Data from FDA - Curated by Marshall Pearce - Last updated 06 November 2017

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia Fenofibrate tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet to reduce elevated LDL-C, Total-C, Triglycerides and Apo B, and to increase HDL-C in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb). Lipid-altering agents should be used in addition to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol when response to diet and non-pharmacological interventions alone has been inadequate (see National Cholesterol Education Program [NCEP] Treatment Guidelines, below). Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia Fenofibrate tablets are also indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for treatment of adult patients with hypertriglyceridemia (Fredrickson Types IV and V hyperlipidemia). Improving glycemic control in diabetic patients showing fasting chylomicronemia will usually reduce fasting triglycerides and eliminate chylomicronemia thereby obviating the need for pharmacologic intervention. Markedly elevated levels of serum triglycerides (e.g. >2,000 mg/dL) may increase the risk of developing pancreatitis. The effect of fenofibrate tablets therapy on reducing this risk has not been adequately studied. Drug therapy is not indicated for patients with Type I hyperlipoproteinemia, who have elevations of chylomicrons and plasma triglycerides, but who have normal levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Inspection of plasma refrigerated for 14 hours is helpful in distinguishing Types I, IV and V hyperlipoproteinemia 2. The initial treatment for dyslipidemia is dietary therapy specific for the type of lipoprotein abnormality. Excess body weight and excess alcoholic intake may be important factors in hypertriglyceridemia and should be addressed prior to any drug therapy. Physical exercise can be an important ancillary measure. Diseases contributory to hyperlipidemia, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus should be looked for and adequately treated. Estrogen therapy, thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers, are sometimes associated with massive rises in plasma triglycerides, especially in subjects with familial hypertriglyceridemia. In such cases, discontinuation of the specific etiologic agent may obviate the need for specific drug therapy of hypertriglyceridemia. The use of drugs should be considered only when reasonable attempts have been made to obtain satisfactory results with non-drug methods. If the decision is made to use drugs, the patient should be instructed that this does not reduce the importance of adhering to diet (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ). Fredrickson Classification of Hyperlipoproteinemias Type Lipoprotein Elevated Lipid Elevation Major Minor C = cholesterol TG = triglycerides LDL = low density lipoprotein VLDL = very low density lipoprotein IDL = intermediate density lipoprotein I (rare) chylomicrons TG ↑↔C IIa LDL C - IIb LDL, VLDL C TG III (rare) IDL C, TG - IV VLDL TG ↑↔C V (rare) chylomicrons, VLDL TG ↑↔ C NCEP Treatment Guidelines: LDL-C Goals and Cutpoints for Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes and Drug Therapy in Different Risk Categories LDL Level at Which to Initiate Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (mg/ dL) LDL Level at Which Consider Drug Therapy (mg/ dL) Risk Category LDL Goal (mg/dL) CHD CHD = coronary heart disease or CHD risk equivalents (10-year risk > 20%) < 100 ≥ 100 ≥ 130 (100-129: drug optional) Some authorities recommend use of LDL-lowering drugs in this category if an LDL-C level of < 100 mg/dL cannot be achieved by therapeutic lifestyle changes. Others prefer use of drugs that primarily modify triglycerides and HDL-C, e.g., nicotinic acid or fibrate. Clinical judgment also may call for deferring drug therapy in this subcategory. 2+ Risk Factors (10-year risk ≤ 20%) < 130 ≥ 130 10-year risk 10%- 20%:≥ 130 10-year risk < 10%: ≥ 160 0 to 1 Risk Factor Almost all people with 0 to 1 risk factor have 10-year risk < 10%; thus, 10-year risk assessment in people with 0 to 1 risk factor is not necessary. < 160 ≥ 160 ≥ 190 (160-189: LDL-lowering drug optional) After the LDL-C goal has been achieved, if the TG is still ≥ 200 mg/dL, non HDL-C (total-C minus HDL-C) becomes a secondary target of therapy. Non-HDL-C goals are set 30 mg/dL higher than LDL-C goals for each risk category.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Fenofibrate tablets are contraindicated in patients who exhibit hypersensitivity to fenofibrate. Fenofibrate tablets are contraindicated in patients with hepatic or severe renal dysfunction, including primary biliary cirrhosis, and patients with unexplained persistent liver function abnormality. Fenofibrate tablets are contraindicated in patients with preexisting gallbladder disease (see WARNINGS ).
