Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 December 2017

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE GRALISE is indicated for the management of postherpetic neuralgia. GRALISE is not interchangeable with other gabapentin products because of differing pharmacokinetic profiles that affect the frequency of administration. GRALISE is indicated for the management of Postherpetic Neuralgia (PHN). Important Limitation: GRALISE is not interchangeable with other gabapentin products because of differing pharmacokinetic profiles that affect the frequency of administration (See Warnings and Precautions)

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS GRALISE is contraindicated in patients with demonstrated hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients. GRALISE is contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients. (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The most common adverse reaction (greater than or equal to 5% and twice placebo) is dizziness. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Depomed, Inc. at 1-866-458-6389 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. A total of 359 patients with neuropathic pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia have received GRALISE at doses up to 1800 mg daily during placebo-controlled clinical studies. In clinical trials in patients with postherpetic neuralgia, 9.7% of the 359 patients treated with GRALISE and 6.9% of 364 patients treated with placebo discontinued prematurely due to adverse reactions. In the GRALISE treatment group, the most common reason for discontinuation due to adverse reactions was dizziness. Of GRALISE-treated patients who experienced adverse reactions in clinical studies, the majority of those adverse reactions were either "mild" or "moderate". Table 4 lists all adverse reactions, regardless of causality, occurring in at least 1% of patients with neuropathic pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia in the GRALISE group for which the incidence was greater than in the placebo group. Table 4: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reaction Incidence in Controlled Trials in Neuropathic Pain Associated with Postherpetic Neuralgia (Events in at Least 1% of all GRALISE-Treated Patients and More Frequent Than in the Placebo Group) Body System - Preferred Term GRALISE N = 359 % Placebo N = 364 % Ear and Labyrinth Disorders Vertigo 1.4 0.5 Gastrointestinal Disorders Diarrhea 3.3 2.7 Dry mouth 2.8 1.4 Constipation 1.4 0.3 Dyspepsia 1.4 0.8 General Disorders Peripheral edema 3.9 0.3 Pain 1.1 0.5 Infections and Infestations Nasopharyngitis 2.5 2.2 Urinary tract infection 1.7 0.5 Investigations Weight increased 1.9 0.5 Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders Pain in extremity 1.9 0.5 Back pain 1.7 1.1 Nervous System Disorders Dizziness 10.9 2.2 Somnolence 4.5 2.7 Headache 4.2 4.1 Lethargy 1.1 0.3 In addition to the adverse reactions reported in Table 4 above, the following adverse reactions with an uncertain relationship to GRALISE were reported during the clinical development for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Events in more than 1% of patients but equally or more frequently in the GRALISE-treated patients than in the placebo group included blood pressure increase, confusional state, gastroenteritis viral, herpes zoster, hypertension, joint swelling, memory impairment, nausea, pneumonia, pyrexia, rash, seasonal allergy, and upper respiratory infection. 6.2 Postmarketing and Other Experience with other Formulations of Gabapentin In addition to the adverse experiences reported during clinical testing of gabapentin, the following adverse experiences have been reported in patients receiving other formulations of marketed gabapentin. These adverse experiences have not been listed above and data are insufficient to support an estimate of their incidence or to establish causation. The listing is alphabetized: angioedema, blood glucose fluctuation, breast enlargement, elevated creatine kinase, elevated liver function tests, erythema multiforme, fever, hyponatremia, jaundice, movement disorder, Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Adverse events following the abrupt discontinuation of gabapentin immediate release have also been reported. The most frequently reported events were anxiety, insomnia, nausea, pain and sweating.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION GRALISE should be titrated to an 1800 mg dose taken orally, once-daily, with the evening meal. GRALISE tablets should be swallowed whole. Do not crush, split, or chew the tablets. (2.1) If GRALISE dose is reduced, discontinued, or substituted with an alternative medication, this should be done gradually over a minimum of 1 week or longer (at the discretion of the prescriber). (2.1) Renal impairment: Dose should be adjusted in patients with reduced renal function. GRALISE should not be used in patients with CrCl less than 30 or in patients on hemodialysis. (2.2) 2.1 Postherpetic Neuralgia Do not use GRALISE interchangeably with other gabapentin products. Titrate GRALISE to an 1800 mg dose taken orally once daily with the evening meal. GRALISE tablets should be swallowed whole. Do not split, crush, or chew the tablets. If GRALISE dose is reduced, discontinued, or substituted with an alternative medication, this should be done gradually over a minimum of one week or longer (at the discretion of the prescriber). In adults with postherpetic neuralgia, GRALISE therapy should be initiated and titrated as follows: Table 1: GRALISE Recommended Titration Schedule Day 1 Day 2 Days 3-6 Days 7-10 Days 11-14 Day 15 Daily Dose 300 mg 600 mg 900 mg 1200 mg 1500 mg 1800 mg 2.2 Patients with Renal Impairment In patients with stable renal function, creatinine clearance (CCr) can be reasonably well estimated using the