Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 04 March 2018

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE GLUCOPHAGE (metformin hydrochloride) Tablets is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults and children with type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLUCOPHAGE XR (metformin hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS GLUCOPHAGE and GLUCOPHAGE XR are contraindicated in patients with: 1.Severe renal impairment (eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2) (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS). 2.Known hypersensitivity to metformin hydrochloride. 3.Acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, with or without coma. Diabetic ketoacidosis should be treated with insulin.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General Lactic acidosis—There have been postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including fatal cases. These cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence; however, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe acidosis. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate concentrations (>5 mmol/L), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), and an increased lactate:pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels were generally >5 mcg/mL. Metformin decreases liver uptake of lactate increasing lactate blood levels which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis, especially in patients at risk. If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, general supportive measures should be instituted promptly in a hospital setting, along with immediate discontinuation of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR. In GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR treated patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of lactic acidosis, prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove accumulated metformin (metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions). Hemodialysis has often resulted in reversal of symptoms and recovery. Educate patients and their families about the symptoms of lactic acidosis and, if these symptoms occur, instruct them to discontinue GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and report these symptoms to their healthcare provider. For each of the known and possible risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis, recommendations to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis are provided below: Renal impairment—The postmarketing metformin-associated lactic acidosis cases primarily occurred in patients with significant renal impairment. The risk of metformin accumulation and metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the severity of renal impairment because metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney. Clinical recommendations based upon the patient’s renal function include (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY): • Before initiating GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR, obtain an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) • GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). • Initiation of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR is not recommended in patients with eGFR between 30-45 mL/min/1.73 m2. • Obtain an eGFR at least annually in all patients taking GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR.In patients at risk for the development of renal impairment (e.g., the elderly); renal function should be assessed more frequently. • In patients taking GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR whose eGFR falls below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2, assess the benefit and risk of continuing therapy. Drug interactions—The concomitant use of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR with specific drugs may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis: those that impair renal function, result in significant hemodynamic change, interfere with acid-base balance, or increase metformin accumulation. Consider more frequent monitoring of patients. Age 65 or greater—The risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the patient’s age because elderly patients have a greater likelihood of having hepatic, renal, or cardiac impairment than younger patients. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients. Radiologic studies with contrast—Administration of intravascular iodinated contrast agents in metformin-treated patients has led to an acute decrease in renal function and the occurrence of lactic acidosis. Stop GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2; in patients with a history of hepatic impairment, alcoholism or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure, and restart GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR if renal function is stable. Surgery and other procedures—Withholding of food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase the risk for volume depletion, hypotension, and renal impairment. GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake. Hypoxic states—Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in the setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia). Cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may cause prerenal azotemia. When such an event occurs, discontinue GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR. Excessive alcohol intake—Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Patients, therefore, should be warned against excessive alcohol intake, acute or chronic, while receiving GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR. Hepatic impairment—Patients with hepatic impairment have developed cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. This may be due to impaired lactate clearance resulting in higher lactate blood levels. Therefore, avoid use of GLUCOPHAGE and GLUCOPHAGE XR in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease. Vitamin B12 levels—In controlled clinical trials of GLUCOPHAGE of 29 weeks duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex, is, however, very rarely associated with anemia and appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of GLUCOPHAGE or vitamin B12 supplementation. Measurement of hematologic parameters on an annual basis is advised in patients on GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and any apparent abnormalities should be appropriately investigated and managed (see PRECAUTIONS: Laboratory Tests). Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B12 levels. In these patients, routine serum vitamin B12 measurements at 2- to 3-year intervals may be useful. Hypoglycemia—Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR alone under usual circumstances of use, but could occur when caloric intake is deficient, when strenuous exercise is not compensated by caloric supplementation, or during concomitant use with other glucose-lowering agents (such as sulfonylureas and insulin) or ethanol. Elderly, debilitated, or malnourished patients, and those with adrenal or pituitary insufficiency or alcohol intoxication are particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic effects. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly, and in people who are taking beta-adrenergic blocking drugs. Macrovascular outcomes—There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR or any other antidiabetic drug. Information for Patients Patients should be informed of the potential risks and benefits of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and of alternative modes of therapy. They should also be informed about the importance of adherence to dietary instructions, of a regular exercise program, and of regular testing of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, renal function, and hematologic parameters. The risks of lactic acidosis, its symptoms, and conditions that predispose to its development, as noted in the WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections, should be explained to patients. Patients should be advised to discontinue GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR immediately and to promptly notify their health practitioner if unexplained hyperventilation, myalgia, malaise, unusual somnolence, or other nonspecific symptoms occur. Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR, gastrointestinal symptoms, which are common during initiation of metformin therapy, are unlikely to be drug related. Later occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease. Patients should be counseled against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, while receiving GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR. GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR alone does not usually cause hypoglycemia, although it may occur when GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR is used in conjunction with oral sulfonylureas and insulin. When initiating combination therapy, the risks of hypoglycemia, its symptoms and treatment, and conditions that predispose to its development should be explained to patients and responsible family members. (See Patient Information printed below.) Patients should be informed that GLUCOPHAGE XR must be swallowed whole and not crushed or chewed, and that the inactive ingredients may occasionally be eliminated in the feces as a soft mass that may resemble the original tablet. Laboratory Tests Response to all diabetic therapies should be monitored by periodic measurements of fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, with a goal of decreasing these levels toward the normal range. During initial dose titration, fasting glucose can be used to determine the therapeutic response. Thereafter, both glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin should be monitored. Measurements of glycosylated hemoglobin may be especially useful for evaluating long-term control (see also DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Initial and periodic monitoring of hematologic parameters (e.g., hemoglobin/hematocrit and red blood cell indices) and renal function (serum creatinine) should be performed, at least on an annual basis. While megaloblastic anemia has rarely been seen with GLUCOPHAGE therapy, if this is suspected, vitamin B 12 deficiency should be excluded. Instruct patients to inform their doctor that they are taking GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR prior to any surgical or radiological procedure, as temporary discontinuation of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR may be required until renal function has been confirmed to be normal (see PRECAUTIONS). Drug Interactions (Clinical Evaluation of Drug Interactions Conducted with GLUCOPHAGE) Glyburide—In a single-dose interaction study in type 2 diabetes patients, coadministration of metformin and glyburide did not result in any changes in either metformin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Decreases in glyburide AUC and C max were observed, but were highly variable. The single-dose nature of this study and the lack of correlation between glyburide blood levels and pharmacodynamic effects, makes the clinical significance of this interaction uncertain (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Concomitant GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and Oral Sulfonylurea Therapy in Adult Patients ). Furosemide—A single-dose, metformin-furosemide drug interaction study in healthy subjects demonstrated that pharmacokinetic parameters of both compounds were affected by coadministration. Furosemide increased the metformin plasma and blood C max by 22% and blood AUC by 15%, without any significant change in metformin renal clearance. When administered with metformin, the C max and AUC of furosemide were 31% and 12% smaller, respectively, than when administered alone, and the terminal half-life was decreased by 32%, without any significant change in furosemide renal clearance. No information is available about the interaction of metformin and furosemide when coadministered chronically. Nifedipine—A single-dose, metformin-nifedipine drug interaction study in normal healthy volunteers demonstrated that coadministration of nifedipine increased plasma metformin C max and AUC by 20% and 9%, respectively, and increased the amount excreted in