8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS •Pregnancy: Use of NSAIDs during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks gestation (5.10, 8.1) •Infertility: NSAIDs are associated with reversible infertility. Consider withdrawal of FLECTOR PATCH in women who have difficulties conceiving (8.3) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Published literature reports that use of NSAIDs, including FLECTOR PATCH, after 30 weeks' gestation increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use, including diclofenac, in women in the first or second trimester of pregnancy are inconclusive. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including FLECTOR PATCH, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester) (see Clinical Considerations and Data). In animal reproduction studies, diclofenac epolamine administered orally to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis produced embryotoxicity at approximately 3 and 7 times, respectively, the topical exposure from the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of FLECTOR PATCH. In rats, increased incidences of skeletal anomalies and maternal toxicity were also observed at this dose. Diclofenac epolamine administered orally to both male and female rats prior to mating and throughout the mating period, and during gestation and lactation in females produced embryotoxicity at doses approximately 3 and 7 times, respectively, the topical exposure from the MRHD (see Data). Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as diclofenac, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions Avoid use of NSAIDS in pregnant women after 30 weeks' gestation because NSAIDS, including FLECTOR PATCH, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Data Human Data Published literature reports that use of NSAIDS, including diclofenac, after 30 weeks' gestation may cause constriction of the patent ductus arteriosus and premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Animal Data Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were administered 1, 3, or 6 mg/kg diclofenac epolamine via oral gavage daily from gestation days 6 to 15. Maternal toxicity, embryotoxicity, and increased incidence of skeletal anomalies were noted with 6 mg/kg/day diclofenac epolamine, which corresponds to 3 times the maximum recommended daily exposure in humans based on a body surface area comparison. Pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were administered 1, 3, or 6 mg/kg diclofenac epolamine via oral gavage daily from gestation days 6 to 18. No maternal toxicity was noted; however, embryotoxicity was evident at 6 mg/kg/day group which corresponds to 7 times the maximum recommended daily exposure in humans based on a body surface area comparison. Male rats were orally administered diclofenac epolamine (1, 3, 6 mg/kg) for 60 days prior to mating and throughout the mating period, and females were given the same doses 14 days prior to mating and through mating, gestation, and lactation. Embryotoxicity was observed at 6 mg/kg diclofenac epolamine (3 times the maximum recommended daily exposure in humans based on a body surface area comparison), and was manifested as an increase in early resorptions, post-implantation losses, and a decrease in live fetuses. The number of live born and total born were also reduced as was F1 postnatal survival, but the physical and behavioral development of surviving F1 pups in all groups was the same as the deionized water control, nor was reproductive performance adversely affected despite a slight treatment-related reduction in body weight. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Data from published literature reports with oral preparations of diclofenac indicate the presence of small amounts of diclofenac in human milk (see Data). There are no data on the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for FLECTOR PATCH and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the FLECTOR PATCH or from the underlying maternal condition. Data One woman treated orally with a diclofenac salt, 150 mg/day, had a milk diclofenac level of 100 mcg/L, equivalent to an infant dose of about 0.03 mg/kg/day. Diclofenac was not detectable in breast milk in 12 women using diclofenac (after either 100 mg/day orally for 7 days or a single 50 mg intramuscular dose administered in the immediate postpartum period). The relative bioavailability for FLECTOR PATCH is <1% of a single 50 mg diclofenac tablet. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Infertility Females Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including FLECTOR PATCH may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin- mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including FLECTOR PATCH, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of FLECTOR PATCH in pediatric patients have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6, 5.13)]. Clinical studies of FLECTOR PATCH did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.