equation of Cockcroft and Gault: For females CCr=(0.85)(140-age)(weight)/[(72)(SCr)] For males CCr=(140-age)(weight)/[(72)(SCr)] where age is in years, weight is in kilograms and SCr is serum creatinine in mg/dL. The dose of GRALISE should be adjusted in patients with reduced renal function, according to Table 2. Patients with reduced renal function must initiate GRALISE at a daily dose of 300 mg. GRALISE should be titrated following the schedule outlined in Table 1. Daily dosing in patients with reduced renal function must be individualized based on tolerability and desired clinical benefit. Table 2: GRALISE Dosage Based on Renal Function Once-daily dosing Creatinine Clearance (mL/min) GRALISE Dose (once daily with evening meal) ≥ 60 1800 mg 30 - 60 600 mg to 1800 mg < 30 GRALISE should not be administered patients receiving hemodialysis GRALISE should not be administered
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: GRALISE should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. (8.1) Nursing Mothers: GRALISE should be used in women who are nursing only if the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. (8.3) Elderly: Reductions in GRALISE dose should be made in patients with age-related compromised renal function. (8.5) Renal impairment: Dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with impaired renal function. (8.7) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C: Gabapentin has been shown to be fetotoxic in rodents, causing delayed ossification of several bones in the skull, vertebrae, forelimbs, and hindlimbs. These effects occurred when pregnant mice received oral doses of 1000 or 3000 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis, or approximately 3 to 8 times the maximum dose of 1800 mg/day given to PHN patients on a mg/m2 basis. The no effect level was 500 mg/kg/day representing approximately the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m2 body surface area (BSA) basis. When rats were dosed prior to and during mating, and throughout gestation, pups from all dose groups (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day) were affected. These doses are equivalent to approximately 3 to 11 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 BSA basis. There was an increased incidence of hydroureter and/or hydronephrosis in rats in a study of fertility and general reproductive performance at 2000 mg/kg/day with no effect at 1000 mg/kg/day, in a teratology study at 1500 mg/kg/day with no effect at 300 mg/kg/day, and in a perinatal and postnatal study at all doses studied (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day). The doses at which the effects occurred are approximately 3 to 11 times the maximum human dose of 1800 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis; the no-effect doses were approximately 5 times (Fertility and General Reproductive Performance study) and approximately equal to (Teratogenicity study) the maximum human dose on a mg/m2 BSA basis. Other than hydroureter and hydronephrosis, the etiologies of which are unclear, the incidence of malformations was not increased compared to controls in offspring of mice, rats, or rabbits given doses up to 100 times (mice), 60 times (rats), and 50 times (rabbits) the human daily dose on a mg/kg basis, or 8 times (mice), 10 times (rats), or 16 times (rabbits) the human daily dose on a mg/m2 BSA basis. In a teratology study in rabbits, an increased incidence of postimplantation fetal loss occurred in dams exposed to 60, 300, and 1500 mg/kg/day, or 0.6 to 16 times the maximum human dose on a mg/m2 BSA basis. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. This drug should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. To provide information regarding the effects of in utero exposure to GRALISE, physicians are advised to recommend that pregnant patients taking GRALISE enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry. This can be done by calling the toll free number 1-888-233-2334, and must be done by patients themselves. Information on the registry can also be found at the website http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Gabapentin is secreted into human milk following oral administration. A nursed infant could be exposed to a maximum dose of approximately 1 mg/kg/day of gabapentin. Because the effect on the nursing infant is unknown, GRALISE should be used in women who are nursing only if the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of GRALISE in the management of postherpetic neuralgia in patients less than 18 years of age has not been studied. 8.5 Geriatric Use The total number of patients treated with GRALISE in controlled clinical trials in patients with postherpetic neuralgia was 359, of which 63% were 65 years of age or older. The types and incidence of adverse events were similar across age groups except for peripheral edema, which tended to increase in incidence with age. GRALISE is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney. Reductions in GRALISE dose should be made in patients with age-related compromised renal function. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment Because gabapentin is not metabolized, studies have not been conducted in patients with hepatic impairment. 8.7 Renal Impairment GRALISE is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney. Dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with impaired renal function. GRALISE should not be administered in patients with CrCL between 15 and 30 or in patients undergoing hemodialysis. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers Gabapentin is secreted into human milk following oral administration. A nursed infant could be exposed to a maximum dose of approximately 1 mg/kg/day of gabapentin. Because the effect on the nursing infant is unknown, GRALISE should be used in women who are nursing only if the benefits clearly outweigh the risks.