol plasma concentrations decreased linearly with increasing carbamazepine concentrations. Thus, careful monitoring of clinical status is warranted when enzyme inducing drugs such as rifampin or carbamazepine are administered or discontinued in haloperidol-treated patients. During combination treatment, the haloperidol dose should be adjusted, when necessary. After discontinuation of such drugs, it may be necessary to reduce the dosage of haloperidol. Valproate Sodium valproate, a drug known to inhibit glucuronidation, does not affect haloperidol plasma concentrations.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA205241
Agency product number AC20PJ4101
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 68083-138,68083-137
Date Last Revised 09-02-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Marketing authorisation holder Gland Pharma Limited
Warnings BOXED WARNING Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of seventeen placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. Haloperidol Decanoate Injection is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis (see WARNINGS).