the urine. T max and half-life were unaffected. Nifedipine appears to enhance the absorption of metformin. Metformin had minimal effects on nifedipine. Drugs that reduce metformin clearance— Concomitant use of drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2] / multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE] inhibitors such as ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine) could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use. Such interaction between metformin and oral cimetidine has been observed in normal healthy volunteers in both single- and multiple-dose, metformin-cimetidine drug interaction studies, with a 60% increase in peak metformin plasma and whole blood concentrations and a 40% increase in plasma and whole blood metformin AUC. There was no change in elimination half-life in the single-dose study. Metformin had no effect on cimetidine pharmacokinetics. In healthy volunteers, the pharmacokinetics of metformin and propranolol, and metformin and ibuprofen were not affected when coadministered in single-dose interaction studies. Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins and is, therefore, less likely to interact with highly protein-bound drugs such as salicylates, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, and probenecid, as compared to the sulfonylureas, which are extensively bound to serum proteins. Other—Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. These drugs include the thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blocking drugs, and isoniazid. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR, the patient should be closely observed for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR, the patient should be observed closely for hypoglycemia. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors—Topiramate or other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., zonisamide, acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide) frequently cause a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of these drugs with GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR may increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Consider more frequent monitoring of these patients. Alcohol—Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving GLUCOPHAGE OR GLUCOPHAGE XR. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long-term carcinogenicity studies have been performed in rats (dosing duration of 104 weeks) and mice (dosing duration of 91 weeks) at doses up to and including 900 mg/kg/day and 1500 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are both approximately 4 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2000 mg based on body surface area comparisons. No evidence of carcinogenicity with metformin was found in either male or female mice. Similarly, there was no tumorigenic potential observed with metformin in male rats. There was, however, an increased incidence of benign stromal uterine polyps in female rats treated with 900 mg/kg/day. There was no evidence of a mutagenic potential of metformin in the following in vitro tests: Ames test ( S. typhimurium), gene mutation test (mouse lymphoma cells), or chromosomal aberrations test (human lymphocytes). Results in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test were also negative. Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin when administered at doses as high as 600 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 3 times the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area comparisons. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B Recent information strongly suggests that abnormal blood glucose levels during pregnancy are associated with a higher incidence of congenital abnormalities. Most experts recommend that insulin be used during pregnancy to maintain blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, GLUCOPHAGE and GLUCOPHAGE XR should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly needed. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women with GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR. Metformin was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day. This represents an exposure of about 2 and 6 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2000 mg based on body surface area comparisons for rats and rabbits, respectively. Determination of fetal concentrations demonstrated a partial placental barrier to metformin. Nursing Mothers Studies in lactating rats show that metformin is excreted into milk and reaches levels comparable to those in plasma. Similar studies have not been conducted in nursing mothers. Because the potential for hypoglycemia in nursing infants may exist, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. If GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR is discontinued, and if diet alone is inadequate for controlling blood glucose, insulin therapy should be considered. Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of GLUCOPHAGE for the treatment of type 2 diabetes have been established in pediatric patients ages 10 to 16 years (studies have not been conducted in pediatric patients below the age of 10 years). Use of GLUCOPHAGE in this age group is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of GLUCOPHAGE in adults with additional data from a controlled clinical study in pediatric patients ages 10 to 16 years with type 2 diabetes, which demonstrated a similar response in glycemic control to that seen in adults. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY : Pediatric Clinical Studies . ) In this study, adverse effects were similar to those described in adults. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS : Pediatric Patients.) A maximum daily dose of 2000 mg is recommended. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION : Recommended Dosing Schedule: Pediatrics.) Safety and effectiveness of GLUCOPHAGE XR in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use Controlled clinical studies of GLUCOPHAGE and GLUCOPHAGE XR did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients, although other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy and the higher risk of lactic acidosis. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS In a US double-blind clinical study of GLUCOPHAGE in patients with type 2 diabetes, a total of 141 patients received GLUCOPHAGE therapy (up to 2550 mg per day) and 145 patients received placebo. Adverse reactions reported in greater than 5% of the GLUCOPHAGE patients, and that were more common in GLUCOPHAGE- than placebo-treated patients, are listed in Table 11. Table 11: Most Common Adverse Reactions (>5.0 Percent) in a Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study of GLUCOPHAGE Monotherapy* Adverse Reaction GLUCOPHAGE Monotherapy (n=141) Placebo (n=145) % of Patients * Reactions that were more common in GLUCOPHAGE- than placebo-treated patients. Diarrhea 53.2 11.7 Nausea/Vomiting 25.5 8.3 Flatulence 12.1 5.5 Asthenia 9.2 5.5 Indigestion 7.1 4.1 Abdominal Discomfort 6.4 4.8 Headache 5.7 4.8 Diarrhea led to discontinuation of study medication in 6% of patients treated with GLUCOPHAGE. Additionally, the following adverse reactions were reported in ≥1.0% to ≤5.0% of GLUCOPHAGE patients and were more commonly reported with GLUCOPHAGE than placebo: abnormal stools, hypoglycemia, myalgia, lightheaded, dyspnea, nail disorder, rash, sweating increased, taste disorder, chest discomfort, chills, flu syndrome, flushing, palpitation. In worldwide clinical trials over 900 patients with type 2 diabetes have been treated with GLUCOPHAGE XR in placebo- and active-controlled studies. In placebo-controlled trials, 781 patients were administered GLUCOPHAGE XR and 195 patients received placebo. Adverse reactions reported in greater than 5% of the GLUCOPHAGE XR patients, and that were more common in GLUCOPHAGE XR- than placebo-treated patients, are listed in Table 12. Table 12: Most Common Adverse Reactions (>5.0 Percent) in Placebo-Controlled Studies of GLUCOPHAGE XR* Adverse Reaction GLUCOPHAGE XR (n=781) Placebo (n=195) % of Patients * Reactions that were more common in GLUCOPHAGE XR- than placebo-treated patients. Diarrhea 9.6 2.6 Nausea/Vomiting 6.5 1.5 Diarrhea led to discontinuation of study medication in 0.6% of patients treated with GLUCOPHAGE XR. Additionally, the following adverse reactions were reported in ≥1.0% to ≤5.0% of GLUCOPHAGE XR patients and were more commonly reported with GLUCOPHAGE XR than placebo: abdominal pain, constipation, distention abdomen, dyspepsia/heartburn, flatulence, dizziness, headache, upper respiratory infection, taste disturbance. Cholestatic, hepatocellular, and mixed hepatocellular liver injury have been reported with postmarketing use of metformin. Pediatric Patients In clinical trials with GLUCOPHAGE in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes, the profile of adverse reactions was similar to that observed in adults.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION There is no fixed dosage regimen for the management of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes with GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR or any other pharmacologic agent. Dosage of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR must be individualized on the basis of both effectiveness and tolerance, while not exceeding the maximum recommended daily doses. The maximum recommended daily dose of GLUCOPHAGE is 2550 mg in adults and 2000 mg in pediatric patients (10-16 years of age); the maximum recommended daily dose of GLUCOPHAGE XR in adults is 2000 mg. GLUCOPHAGE should be given in divided doses with meals while GLUCOPHAGE XR should generally be given once daily with the evening meal. GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR should be started at a low dose, with gradual dose escalation, both to reduce gastrointestinal side effects and to permit identification of the minimum dose required for adequate glycemic control of the patient. During treatment initiation and dose titration (see Recommended Dosing Schedule), fasting plasma glucose should be used to determine the therapeutic response to GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and identify the minimum effective dose for the patient. Thereafter, glycosylated hemoglobin should be measured at intervals of approximately 3 months. The therapeutic goal should be to decrease both fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels to normal or near normal by using the lowest effective dose of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR, either when used as monotherapy or in combination with sulfonylurea or insulin. Monitoring of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin will also permit detection of primary failure, i.e., inadequate lowering of blood glucose at the maximum recommended dose of medication, and secondary failure, i.e., loss of an adequate blood glucose lowering response after an initial period of effectiveness. Short-term administration of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR may be sufficient during periods of transient loss of control in patients usually well-controlled on diet alone. GLUCOPHAGE XR tablets must be swallowed whole and never crushed or chewed. Occasionally, the inactive ingredients of GLUCOPHAGE XR will be eliminated in the feces as a soft, hydrated mass. (See Patient Information printed below.) Recommended Dosing Schedule Adults The usual starting dose of GLUCOPHAGE Tablets is 500 mg twice a day or 850 mg once a day, given with meals. In general, clinically significant responses are not seen at doses below 1500 mg per day. Dosage increases should be made in increments of 500 mg weekly or 850 mg every 2 weeks, up to a total of 2000 mg per day, given in divided doses. The dosage of GLUCOPHAGE must be individualized on the basis of both effectiveness and tolerability. Patients can also be titrated from 500 mg twice a day to 850 mg twice a day after 2 weeks. For those patients requiring additional glycemic control, GLUCOPHAGE may be given to a maximum daily dose of 2550 mg per day. Doses above 2000 mg may be better tolerated given 3 times a day with meals. The usual starting dose of GLUCOPHAGE XR (metformin hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets is 500 mg once daily with the evening meal. In general, clinically significant responses are not seen at doses below 1500 mg per day. Dosage increases should be made in increments of 500 mg weekly, up to a maximum of 2000 mg once daily with the evening meal. The dosage of GLUCOPHAGE XR must be individualized on the basis of both effectiveness and tolerability. If glycemic control is not achieved on GLUCOPHAGE XR 2000 mg once daily, a trial of GLUCOPHAGE XR 1000 mg twice daily should be considered. If higher doses of metformin are required, GLUCOPHAGE should be used at total daily doses up to 2550 mg administered in divided daily doses, as described above. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY : Clinical Studies.) Patients receiving GLUCOPHAGE treatment may be safely switched to GLUCOPHAGE XR once daily at the same total daily dose, up to 2000 mg once daily. Following a switch from GLUCOPHAGE to GLUCOPHAGE XR, glycemic control should be closely monitored and dosage adjustments made accordingly (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY : Clinical Studies). Pediatrics The usual starting dose of GLUCOPHAGE is 500 mg twice a day, given with meals. Dosage increases should be made in increments of 500 mg weekly up to a maximum of 2000 mg per day, given in divided doses. The dosage of GLUCOPHAGE must be individualized on the basis of both effectiveness and tolerability. Safety and effectiveness of GLUCOPHAGE XR in pediatric patients have not been established. Recommendations for Use in Renal Impairment Assess renal function prior to initiation of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and periodically thereafter. GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR is contraindicated in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 30 mL/minute/1.73 m 2. Initiation of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR in patients with an eGFR between 30 – 45 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 is not recommended. In patients taking GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR whose eGFR later falls below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2, assess the benefit risk of continuing therapy. Discontinue GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR if the patient’s eGFR later falls below 30 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ). Discontinuation for Iodinated Contrast Imaging Procedures Discontinue GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2; in patients with a history of liver disease, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure; restart GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR if renal function is stable. Concomitant GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and Oral Sulfonylurea Therapy in Adult Patients If patients have not responded to 4 weeks of the maximum dose of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR monotherapy, consideration should be given to gradual addition of an oral sulfonylurea while continuing GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR at the maximum dose, even if prior primary or secondary failure to a sulfonylurea has occurred. Clinical and pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction data are currently available only for metformin plus glyburide (glibenclamide). With concomitant GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and sulfonylurea therapy, the desired control of blood glucose may be obtained by adjusting the dose of each drug. In a clinical trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and prior failure on glyburide, patients started on GLUCOPHAGE 500 mg and glyburide 20 mg were titrated to 1000/20 mg, 1500/20 mg, 2000/20 mg, or 2500/20 mg of GLUCOPHAGE and glyburide, respectively, to reach the goal of glycemic control as measured by FPG, HbA 1c, and plasma glucose response (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY : Clinical Studies ). However, attempts should be made to identify the minimum effective dose of each drug to achieve this goal. With concomitant GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and sulfonylurea therapy, the risk of hypoglycemia associated with sulfonylurea therapy continues and may be increased. Appropriate precautions should be taken. (See Package Insert of the respective sulfonylurea.) If patients have not satisfactorily responded to 1 to 3 months of concomitant therapy with the maximum dose of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and the maximum dose of an oral sulfonylurea, consider therapeutic alternatives including switching to insulin with or without GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR. Concomitant GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and Insulin Therapy in Adult Patients The current insulin dose should be continued upon initiation of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR therapy. GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR therapy should be initiated at 500 mg once daily in patients on insulin therapy. For patients not responding adequately, the dose of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR should be increased by 500 mg after approximately 1 week and by 500 mg every week thereafter until adequate glycemic control is achieved. The maximum recommended daily dose is 2500 mg for GLUCOPHAGE and 2000 mg for GLUCOPHAGE XR. It is recommended that the insulin dose be decreased by 10% to 25% when fasting plasma glucose concentrations decrease to less than 120 mg/dL in patients receiving concomitant insulin and GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR. Further adjustment should be individualized based on glucose-lowering response. Specific Patient Populations GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR are not recommended for use in pregnancy. GLUCOPHAGE is not recommended in patients below the age of 10 years. GLUCOPHAGE XR is not recommended in pediatric patients (below the age of 17 years). The initial and maintenance dosing of GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR should be conservative in patients with advanced age, due to the potential for decreased renal function in this population. Any dosage adjustment should be based on a careful assessment of renal function.