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS In vitro studies were conducted to investigate the potential of gabapentin to inhibit the major cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4) that mediate drug and xenobiotic metabolism using isoform selective marker substrates and human liver microsomal preparations. Only at the highest concentration tested (171 mcg/mL; 1mM) was a slight degree of inhibition (14% to 30%) of isoform CYP2A6 observed. No inhibition of any of the other isoforms tested was observed at gabapentin concentrations up to 171 mcg/mL (approximately 15 times the Cmax at 3600 mg/day). Gabapentin is not appreciably metabolized nor does it interfere with the metabolism of commonly coadministered antiepileptic drugs. The drug interaction data described in this section were obtained from studies involving healthy adults and adult patients with epilepsy. An increase in gabapentin AUC values have been reported when administered with hydrocodone. (7.6) An increase in gabapentin AUC values have been reported when administered with morphine. (7.7) An antacid containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide reduced the bioavailability of gabapentin immediate release by about approximately 20%, but by only 5% when gabapentin was taken 2 hours after antacids. It is recommended that GRALISE be taken at least 2 hours following antacid administration. (7.10) 7.1 Phenytoin In a single (400 mg) and multiple dose (400 mg three times daily) study of gabapentin immediate release in epileptic patients (N=8) maintained on phenytoin monotherapy for at least 2 months, gabapentin had no effect on the steady-state trough plasma concentrations of phenytoin and phenytoin had no effect on gabapentin pharmacokinetics. 7.2 Carbamazepine Steady-state trough plasma carbamazepine and carbamazepine 10, 11 epoxide concentrations were not affected by concomitant gabapentin immediate release (400 mg three times daily; N=12) administration. Likewise, gabapentin pharmacokinetics were unaltered by carbamazepine administration. 7.3 Valproic Acid The mean steady-state trough serum valproic acid concentrations prior to and during concomitant gabapentin immediate release administration (400 mg three times daily; N=17) were not different and neither were gabapentin pharmacokinetic parameters affected by valproic acid. 7.4 Phenobarbital Estimates of steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters for phenobarbital or gabapentin immediate release (300 mg three times daily; N=12) are identical whether the drugs are administered alone or together. 7.5 Naproxen Coadministration of single doses of naproxen (250 mg) and gabapentin immediate release (125 mg) to 18 volunteers increased gabapentin absorption by 12% to 15%. Gabapentin immediate release had no effect on naproxen pharmacokinetics. The doses are lower than the therapeutic doses for both drugs. The effect of coadministration of these drugs at therapeutic doses is not known. 7.6 Hydrocodone Coadministration of gabapentin immediate release (125 mg and 500 mg) and hydrocodone (10 mg) reduced hydrocodone Cmax by 3% and 21%, respectively, and AUC by 4% and 22%, respectively. The mechanism of this interaction is unknown. Gabapentin AUC values were increased by 14%; the magnitude of the interaction at other doses is not known. 7.7 Morphine When a single dose (60 mg) of controlled-release morphine capsule was administered 2 hours prior to a single dose (600 mg) of gabapentin immediate release in 12 volunteers, mean gabapentin AUC values increased by 44% compared to gabapentin immediate release administered without morphine. The pharmacokinetics of morphine were not affected by administration of gabapentin immediate release 2 hours after morphine. The magnitude of this interaction at other doses is not known. 7.8 Cimetidine Cimetidine 300 mg decreased the apparent oral clearance of gabapentin by 14% and creatinine clearance by 10%. The effect of gabapentin immediate release on cimetidine was not evaluated. This decrease is not expected to be clinically significant. 7.9 Oral Contraceptives Gabapentin immediate release (400 mg three times daily) had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of norethindrone (2.5 mg) or ethinyl estradiol (50 mcg) administered as a single tablet, except that the Cmax of norethindrone was increased by 13%. This interaction is not considered to be clinically significant. 7.10 Antacid (containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide) An antacid containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide reduced the bioavailability of gabapentin immediate release by about approximately 20%, but by only 5% when gabapentin immediate release was taken 2 hours after the antacid. It is recommended that GRALISE be taken at least 2 hours following the antacid (containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide) administration. 7.11 Probenecid Gabapentin immediate release pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable with and without probenecid, indicating that gabapentin does not undergo renal tubular secretion by the pathway that is blocked by probenecid. 7.12 Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions False positive readings were reported with the Ames-N-Multistix SG® dipstick test for urine protein when gabapentin was added to other antiepileptic drugs; therefore, the more specific sulfosalicylic acid precipitation procedure is recommended to determine the presence of urine protein.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA022544
Agency product number 6CW7F3G59X
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 50436-1262
Date Last Revised 07-11-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 1806382
Marketing authorisation holder Unit Dose Services