Data from FDA - Curated by Marshall Pearce - Last updated 06 November 2017

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Gemcitabine is a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor indicated for: •Ovarian cancer in combination with carboplatin (1.1) •Breast cancer in combination with paclitaxel (1.2) •Non-small cell lung cancer in combination with cisplatin (1.3) •Pancreatic cancer as a single-agent (1.4) 1.1 Ovarian Cancer Gemcitabine Injection in combination with carboplatin is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer that has relapsed at least 6 months after completion of platinum-based therapy. 1.2 Breast Cancer Gemcitabine Injection in combination with paclitaxel is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy, unless anthracyclines were clinically contraindicated. 1.3 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Gemcitabine Injection is indicated in combination with cisplatin for the first-line treatment of patients with inoperable, locally advanced (Stage IIIA or IIIB), or metastatic (Stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer. 1.4 Pancreatic Cancer Gemcitabine Injection is indicated as first-line treatment for patients with locally advanced (nonresectable Stage II or Stage III) or metastatic (Stage IV) adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Gemcitabine Injection is indicated for patients previously treated with 5-FU.

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contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Gemcitabine Injection is contraindicated in those patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drug. Patients with a known hypersensitivity to gemcitabine (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in another section of the label •Schedule-Dependent Toxicity [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] •Myelosuppression [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] •Pulmonary Toxicity and Respiratory Failure [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] •Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] •Hepatic Toxicity [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] •Embryo-fetal Toxicity [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) , Use in Specific Populations (8.1) , and Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1) ] •Exacerbation of Radiation Toxicity [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ] •Capillary Leak Syndrome [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ] •Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) ]. The most common adverse reactions for the single-agent (≥20%) are nausea and vomiting, anemia, ALT, AST, neutropenia, leukopenia, alkaline phosphatase, proteinuria, fever, hematuria, rash, thrombocytopenia, dyspnea (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Hospira, Inc. at 1-800-441-4100 or electronically at [email protected], or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Most adverse reactions are reversible and do not need to result in discontinuation, although doses may need to be withheld or reduced. Gemcitabine has been used in a wide variety of malignancies, both as a single-agent and in combination with other cytotoxic drugs. Single-Agent Use Myelosuppression is the principal dose-limiting toxicity with gemcitabine therapy. Dosage adjustments for hematologic toxicity are frequently needed [ see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4)]. The data in Table 4 are based on 979 patients receiving gemcitabine as a single-agent administered weekly as a 30-minute infusion for treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. The gemcitabine starting doses ranged from 800 to 1250 mg/m2. Data are also shown for the subset of patients with pancreatic cancer treated in 5 clinical studies. The frequency of all grades and severe (WHO Grade 3 or 4) adverse reactions were generally similar in the single-agent safety database of 979 patients and the subset of patients with pancreatic cancer. Adverse reactions reported in the single-agent safety database resulted in discontinuation of gemcitabine therapy in about 10% of patients. In the comparative trial in pancreatic cancer, the discontinuation rate for adverse reactions was 14.3% for the gemcitabine arm and 4.8% for the 5-FU arm. All WHO-graded laboratory adverse reactions are listed in Table 4, regardless of causality. Non-laboratory adverse reactions listed in Table 4 or discussed below were those reported, regardless of causality, for at least 10% of all patients, except the categories of Extravasation, Allergic, and Cardiovascular and certain specific adverse reactions under the Renal, Pulmonary, and Infection categories. Table 4: Selected WHO-Graded Adverse Reactions in Patients Receiving Single-Agent Gemcitabine WHO Grades (% incidence)a a Grade based on criteria from the World Health Organization (WHO). b N=699-974; all patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. c N=161-241; all pancreatic cancer patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. d N=979. e Regardless of causality. f Table includes non-laboratory data with incidence for all patients ≥10%. For approximately 60% of the patients, non-laboratory adverse reactions were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related. All Patientsb Pancreatic Cancer Patientsc Discontinuations (%)d All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 All Patients Laboratorye Hematologic Anemia Leukopenia Neutropenia Thrombocytopenia 68 62 63 24 7 9 19 4 1 <1 6 1 73 64 61 36 8 8 17 7 2 1 7 <1 <1 <1 - <1 Hepatic ALT AST Alkaline Phosphatase Bilirubin 68 67 55 13 8 6 7 2 2 2 2 <1 72 78 77 26 10 12 16 6 1 5 4 2 <1 Renal Proteinuria Hematuria BUN Creatinine 45 35 16 8 <1 <1 0 <1 0 0 0 0 32 23 15 6 <1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <1 