Data from FDA - Curated by Toby Galbraith - Last updated 28 July 2017
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Fentanyl Citrate Injection is contraindicated in patients with: Hypersensitivity to fentanyl (e.g., anaphylaxis) [see Adverse Reactions (6)] Hypersensitivity to fentanyl. (4)
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are described, or described in greater detail, in other sections: Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Interactions with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Serotonin Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] Severe Cardiovascular Depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)] Seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)] The following adverse reactions associated with the use of fentanyl were identified in clinical studies or postmarketing reports. Because some of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. As with other opioid agonists, the most common serious adverse reactions reported to occur with fentanyl are respiratory depression, apnea, rigidity, and bradycardia; if these remain untreated, respiratory arrest, circulatory depression or cardiac arrest could occur. Other adverse reactions that have been reported are hypertension, hypotension, dizziness, blurred vision, nausea, emesis, diaphoresis, pruritus, urticarial, laryngospasm, and anaphylaxis. It has been reported that secondary rebound respiratory depression may occasionally occur postoperatively. When a tranquilizer is used with fentanyl, the following adverse reactions can occur: chills and/or shivering, restlessness, and postoperative hallucinatory episodes (sometimes associated with transient periods of mental depression); extrapyramidal symptoms (dystonia, akathisia, and oculogyric crisis) have been observed up to 24 hours postoperatively. When they occur, extrapyramidal symptoms can usually be controlled with anti-parkinson agents. Postoperative drowsiness is also frequently reported following the use of neuroleptics with Fentanyl Citrate Injection. Cases of cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and death have been reported following the use of Fentanyl Citrate Injection with a neuroleptic agent. Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs. Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use. Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in Fentanyl Citrate Injection. Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. Most common serious adverse reactions were respiratory depression, apnea, rigidity, and bradycardia. (6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Hospira, Inc. at 1-800-441-4100, or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch .
Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Fentanyl Citrate Injection should be administered only by persons specifically trained in the use of intravenous anesthetics and management of the respiratory effects of potent opioids. Ensure that an opioid antagonist, resuscitative and intubation equipment, and oxygen are readily available. (2.1). Individualize dosing based on the factors such as age, body weight, physical status, underlying pathological condition, use of other drugs, type of anesthesia to be used, and the surgical procedure involved. (2.1) Initiate treatment in adults with 50 to 100 mcg (0.05 to 0.1 mg) (1 to 2 mL). (2.2) Initiate treatment in children 2 to 12 years of age with a reduced dose as low as 2 to 3 mcg/kg. (2.2) 2.1 Important Dosage and Administration Instructions Fentanyl Citrate Injection should be administered only by persons specifically trained in the use of intravenous anesthetics and management of the respiratory effects of potent opioids. Ensure that an opioid antagonist, resuscitative and intubation equipment, and oxygen are readily available. Individualize dosage based on factors such as age, body weight, physical status, underlying pathological condition, use of other drugs, type of anesthesia to be used, and the surgical procedure involved. Monitor vital signs routinely. As with other potent opioids, the respiratory depressant effect of fentanyl may persist longer than the measured analgesic effect. The total dose of all opioid agonists administered should be considered by the practitioner before ordering opioid analgesics during recovery from anesthesia. If Fentanyl Citrate Injection is administered with a CNS depressant, become familiar with the properties of each drug, particularly each product's duration of action. In addition, when such a combination is used, fluids and other countermeasures to manage hypotension should be available [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Inspect parenteral drug products visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. 2.2 Dosage 50 mcg = 0.05 mg = 1 mL Premedication in Adults 50 to 100 mcg (0.05 to 0.1 mg) (1 to 2 mL) may be administered intramuscularly 30 to 60 minutes prior to surgery. Adjunct to General Anesthesia See Dosage Range Charts below. Table 1: Dosage Range Chart TOTAL DOSAGE (expressed as fentanyl base) Low Dose – Moderate Dose – High Dose – 2 mcg/kg (0.002 mg/kg) (0.04 mL/kg). For use in minor, but painful, surgical procedures. May also provide some pain relief in the immediate postoperative period. 2–20 mcg/kg (0.002–0.02 mg/kg) (0.04–0.4 mL/kg). For use in major surgical procedures, in addition to adequate analgesia, may abolish some of the stress response. Expect respiratory depression requiring artificial ventilation during anesthesia and careful observation of ventilation postoperatively is essential. 20–50 mcg/kg (0.02–0.05 mg/kg) (0.4–1 mL/kg). For open heart surgery and certain more complicated neurosurgical and orthopedic procedures where surgery is more prolonged, and the stress response to surgery would be detrimental to the wellbeing of the patient. In conjunction with nitrous oxide/oxygen has been shown to attenuate the stress response as defined by increased levels of circulating growth hormone, catecholamine, ADH and prolactin. Expect the need for postoperative ventilation and observation are essential due to extended postoperative respiratory depression. MAINTENANCE DOSE (expressed as fentanyl base) Low Dose – Moderate Dose – High Dose – 2 mcg/kg (0.002 mg/kg) (0.04 mL/kg). Additional dosages are infrequently needed in these minor procedures. 2–20 mcg/kg (0.002–0.02 mg/kg) (0.04–0.4 mL/kg). 25 to 100 mcg (0.025 to 0.1 mg) (0.5 to 2 mL) Administer intravenously or intramuscularly as needed when movement and/or changes in vital signs indicate surgical stress or lightening of analgesia. 20–50 mcg/kg (0.02–0.05 mg/kg) (0.4–1 mL/kg). Maintenance dosage [ranging from 25 mcg (0.025 mg) (0.5 mL) to one half the initial loading dose] as needed based on vital signs changes indicative of stress and lightening of analgesia. Individualize dosage especially if the anticipated remaining operative time is short. Adjunct to Regional Anesthesia 50 to 100 mcg (0.05 to 0.1 mg) (1 to 2 mL) may be administered intramuscularly or slowly intravenously, over one to two minutes, when additional analgesia is required. Postoperatively (recovery room) 50 to 100 mcg (0.05 to 0.1 mg) (1 to 2 mL) may be administered intramuscularly for the control of pain, tachypnea and emergence delirium. The dose may be repeated in one to two hours as needed. For Induction and Maintenance in Children 2 to 12 Years of Age A reduced dose as low as 2 to 3 mcg/kg is recommended. As a General Anesthetic As a technique to attenuate the responses to surgical stress without the use of additional anesthetic agents, doses of 50 to 100 mcg/kg (0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg) (1 to 2 mL/kg) may be administered with oxygen and a muscle relaxant. In certain cases, doses up to 150 mcg/kg (0.15 mg/kg) (3 mL/kg) may be necessary to produce this anesthetic effect. It has been used for open heart surgery and certain other major surgical procedures in patients for whom protection of the myocardium from excess oxygen demand is particularly indicated, and for certain complicated neurological and orthopedic procedures.