Use in special populations
Specific Populations Patients with Type 2 Diabetes In the presence of normal renal function, there are no differences between single- or multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of metformin between patients with type 2 diabetes and normal subjects (see Table 1), nor is there any accumulation of metformin in either group at usual clinical doses. The pharmacokinetics of GLUCOPHAGE XR in patients with type 2 diabetes are comparable to those in healthy normal adults. Renal Impairment In patients with decreased renal function, the plasma and blood half-life of metformin is prolonged and the renal clearance is decreased (see Table 1; also see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS , and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Hepatic Impairment No pharmacokinetic studies of metformin have been conducted in patients with hepatic insufficiency (see PRECAUTIONS). Geriatrics Limited data from controlled pharmacokinetic studies of GLUCOPHAGE in healthy elderly subjects suggest that total plasma clearance of metformin is decreased, the half-life is prolonged, and C max is increased, compared to healthy young subjects. From these data, it appears that the change in metformin pharmacokinetics with aging is primarily accounted for by a change in renal function (see Table 1; also see WARNINGS , PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Table 1: Select Mean (±S.D.) Metformin Pharmacokinetic Parameters Following Single or Multiple Oral Doses of GLUCOPHAGE Subject Groups: GLUCOPHAGE dose a (number of subjects) C max b (µg/mL) T max c (hrs) Renal Clearance (mL/min) a All doses given fasting except the first 18 doses of the multiple dose studies b Peak plasma concentration c Time to peak plasma concentration d Combined results (average means) of five studies: mean age 32 years (range 23-59 years) e Kinetic study done following dose 19, given fasting f Elderly subjects, mean age 71 years (range 65-81 years) g CL cr = creatinine clearance normalized to body surface area of 1.73 m 2 Healthy, nondiabetic adults: 500 mg single dose (24) 1.03 (±0.33) 2.75 (±0.81) 600 (±132) 850 mg single dose (74) d 1.60 (±0.38) 2.64 (±0.82) 552 (±139) 850 mg three times daily for 19 doses e (9) 2.01 (±0.42) 1.79 (±0.94) 642 (±173) Adults with type 2 diabetes: 850 mg single dose (23) 1.48 (±0.5) 3.32 (±1.08) 491 (±138) 850 mg three times daily for 19 doses e (9) 1.90 (±0.62) 2.01 (±1.22) 550 (±160) Elderly f, healthy nondiabetic adults: 850 mg single dose (12) 2.45 (±0.70) 2.71 (±1.05) 412 (±98) Renal-impaired adults: 850 mg single dose Mild (CL cr g 61-90 mL/min) (5) 1.86 (±0.52) 3.20 (±0.45) 384 (±122) Moderate (CL cr 31-60 mL/min) (4) 4.12 (±1.83) 3.75 (±0.50) 108 (±57) Severe (CL cr 10-30 mL/min) (6) 3.93 (±0.92) 4.01 (±1.10) 130 (±90) Pediatrics After administration of a single oral GLUCOPHAGE 500 mg tablet with food, geometric mean metformin C max and AUC differed less than 5% between pediatric type 2 diabetic patients (12-16 years of age) and gender- and weight-matched healthy adults (20-45 years of age), all with normal renal function. Gender Metformin pharmacokinetic parameters did not differ significantly between normal subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes when analyzed according to gender (males = 19, females = 16). Similarly, in controlled clinical studies in patients with type 2 diabetes, the antihyperglycemic effect of GLUCOPHAGE was comparable in males and females. Race No studies of metformin pharmacokinetic parameters according to race have been performed. In controlled clinical studies of GLUCOPHAGE in patients with type 2 diabetes, the antihyperglycemic effect was comparable in whites (n=249), blacks (n=51), and Hispanics (n=24).