Non-laboratoryf Nausea and Vomiting Fever Rash Dyspnea Diarrhea Hemorrhage Infection Alopecia Stomatitis Somnolence Paresthesias 69 41 30 23 19 17 16 15 11 11 10 13 2 <1 3 1 <1 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 1 0 0 <1 0 <1 <1 0 0 <1 0 71 38 28 10 30 4 10 16 10 11 10 10 2 <1 0 3 2 2 0 <1 2 <1 2 0 0 <1 0 <1 <1 0 0 <1 0 <1 <1 <1 <1 0 <1 <1 0 <1 <1 0 Hematologic - In studies in pancreatic cancer myelosuppression is the dose-limiting toxicity with gemcitabine, but <1% of patients discontinued therapy for either anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia. Red blood cell transfusions were required by 19% of patients. The incidence of sepsis was less than 1%. Petechiae or mild blood loss (hemorrhage), from any cause, was reported in 16% of patients; less than 1% of patients required platelet transfusions. Patients should be monitored for myelosuppression during gemcitabine therapy and dosage modified or suspended according to the degree of hematologic toxicity [ see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4)] . Gastrointestinal - Nausea and vomiting were commonly reported (69%) but were usually of mild to moderate severity. Severe nausea and vomiting (WHO Grade 3/4) occurred in <15% of patients. Diarrhea was reported by 19% of patients, and stomatitis by 11% of patients. Hepatic - In clinical trials, gemcitabine was associated with transient elevations of one or both serum transaminases in approximately 70% of patients, but there was no evidence of increasing hepatic toxicity with either longer duration of exposure to gemcitabine or with greater total cumulative dose. Serious hepatotoxicity, including liver failure and death, has been reported very rarely in patients receiving gemcitabine alone or in combination with other potentially hepatotoxic drugs [ see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ] . Renal - In clinical trials, mild proteinuria and hematuria were commonly reported. Clinical findings consistent with the Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) were reported in 6 of 2429 patients (0.25%) receiving gemcitabine in clinical trials. Four patients developed HUS on gemcitabine therapy, 2 immediately posttherapy. The diagnosis of HUS should be considered if the patient develops anemia with evidence of microangiopathic hemolysis, elevation of bilirubin or LDH, reticulocytosis, severe thrombocytopenia, and/or evidence of renal failure (elevation of serum creatinine or BUN). Gemcitabine therapy should be discontinued immediately. Renal failure may not be reversible even with discontinuation of therapy and dialysis may be required [ see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ] . Fever - The overall incidence of fever was 41%. This is in contrast to the incidence of infection (16%) and indicates that gemcitabine may cause fever in the absence of clinical infection. Fever was frequently associated with other flu-like symptoms and was usually mild and clinically manageable. Rash - Rash was reported in 30% of patients. The rash was typically a macular or finely granular maculopapular pruritic eruption of mild to moderate severity involving the trunk and extremities. Pruritus was reported for 13% of patients. Pulmonary - In clinical trials, dyspnea, unrelated to underlying disease, has been reported in association with gemcitabine therapy. Dyspnea was occasionally accompanied by bronchospasm. Pulmonary toxicity has been reported with the use of gemcitabine [ see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ] . The etiology of these effects is unknown. If such effects develop, gemcitabine should be discontinued. Early use of supportive care measures may help ameliorate these conditions. Edema - Edema (13%), peripheral edema (20%), and generalized edema (<1%) were reported. Less than 1% of patients discontinued due to edema. Flu-like Symptoms - "Flu syndrome" was reported for 19% of patients. Individual symptoms of fever, asthenia, anorexia, headache, cough, chills, and myalgia were commonly reported. Fever and asthenia were also reported frequently as isolated symptoms. Insomnia, rhinitis, sweating, and malaise were reported infrequently. Less than 1% of patients discontinued due to flu-like symptoms. Infection - Infections were reported for 16% of patients. Sepsis was rarely reported (<1%). Alopecia - Hair loss, usually minimal, was reported by 15% of patients. Neurotoxicity - There was a 10% incidence of mild paresthesias and a <1% rate of severe paresthesias. Extravasation - Injection-site related events were reported for 4% of patients. There were no reports of injection site necrosis. Gemcitabine is not a vesicant. Allergic - Bronchospasm was reported for less than 2% of patients. Anaphylactoid reaction has been reported rarely. Gemcitabine should not be administered to patients with a known hypersensitivity to this drug [ see Contraindications (4) ]. Cardiovascular - During clinical trials, 2% of patients discontinued therapy with gemcitabine due to cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, arrhythmia, and hypertension. Many of these patients had a prior history of cardiovascular disease [ see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ]. Combination Use in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer In the gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus cisplatin study, dose adjustments occurred with 35% of gemcitabine injections and 17% of cisplatin injections on the combination arm, versus 6% on the cisplatin-only arm. Dose adjustments were required in greater than 90% of patients on the combination, versus 16% on cisplatin. Study discontinuations for possibly drug-related adverse reactions occurred in 15% of patients on the combination arm and 8% of patients on the cisplatin arm. With a median of 4 cycles