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: May cause fetal harm. (8.1) Lactation: Infants exposed to Fentanyl Citrate Injection through breast milk should be monitored for excess sedation and respiratory depression. (8.2). Geriatric Patients: Titrate slowly and monitor for CNS and respiratory depression. (8.5). 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. Available data with Fentanyl Citrate Injection in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. In animal reproduction studies, fentanyl administration to pregnant rats during organogenesis was embryocidal at doses within the range of the human recommended dosing. No evidence of malformations was noted in animal studies completed to date [see Data].The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly. Labor or Delivery Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone, must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. Fentanyl Citrate Injection is not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including Fentanyl Citrate Injection, can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression. Data Animal Data Fentanyl has been shown to embryocidal in pregnant rats at doses of 30 mcg/kg intravenously (0.05 times the human dose of 100 mcg/kg on a mg/m2 basis) and 160 mcg/kg subcutaneously (0.26 times the human dose of 100 mcg/kg on a mg/m2 basis). There was no evidence of teratogenicity reported. No evidence of malformations or adverse effects on the fetus was reported in a published study in which pregnant rats were administered fentanyl continuously via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps at doses of 10, 100, or 500 mcg/kg/day starting 2-weeks prior to breeding and throughout pregnancy. The high dose was approximately 0.81 times the human dose of 100 mcg/kg on a mg/m2 basis. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Fentanyl is present in breast milk. However, there is insufficient information to determine the effects of fentanyl on the breastfed infant and the effects of fentanyl on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for Fentanyl Citrate Injection and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Fentanyl Citrate Injection or from the underlying maternal condition. Clinical Considerations Monitor infants exposed to Fentanyl Citrate Injection through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Infertility Chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility in females and males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Adverse Reactions (6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and efficacy of Fentanyl Citrate Injection in children under two years of age has not been established. Rare cases of unexplained clinically significant methemoglobinemia have been reported in premature neonates undergoing emergency anesthesia and surgery which included the combined use of fentanyl, pancuronium and atropine. A direct cause and effect relationship between the combined use of these drugs and the reported cases of methemoglobinemia has not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity to fentanyl. In general, use caution when selecting a dosage for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids, and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of Fentanyl Citrate Injection slowly in geriatric patients and monitor closely for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Fentanyl is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment Fentanyl Citrate Injection should be administered with caution to patients with liver dysfunction because of the extensive hepatic metabolism. Reduce the dosage as needed and monitor closely for signs of respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension. 8.7 Renal Impairment Fentanyl Citrate Injection should be administered with caution to patients with kidney dysfunction because of the renal excretion of fentanyl and its metabolites. Reduce the dosage as needed and monitor for signs of respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension.
|Agency product number||MUN5LYG46H|
|Date Last Revised||16-06-2017|
|Type||HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG|
|Storage and handling||Protect from light. Retain in carton until time of use. Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]|
|Marketing authorisation holder||Hospira, Inc.|
|Warnings||WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE; LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; CYTOCHROME P450 3A4 INTERACTION; and RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE; LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; CYTOCHROME P450 3A4 INTERACTION; and RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Fentanyl Citrate Injection exposes users to risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess patient's risk before prescribing and monitor regularly for these behaviors and conditions. (5.1) Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur. Monitor closely, especially upon initiation or following a dose increase. (5.2) Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inhibitors (or discontinuation of CYP3A4 inducers) can result in a fatal overdose of fentanyl. (5.3, 7, 12.3). Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate; limit dosages and durations to the minimum required; and follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. (5.4, 7) Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse Fentanyl Citrate Injection exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient's risk prior to prescribing Fentanyl Citrate Injection, and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] . Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of Fentanyl Citrate Injection. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of Fentanyl Citrate Injection or following a dose increase [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] . Cytochrome P450 3A4 Interaction The concomitant use of Fentanyl Citrate Injection with all cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors may result in an increase in fentanyl plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression. In addition, discontinuation of a concomitantly used cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer may result in an increase in fentanyl plasma concentration. Monitor patients receiving Fentanyl Citrate Injection and any CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), Drug Interactions (7)] . Reserve concomitant prescribing of Fentanyl Citrate Injection and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.|