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Studies in lactating rats show that metformin is excreted into milk and reaches levels comparable to those in plasma. Similar studies have not been conducted in nursing mothers. Because the potential for hypoglycemia in nursing infants may exist, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. If GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR is discontinued, and if diet alone is inadequate for controlling blood glucose, insulin therapy should be considered.

Interactions

Drug Interactions (Clinical Evaluation of Drug Interactions Conducted with GLUCOPHAGE) Glyburide—In a single-dose interaction study in type 2 diabetes patients, coadministration of metformin and glyburide did not result in any changes in either metformin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Decreases in glyburide AUC and C max were observed, but were highly variable. The single-dose nature of this study and the lack of correlation between glyburide blood levels and pharmacodynamic effects, makes the clinical significance of this interaction uncertain (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Concomitant GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and Oral Sulfonylurea Therapy in Adult Patients ). Furosemide—A single-dose, metformin-furosemide drug interaction study in healthy subjects demonstrated that pharmacokinetic parameters of both compounds were affected by coadministration. Furosemide increased the metformin plasma and blood C max by 22% and blood AUC by 15%, without any significant change in metformin renal clearance. When administered with metformin, the C max and AUC of furosemide were 31% and 12% smaller, respectively, than when administered alone, and the terminal half-life was decreased by 32%, without any significant change in furosemide renal clearance. No information is available about the interaction of metformin and furosemide when coadministered chronically. Nifedipine—A single-dose, metformin-nifedipine drug interaction study in normal healthy volunteers demonstrated that coadministration of nifedipine increased plasma metformin C max and AUC by 20% and 9%, respectively, and increased the amount excreted in the urine. T max and half-life were unaffected. Nifedipine appears to enhance the absorption of metformin. Metformin had minimal effects on nifedipine. Drugs that reduce metformin clearance— Concomitant use of drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2] / multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE] inhibitors such as ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine) could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use. Such interaction between metformin and oral cimetidine has been observed in normal healthy volunteers in both single- and multiple-dose, metformin-cimetidine drug interaction studies, with a 60% increase in peak metformin plasma and whole blood concentrations and a 40% increase in plasma and whole blood metformin AUC. There was no change in elimination half-life in the single-dose study. Metformin had no effect on cimetidine pharmacokinetics. In healthy volunteers, the pharmacokinetics of metformin and propranolol, and metformin and ibuprofen were not affected when coadministered in single-dose interaction studies. Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins and is, therefore, less likely to interact with highly protein-bound drugs such as salicylates, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, and probenecid, as compared to the sulfonylureas, which are extensively bound to serum proteins. Other—Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. These drugs include the thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blocking drugs, and isoniazid. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR, the patient should be closely observed for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR, the patient should be observed closely for hypoglycemia. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors—Topiramate or other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., zonisamide, acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide) frequently cause a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of these drugs with GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR may increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Consider more frequent monitoring of these patients. Alcohol—Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving GLUCOPHAGE OR GLUCOPHAGE XR.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA020357
Agency product number 786Z46389E
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 55289-211
Date Last Revised 21-02-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 861007
Storage and handling Storage Store at 20°–25° C (68°–77° F); excursions permitted to 15°–30° C (59°–86° F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Dispense in light-resistant containers.
Marketing authorisation holder PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Warnings WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset of metformin-associated lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (>5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL (see PRECAUTIONS ). Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (e.g.carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment. Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and PRECAUTIONS ). If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, immediately discontinue GLUCOPHAGE or GLUCOPHAGE XR and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended (see PRECAUTIONS ).