of gemcitabine plus cisplatin treatment, 94 of 262 patients (36%) experienced a total of 149 hospitalizations due to possibly treatment-related adverse reactions. With a median of 2 cycles of cisplatin treatment, 61 of 260 patients (23%) experienced 78 hospitalizations due to possibly treatment-related adverse reactions. In the gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus etoposide plus cisplatin study, dose adjustments occurred with 20% of gemcitabine injections and 16% of cisplatin injections in the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm compared with 20% of etoposide injections and 15% of cisplatin injections in the etoposide plus cisplatin arm. With a median of 5 cycles of gemcitabine plus cisplatin treatment, 15 of 69 patients (22%) experienced 15 hospitalizations due to possibly treatment-related adverse reactions. With a median of 4 cycles of etoposide plus cisplatin treatment, 18 of 66 patients (27%) experienced 22 hospitalizations due to possibly treatment-related adverse reactions. In patients who completed more than one cycle, dose adjustments were reported in 81% of the gemcitabine plus cisplatin patients, compared with 68% on the etoposide plus cisplatin arm. Study discontinuations for possibly drug-related adverse reactions occurred in 14% of patients on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm and in 8% of patients on the etoposide plus cisplatin arm. The incidence of myelosuppression was increased in frequency with gemcitabine plus cisplatin treatment (~90%) compared to that with the gemcitabine monotherapy (~60%). With combination therapy gemcitabine dosage adjustments for hematologic toxicity were required more often while cisplatin dose adjustments were less frequently required. Table 5 presents the safety data from the gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus cisplatin study in non-small cell lung cancer. The NCI Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) were used. The two-drug combination was more myelosuppressive with 4 (1.5%) possibly treatment-related deaths, including 3 resulting from myelosuppression with infection and one case of renal failure associated with pancytopenia and infection. No deaths due to treatment were reported on the cisplatin arm. Nine cases of febrile neutropenia were reported on the combination therapy arm compared to 2 on the cisplatin arm. More patients required RBC and platelet transfusions on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm. Myelosuppression occurred more frequently on the combination arm, and in 4 possibly treatment-related deaths myelosuppression was observed. Sepsis was reported in 4% of patients on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm compared to 1% on the cisplatin arm. Platelet transfusions were required in 21% of patients on the combination arm and <1% of patients on the cisplatin arm. Hemorrhagic events occurred in 14% of patients on the combination arm and 4% on the cisplatin arm. However, severe hemorrhagic events were rare. Red blood cell transfusions were required in 39% of the patients on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm, versus 13% on the cisplatin arm. The data suggest cumulative anemia with continued gemcitabine plus cisplatin use. Nausea and vomiting despite the use of antiemetics occurred more often with gemcitabine plus cisplatin therapy (78%) than with cisplatin alone (71%). In studies with single-agent gemcitabine, a lower incidence of nausea and vomiting (58% to 69%) was reported. Renal function abnormalities, hypomagnesemia, neuromotor, neurocortical, and neurocerebellar toxicity occurred more often with gemcitabine plus cisplatin than with cisplatin monotherapy. Neurohearing toxicity was similar on both arms. Cardiac dysrrhythmias of Grade 3 or greater were reported in 7 (3%) patients treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin compared to one (<1%) Grade 3 dysrrhythmia reported with cisplatin therapy. Hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia were associated with one Grade 4 arrhythmia on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin combination arm. Table 6 presents data from the randomized study of gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus etoposide plus cisplatin in 135 patients with NSCLC. One death (1.5%) was reported on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm due to febrile neutropenia associated with renal failure which was possibly treatment-related. No deaths related to treatment occurred on the etoposide plus cisplatin arm. The overall incidence of Grade 4 neutropenia on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm was less than on the etoposide plus cisplatin arm (28% versus 56%). Sepsis was experienced by 2% of patients on both treatment arms. Grade 3 anemia and Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia were more common on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm. RBC transfusions were given to 29% of the patients who received gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus 21% of patients who received etoposide plus cisplatin. Platelet transfusions were given to 3% of the patients who received gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus 8% of patients who received etoposide plus cisplatin. Grade 3/4 nausea and vomiting were also more common on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm. On the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm, 7% of participants were hospitalized due to febrile neutropenia compared to 12% on the etoposide plus cisplatin arm. More than twice as many patients had dose reductions or omissions of a scheduled dose of gemcitabine as compared to etoposide, which may explain the differences in the incidence of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia between treatment arms. Flu syndrome was reported by 3% of patients on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm with none reported on the comparator arm. Eight patients (12%) on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm reported edema compared to one patient (2%) on the etoposide plus cisplatin arm. Table 5: Selected CTC-Graded Adverse Reactions From Comparative Trial of Gemcitabine Plus Cisplatin Versus Single-Agent Cisplatin in NSCLC CTC Grades (% incidence)a a Grade based on Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC). Table includes data for adverse reactions with incidence ≥10% in either arm. b N=217-253; all gemcitabine plus cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Gemcitabine at 1000 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15 and cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days. c N=213-248; all cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days. d Regardless of causality. e Percent of patients receiving transfusions. Percent transfusions are not CTC-graded events. f Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related. Gemcitabine plus Cisplatinb Cisplatinc All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 Laboratoryd Hematologic Anemia RBC Transfusione Leukopenia Neutropenia Thrombocytopenia Platelet Transfusionse Lymphocytes 89 39 82 79 85 21 75 22 35 22 25 25 3 11 35 25 18 67 13 25 20 13 <1 51 6 2 3 3 12 1 1 1 1 5 Hepatic Transaminase Alkaline Phosphatase 22 19 2 1 1 0 10 13 1 0 0 0 Renal Proteinuria Hematuria Creatinine 23 15 38 0 0 4 0 0 <1 18 13 31 0 0 2 0 0 <1 Other Laboratory Hyperglycemia Hypomagnesemia Hypocalcemia 30 30 18 4 4 2 0 3 0 23 17 7 3 2 0 0 0 <1 Non-laboratoryf Nausea Vomiting Alopecia Neuro Motor Neuro Hearing Diarrhea Neuro Sensory Infection Fever Neuro Cortical Neuro Mood Local Neuro Headache Stomatitis Hemorrhage Dyspnea Hypotension Rash 93 78 53 35 25 24 23 18 16 16 16 15 14 14 14 12 12 11 25 11 1 12 6 2 1 3 0 3 1 0 0 1 1 4 1 0 2 12 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 87 71 33 15 21 13 18 12 5 9 10 6 7 5 4 11 7 3 20 10 0 3 6 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 <1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Table 6: Selected WHO-Graded Adverse Reactions From Comparative Trial of Gemcitabine Plus Cisplatin Versus Etoposide Plus Cisplatin in NSCLC WHO Grades (% incidence)a a Grade based on criteria from the World Health Organization (WHO). b N=67-69; all gemcitabine plus cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Gemcitabine at 1250 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8 and cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 21 days. c N=57-63; all cisplatin plus etoposide patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 and intravenous etoposide at 100 mg/m2 on Days 1, 2, and 3 every 21 days. d Regardless of causality. e Percent of patients receiving transfusions. Percent transfusions are not WHO-graded events. f Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related. g Pain data were not collected. Gemcitabine plus Cisplatinb Etoposide plus Cisplatinc All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 Laboratoryd Hematologic Anemia RBC Transfusionse Leukopenia Neutropenia Thrombocytopenia Platelet Transfusionse 88 29 86 88 81 3 22 26 36 39 0 3 28 16 77 21 87 87 45 8 13 36 20 8 2 7 56 5 Hepatic ALT AST Alkaline Phosphatase Bilirubin 6 3 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 11 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Renal Proteinuria Hematuria BUN Creatinine 12 22 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 10 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non-laboratoryf,g Nausea and Vomiting Fever Rash Dyspnea Diarrhea Hemorrhage Infection Alopecia Stomatitis Somnolence Paresthesias 96 6 10 1 14 9 28 77 20 3 38 35 0 0 0 1 0 3 13 4 0 0 4 0 0 1 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 86 3 3 3 13 3 21 92 18 3 16 19 0 0 0 0 0 8 51 2 2 2 7 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 Combination Use in Breast Cancer In the gemcitabine plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel study, dose reductions occurred with 8% of gemcitabine injections and 5% of paclitaxel injections on the combination arm, versus 2% on the paclitaxel arm. On the combination arm, 7% of gemcitabine doses were omitted and <1% of paclitaxel doses were omitted, compared to <1% of paclitaxel doses on the paclitaxel arm. A total of 18 patients (7%) on the gemcitabine plus paclitaxel arm and 12 (5%) on the paclitaxel arm discontinued the study because of adverse reactions. There were two deaths on study or within 30 days after study drug discontinuation that were possibly drug-related, one on each arm. Table 7 presents the safety data occurrences of ≥10% (all grades) from the gemcitabine plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel study in breast cancer. Table 7: Adverse Reactions From Comparative Trial of Gemcitabine Plus Paclitaxel Versus Single-Agent Paclitaxel in Breast Cancera CTC Grades (% incidence) a Grade based on Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) Version 2.0 (all grades ≥10%). b Regardless of causality. c Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related. Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel (N=262) Paclitaxel (N=259) All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 Laboratoryb Hematologic Anemia Neutropenia Thrombocytopenia Leukopenia 69 69 26 21 6 31 5 10 1 17 <1 1 51 31 7 12 3 4 <1 2 <1 7 <1 0 Hepatobiliary ALT AST 18 16 5 2 <1 0 6 5 <1 <1 0 0 Non-laboratoryc Alopecia Neuropathy-sensory Nausea Fatigue Myalgia Vomiting Arthralgia Diarrhea Anorexia Neuropathy-motor Stomatitis/pharyngitis Fever Rash/desquamation 90 64 50 40 33 29 24 20 17 15 13 13 11 14 5 1 6 4 2 3 3 0 2 1 <1 <1 4 <1 0 <1 0 0 0 0 0 <1 <1 0 <1 92 58 31 28 33 15 22 13 12 10 8 3 5 19 3 2 1 3 2 2 2 <1 <1 <1 0 0 3 0 0 <1 <1 0 <1 0 0 0 0 0 0 The following are the clinically relevant adverse reactions that occurred in >1% and <10% (all grades) of patients on either arm. In parentheses are the incidences of Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions (gemcitabine plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel): febrile neutropenia (5.0% versus 1.2%), infection (0.8% versus 0.8%), dyspnea (1.9% versus 0), and allergic reaction/hypersensitivity (0 versus 0.8%). No differences in the incidence of laboratory and non-laboratory events were observed in patients 65 years or older, as compared to patients younger than 65. Combination Use in Ovarian Cancer In the gemcitabine plus carboplatin versus carboplatin study, dose reductions occurred with 10.4% of gemcitabine injections and 1.8% of carboplatin injections on the combination arm, versus 3.8% on the carboplatin alone arm. On the combination arm, 13.7% of gemcitabine doses were omitted and 0.2% of carboplatin doses were omitted, compared to 0% of carboplatin doses on the carboplatin alone arm. There were no differences in discontinuations due to adverse reactions between arms (10.9% versus 9.8%, respectively). Table 8 presents the adverse reactions (all grades) occurring in ≥10% of patients in the ovarian cancer study. Table 8: Adverse Reactions From Comparative Trial of Gemcitabine Plus Carboplatin Versus Single-Agent Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancera CTC Grades (% incidence) a Grade based on Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) Version 2.0 (all grades ≥10%). b Regardless of causality. c Percent of patients receiving transfusions. Transfusions are not CTC-graded events. Blood transfusions included both packed red blood cells and whole blood. Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin (N=175) Carboplatin (N=174) All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 Laboratoryb Hematologic Neutropenia Anemia Leukopenia Thrombocytopenia RBC Transfusionsc Platelet Transfusionsc 90 86 86 78 38 9 42 22 48 30 29 6 5 5 58 75 70 57 15 3 11 9 6 10 1 2 <1 1 Non-laboratoryb Nausea Alopecia Vomiting Constipation Fatigue Neuropathy-sensory Diarrhea Stomatitis/pharyngitis Anorexia 69 49 46 42 40 29 25 22 16 6 0 6 6 3 1 3 <1 1 0 0 0 1 <1 0 0 0 0 61 17 36 37 32 27 14 13 13 3 0 2 3 5 2 <1 0 0 0 0 <1 0 0 0 0 0 0 In addition to blood product transfusions as listed in Table 8, myelosuppression was also managed with hematopoietic agents. These agents were administered more frequently with combination therapy than with monotherapy (granulocyte growth factors: 23.6% and 10.1%, respectively; erythropoietic agents: 7.3% and 3.9%, respectively). The following are the clinically relevant adverse reactions, regardless of causality, that occurred in >1% and <10% (all grades) of patients on either arm. In parentheses are the incidences of Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions (gemcitabine plus carboplatin versus carboplatin): AST or ALT elevation (0 versus 1.2%), dyspnea (3.4% versus 2.9%), febrile neutropenia (1.1% versus 0), hemorrhagic event (2.3% versus 1.1%), hypersensitivity reaction (2.3% versus 2.9%), motor neuropathy (1.1% versus 0.6%), and rash/desquamation (0.6% versus 0). No differences in the incidence of laboratory and non-laboratory events were observed in patients 65 years or older, as compared to patients younger than 65. 6.2 Post-Marketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of gemcitabine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These adverse reactions have occurred after gemcitabine single-agent use and gemcitabine in combination with other cytotoxic agents. Decisions to include these events are based on the seriousness of the event, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to gemcitabine. Nervous System – Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) ]. Cardiovascular - Congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction have been reported very rarely with the use of gemcitabine. Arrhythmias, predominantly supraventricular in nature, have been reported very rarely. Vascular Disorders - Clinical signs of peripheral vasculitis and gangrene have been reported very rarely. Skin - Cellulitis and non-serious injection site reactions in the absence of extravasation have been rarely reported. Severe skin reactions, including desquamation and bullous skin eruptions, have been reported very rarely. Hepatic - Increased liver function tests including elevations in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin levels have been reported rarely. Serious hepatotoxicity including liver failure and death has been reported very rarely in patients receiving gemcitabine alone or in combination with other potentially hepatotoxic drugs. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease has been reported. Pulmonary - Parenchymal toxicity, including interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), has been reported rarely following one or more doses of gemcitabine administered to patients with various malignancies. Some patients experienced the onset of pulmonary symptoms up to 2 weeks after the last gemcitabine dose. Respiratory failure and death occurred very rarely in some patients despite discontinuation of therapy. Renal - Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) and/or renal failure have been reported following one or more doses of gemcitabine. Renal failure leading to death or requiring dialysis, despite discontinuation of therapy, has been rarely reported. The majority of the cases of renal failure leading to death were due to HUS. Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications - Radiation recall reactions have been reported [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ] .

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Gemcitabine Injection is for intravenous use only. Gemcitabine Injection may be administered on an outpatient basis. Gemcitabine Injection is for intravenous use only. •Ovarian cancer: 1000 mg/m2 over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle (2.1) •Breast cancer: 1250 mg/m2 over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle (2.2) •Non-small cell lung cancer: 4-week schedule, 1000 mg/m2 over 30 minutes on Days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle: 3-week schedule; 1250 mg/m2 over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle (2.3) •Pancreatic cancer: 1000 mg/m2 over 30 minutes once weekly for up to 7 weeks (or until toxicity necessitates reducing or holding a dose), followed by a week of rest from treatment. Subsequent cycles should consist of infusions once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks out of every 4 weeks (2.4) •Dose Reductions or discontinuation may be needed based on toxicities (2.1-2.4) 2.1 Ovarian Cancer Gemcitabine Injection should be administered intravenously at a dose of 1000 mg/m2 over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle. Carboplatin AUC 4 should be administered intravenously on Day 1 after Gemcitabine Injection administration. Patients should be monitored prior to each dose with a complete blood count, including differential counts. Patients should have an absolute granulocyte count ≥1500 x 106/L and a platelet count ≥100,000 x 106/L prior to each cycle. Dose Modifications Gemcitabine Injection dosage adjustments for hematological toxicity within a cycle of treatment is based on the granulocyte and platelet counts taken on Day 8 of therapy. If marrow suppression is detected, Gemcitabine Injection dosage should be modified according to guidelines in Table 1. Table 1: Day 8 Dosage Reduction Guidelines for Gemcitabine Injection in Combination with Carboplatin Absolute granulocyte count (x 106/L) Platelet count (x 106/L) % of full dose ≥1500 And ≥100,000 100 1000-1499 And/or 75,000-99,999 50 <1000 And/or <75,000 Hold In general, for severe (Grade 3 or 4) non-hematological toxicity, except nausea/vomiting, therapy with Gemcitabine Injection should be held or decreased by 50% depending on the judgment of the treating physician. For carboplatin dosage adjustment, see manufacturer's prescribing information. Dose adjustment for Gemcitabine Injection in combination with carboplatin for subsequent cycles is based upon observed toxicity. The dose of Gemcitabine Injection in subsequent cycles should be reduced to 800 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8 in case of any of the following hematologic toxicities: •Absolute granulocyte count <500 x 106/L for more than 5 days •Absolute granulocyte count <100 x 106/L for more than 3 days •Febrile neutropenia •Platelets <25,000 x 106/L •Cycle delay of more than one week due to toxicity If any of the above toxicities recur after the initial dose reduction, for the subsequent cycle, Gemcitabine Injection should be given on Day 1 only at 800 mg/m2. 2.2 Breast Cancer Gemcitabine Injection should be administered intravenously at a dose of 1250 mg/m2 over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle. Paclitaxel should be administered at 175 mg/m2 on Day 1 as a 3-hour intravenous infusion before Gemcitabine Injection administration. Patients should be monitored prior to each dose with a complete blood count, including differential counts. Patients should have an absolute granulocyte count ≥1500 x 106/L and a platelet count ≥100,000 x 106/L prior to each cycle. Dose Modifications Gemcitabine Injection dosage adjustment for hematological toxicity is based on the granulocyte and platelet counts taken on Day 8 of therapy. If marrow suppression is detected, Gemcitabine Injection dosage should be modified according to the guidelines in Table 2. Table 2: Day 8 Dosage Reduction Guidelines for Gemcitabine Injection in Combination with Paclitaxel Absolute granulocyte count (x 106/L) Platelet count (x 106/L) % of full dose ≥1200 And >75,000 100 1000-1199 Or 50,000-75,000 75 700-999 And ≥50,000 50 <700 Or <50,000 Hold In general, for severe (Grade 3 or 4) non-hematological toxicity, except alopecia and nausea/vomiting, therapy with Gemcitabine Injection should be held or decreased by 50% depending on the judgment of the treating physician. For paclitaxel dosage adjustment, see manufacturer's prescribing information. 2.3 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Two schedules have been investigated and the optimum schedule has not been determined [ see Clinical Studies (14.3) ]. With the 4-week schedule, Gemcitabine Injection should be administered intravenously at 1000 mg/m2 over 30 minutes on Days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle. Cisplatin should be administered intravenously at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 after the infusion of Gemcitabine Injection. With the 3-week schedule, Gemcitabine Injection should be administered intravenously at 1250 mg/m2 over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle. Cisplatin at a dose of 100 mg/m2 should be administered intravenously after the infusion of Gemcitabine Injection on Day 1. See prescribing information for cisplatin administration and hydration guidelines. Dose Modifications Dosage adjustments for hematologic toxicity may be required for Gemcitabine Injection and for cisplatin. Gemcitabine Injection dosage adjustment for hematological toxicity is based on the granulocyte and platelet counts taken on the day of therapy. Patients receiving Gemcitabine Injection should be monitored prior to each dose with a complete blood count (CBC), including differential and platelet counts. If marrow suppression is detected, therapy should be modified or suspended according to the guidelines in Table 3. For cisplatin dosage adjustment, see manufacturer's prescribing information. In general, for severe (Grade 3 or 4) non-hematological toxicity, except alopecia and nausea/vomiting, therapy with Gemcitabine Injection plus cisplatin should be held or decreased by 50% depending on the judgment of the treating physician. During combination therapy with cisplatin, serum creatinine, serum potassium, serum calcium, and serum magnesium should be carefully monitored (Grade 3/4 serum creatinine toxicity for Gemcitabine Injection plus cisplatin was 5% versus 2% for cisplatin alone). 2.4 Pancreatic Cancer Gemcitabine Injection should be administered by intravenous infusion at a dose of 1000 mg/m2 over 30 minutes once weekly for up to 7 weeks (or until toxicity necessitates reducing or holding a dose), followed by a week of rest from treatment. Subsequent cycles should consist of infusions once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks out of every 4 weeks. Dose Modifications Dosage adjustment is based upon the degree of hematologic toxicity experienced by the patient [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. Clearance in women and the elderly is reduced and women were somewhat less able to progress to subsequent cycles [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Patients receiving Gemcitabine Injection should be monitored prior to each dose with a complete blood count (CBC), including differential and platelet count. If marrow suppression is detected, therapy should be modified or suspended according to the guidelines in Table 3. Table 3: Dosage Reduction Guidelines Absolute granulocyte count (x 106/L) Platelet count (x 106/L) % of full dose ≥1000 And ≥100,000 100 500-999 Or 50,000-99,999 75 <500 Or <50,000 Hold Laboratory evaluation of renal and hepatic function, including transaminases and serum creatinine, should be performed prior to initiation of therapy and periodically thereafter. Gemcitabine Injection should be administered with caution in patients with evidence of significant renal or hepatic impairment as there is insufficient information from clinical studies to allow clear dose recommendation for these patient populations. Patients treated with Gemcitabine Injection who complete an entire cycle of therapy may have the dose for subsequent cycles increased by 25%, provided that the absolute granulocyte count (AGC) and platelet nadirs exceed 1500 x 106/L and 100,000 x 106/L, respectively, and if non-hematologic toxicity has not been greater than WHO Grade 1. If patients tolerate the subsequent course of Gemcitabine Injection at the increased dose, the dose for the next cycle can be further increased by 20%, provided again that the AGC and platelet nadirs exceed 1500 x 106/L and 100,000 x 106/L, respectively, and that non-hematologic toxicity has not been greater than WHO Grade 1. 2.5 Dose Modifications for Non-Hematologic Adverse Reactions Permanently discontinue Gemcitabine for any of the following •Unexplained dyspnea or other evidence of severe pulmonary toxicity •Severe hepatic toxicity •Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome •Capillary Leak Syndrome •Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome Withhold Gemcitabine or reduce dose by 50% for other severe (Grade 3 or 4) non-hematological toxicity until resolved. No dose modifications are recommended for alopecia, nausea, or vomiting. 2.6 Preparation and Administration Precautions Caution should be exercised in handling and preparing Gemcitabine Injection and diluted solution. The use of gloves is recommended. If Gemcitabine Injection and diluted solution contacts the skin or mucosa, immediately wash the skin thoroughly with soap and water or rinse the mucosa with copious amounts of water. Although acute dermal irritation has not been observed in animal studies, 2 of 3 rabbits exhibited drug-related systemic toxicities (death, hypoactivity, nasal discharge, shallow breathing) due to dermal absorption. Procedures for proper handling and disposal of anti-cancer drugs should be considered. Several guidelines on this subject have been published [ see References (15) ]. 2.7 Preparation for Intravenous Infusion Administration Each vial contains a gemcitabine concentration of 38 mg/mL. Hence, withdrawing 5.26 mL, 26.3 mL, or 52.6 mL of the vial contents will provide 200 mg, 1 g, or 2 g of gemcitabine, respectively. The appropriate amount of drug should be further diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection to concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/mL. After dilution with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection the solution should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration, prior to administration, whenever solution or container permits. If particulate matter or discoloration is found, do not administer. When prepared as directed, diluted gemcitabine solutions are stable for 24 hours at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Discard unused portion. The compatibility of Gemcitabine Injection with other drugs has not been studied. No incompatibilities have been observed with infusion bottles or polyvinyl chloride bags and administration sets.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D. [ See Warnings and Precautions (5) . ] Gemcitabine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Based on its mechanism of action, gemcitabine is expected to result in adverse reproductive effects. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of gemcitabine in pregnant women. Gemcitabine is embryotoxic causing fetal malformations (cleft palate, incomplete ossification) at doses of 1.5 mg/kg/day in mice (about 1/200 the recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis). Gemcitabine is fetotoxic causing fetal malformations (fused pulmonary artery, absence of gall bladder) at doses of 0.1 mg/kg/day in rabbits (about 1/600 the recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis). Embryotoxicity was characterized by decreased fetal viability, reduced live litter sizes, and developmental delays. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ] . 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from gemcitabine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of gemcitabine in pediatric patients has not been established. Gemcitabine was evaluated in a Phase 1 trial in pediatric patients with refractory leukemia and determined that the maximum tolerated dose was 10 mg/m2/min for 360 minutes three times weekly followed by a one-week rest period. Gemcitabine was also evaluated in a Phase 2 trial in patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (22 patients) and acute myelogenous leukemia (10 patients) using 10 mg/m2/min for 360 minutes three times weekly followed by a one-week rest period. Toxicities observed included bone marrow suppression, febrile neutropenia, elevation of serum transaminases, nausea, and rash/desquamation, which were similar to those reported in adults. No meaningful clinical activity was observed in this Phase 2 trial. 8.5 Geriatric Use Gemcitabine clearance is affected by age [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. There is no evidence, however, that unusual dose adjustments [ see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4)] are necessary in patients over 65, and in general, adverse reaction rates in the single-agent safety database of 979 patients were similar in patients above and below 65. Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia was more common in the elderly. In the randomized clinical trial of gemcitabine in combination with carboplatin for recurrent ovarian cancer [ see Clinical Studies (14.1) ], 125 women treated with gemcitabine plus carboplatin were <65 years and 50 were ≥65 years. Similar effectiveness was observed between older and younger women. There was significantly higher Grade 3/4 neutropenia in women 65 years of age or older. Overall, there were no other substantial differences in toxicity profile of gemcitabine plus carboplatin based on age. 8.6 Renal Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) and/or renal failure have been reported following one or more doses of gemcitabine. Renal failure leading to death or requiring dialysis, despite discontinuation of therapy, has been reported. The majority of the cases of renal failure leading to death were due to HUS [ see Adverse Reactions (6.1 and 6.2)] . Gemcitabine Injection should be used with caution in patients with preexisting renal impairment as there is insufficient information from clinical studies to allow clear dose recommendation for these patient populations [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] . 8.7 Hepatic Serious hepatotoxicity, including liver failure and death, has been reported in patients receiving gemcitabine alone or in combination with other potentially hepatotoxic drugs [ see Adverse Reactions (6.1 and 6.2)] . Gemcitabine Injection should be used with caution in patients with preexisting hepatic insufficiency as there is insufficient information from clinical studies to allow clear dose recommendation for these patient populations. Administration of Gemcitabine Injection in patients with concurrent liver metastases or a preexisting medical history of hepatitis, alcoholism, or liver cirrhosis may lead to exacerbation of the underlying hepatic insufficiency [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] . 8.8 Gender Gemcitabine clearance is affected by gender [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . In the single-agent safety database (N=979 patients), however, there is no evidence that unusual dose adjustments [ see Dosage and Administration (2) ] are necessary in women. In general, in single-agent studies of gemcitabine, adverse reaction rates were similar in men and women, but women, especially older women, were more likely not to proceed to a subsequent cycle and to experience Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. There was a greater tendency in women, especially older women, not to proceed to the next cycle.
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from gemcitabine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS No specific drug interaction studies have been conducted. Information is available on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin, paclitaxel, or carboplatin [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2 and 12.3)] .

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA200795
Agency product number U347PV74IL
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0409-0182,0409-0183,0409-0181
Date Last Revised 21-09-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 1720975
Storage and handling 16.2 Storage and Handling Unopened vials of Gemcitabine Injection are stable until the expiration date indicated on the package when stored at 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F). Do not freeze [ see Dosage and Administration ( 2.6 and 2.7 ) ] .
Marketing authorisation holder Hospira, Inc.