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS Initial Therapy: Laboratory studies should be done to ascertain that the lipid levels are consistently abnormal before instituting fenofibrate tablets therapy. Every attempt should be made to control serum lipids with appropriate diet, exercise, weight loss in obese patients, and control of any medical problems such as diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism that are contributing to the lipid abnormalities. Medications known to exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia (betablockers, thiazides, estrogens) should be discontinued or changed if possible prior to consideration of triglyceride-lowering drug therapy. Continued Therapy: Periodic determination of serum lipids should be obtained during initial therapy in order to establish the lowest effective dose of fenofibrate tablets. Therapy should be withdrawn in patients who do not have an adequate response after two months of treatment with the maximum recommended dose of 145 mg per day. Pancreatitis: Pancreatitis has been reported in patients taking fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and clofibrate. This occurrence may represent a failure of efficacy in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia, a direct drug effect, or a secondary phenomenon mediated through biliary tract stone or sludge formation with obstruction of the common bile duct. Hypersensitivity Reactions: Acute hypersensitivity reactions including severe skin rashes requiring patient hospitalization and treatment with steroids have occurred very rarely during treatment with fenofibrate, including rare spontaneous reports of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Urticaria was seen in 1.1 vs 0%, and rash in 1.4 vs 0.8% of fenofibrate and placebo patients respectively in controlled trials. Hematologic Changes: Mild to moderate hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell decreases have been observed in patients following initiation of fenofibrate therapy. However, these levels stabilize during long-term administration. Extremely rare spontaneous reports of thrombocytopenia and agranulocytosis have been received during post-marketing surveillance outside of the U.S. Periodic blood counts are recommended during the first 12 months of fenofibrate tablets administration. Skeletal Muscle: The use of fibrates alone, including fenofibrate tablets, may occasionally be associated with myopathy. Treatment with drugs of the fibrate class has been associated on rare occasions with rhabdomyolysis, usually in patients with impaired renal function. Myopathy should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevations of creatine phosphokinase levels. Patients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever. CPK levels should be assessed in patients reporting these symptoms, and fenofibrate therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed. Venothromboembolic Disease In the FIELD trial, pulmonary embolus (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were observed at higher rates in the fenofibrate- than the placebo-group. Of 9,795 patients enrolled in FIELD, there were 4,900 in the placebo group and 4,895 in the fenofibrate group. For DVT, there were 48 events (1%) in the placebo group and 67 (1%) in the fenofibrate group (p=0.074); and for PE, there were 32 (0.7%) events in the placebo group and 53 (1%) in the fenofibrate group (p=0.022). In the Coronary Drug Project, a higher proportion of the clofibrate group experienced definite or suspected fatal or nonfatal pulmonary embolism or thrombophlebitis than the placebo group (5.2% vs. 3.3% at five years; p < 0.01). Serum Creatinine Elevations in serum creatinine have been reported in patients on fenofibrate. These elevations tend to return to baseline following discontinuation of fenofibrate. The clinical significance of these observations is unknown. Drug Interactions Oral Anticoagulants: CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN COUMARIN ANTICOAGULANTS ARE GIVEN IN CONJUNCTION WITH FENOFIBRATE TABLETS. THE DOSAGE OF THE ANTICOAGULANTS SHOULD BE REDUCED TO MAINTAIN THE PROTHROMBIN TIME/INR AT THE DESIRED LEVEL TO PREVENT BLEEDING COMPLICATIONS. FREQUENT PROTHROMBIN TIME/INR DETERMINATIONS ARE ADVISABLE UNTIL IT HAS BEEN DEFINITELY DETERMINED THAT THE PROTHROMBIN TIME/INR HAS STABILIZED. HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: The combined use of fenofibrate tablets and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors should be avoided unless the benefit of further alterations in lipid levels is likely to outweigh the increased risk of this drug combination (see WARNINGS ). Resins: Since bile acid sequestrants may bind other drugs given concurrently, patients should take fenofibrate tablets at least 1 hour before or 4 to 6 hours after a bile acid binding resin to avoid impeding its absorption. Cyclosporine: Because cyclosporine can produce nephrotoxicity with decreases in creatinine clearance and rises in serum creatinine, and because renal excretion is the primary elimination route of fibrate drugs including fenofibrate tablets, there is a risk that an interaction will lead to deterioration. The benefits and risks of using fenofibrate tablets with immunosuppressants and other potentially nephrotoxic agents should be carefully considered, and the lowest effective dose employed. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Two dietary carcinogenicity studies have been conducted in rats with fenofibrate. In the first 24-month study, rats were dosed with fenofibrate at 10, 45, and 200 mg/kg/day, approximately 0.3, 1, and 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), based on body surface area comparisons (mg/m 2). At a dose of 200 mg/kg/day (6 times the MRHD), the incidence of liver carcinomas was significantly increased in both sexes. A statistically significant increase in pancreatic carcinomas was observed in males at 1 and 6 times the MRHD; an increase in pancreatic adenomas and benign testicular interstitial cell tumors was observed at 6 times the MRHD in males. In a second 24-month rat carcinogenicity study in a different strain of rats, doses of 10 and 60 mg/kg/day (0.3 and 2 times the MRHD) produced significant increases in the incidence of pancreatic acinar adenomas in both sexes and increases in testicular interstitial cell tumors in males at 2 times the MRHD. A 117-week carcinogenicity study was conducted in rats comparing three drugs: fenofibrate 10 and 60 mg/kg/day (0.3 and 2 times the MRHD), clofibrate (400 mg/kg/day; 2 times the human dose), and gemfibrozil (250 mg/kg/day; 2 times the human dose, based on mg/m 2 surface area). Fenofibrate increased pancreatic acinar adenomas in both sexes. Clofibrate increased hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic acinar adenomas in males and hepatic neoplastic nodules in females. Gemfibrozil increased hepatic neoplastic nodules in males and females, while all three drugs increased testicular interstitial cell tumors in males. In a 21-month study in mice, fenofibrate 10, 45, and 200 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.2, 1, and 3 times the MRHD on the basis of mg/m 2 surface area) significantly increased the liver carcinomas in both sexes at 3 times the MRHD. In a second 18-month study at 10, 60, and 200 mg/kg/day, fenofibrate significantly increased the liver carcinomas in male mice and liver adenomas in female mice at 3 times the MRHD. Electron microscopy studies have demonstrated peroxisomal proliferation following fenofibrate administration to the rat. An adequate study to test for peroxisome proliferation in humans has not been done, but changes in peroxisome morphology and numbers have been observed in humans after treatment with other members of the fibrate class when liver biopsies were compared before and after treatment in the same individual. Fenofibrate has been demonstrated to be devoid of mutagenic potential in the following tests: Ames, mouse lymphoma, chromosomal aberration and unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary rat hepatocytes. In fertility studies rats were given oral dietary doses of fenofibrate, males received 61 days prior to mating and females 15 days prior to mating through weaning which resulted in no adverse effect on fertility at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day (~10 times the MRHD, based on mg/m 2 surface area comparisons). Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C Safety in pregnant women has not been established. There are no adequate and well controlled studies of fenofibrate in pregnant women. Fenofibrate should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. In female rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day of fenofibrate from 15 days prior to mating through weaning, maternal toxicity was observed at 0.3 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m 2. In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 14, 127, and 361 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-15 during the period of organogenesis, adverse developmental findings were not observed at 14 mg/kg/day (less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m 2). At higher multiples of human doses evidence of maternal toxicity was observed. In pregnant rabbits given oral gavage doses of 15, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-18 during the period of organogenesis and allowed to deliver, aborted litters were observed at 150 mg/kg/day (10 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons: mg/m 2). No developmental findings were observed at 15 mg/kg/day (at less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m 2). In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 15 through lactation day 21 (weaning), maternal toxicity was observed at less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m 2. Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether fenofibrate is excreted into milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from fenofibrate, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or administration of fenofibrate taking into account the importance of the drug to the lactating woman. Pediatric Use: Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use: Fenofibric acid is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Fenofibric acid exposure is not influenced by age. However, elderly patients have a higher incidence of renal impairment, such that dose selection for the elderly should be made on the basis of renal function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Special Populations, Renal Insufficiency ). Elderly patients with normal renal function should require no dose modifications.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Adverse events reported by 2% or more of patients treated with fenofibrate during the double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, regardless of causality, are listed in the table below. Adverse events led to discontinuation of treatment in 5.0% of patients treated with fenofibrate and in 3.0% treated with placebo. Increases in liver function tests were the most frequent events, causing discontinuation of fenofibrate treatment in 1.6% of patients in double-blind trials. BODY SYSTEM Fenofibrate Dosage equivalent to 145 mg fenofibrate. Placebo Adverse Event (N=439) (N=365) BODY AS A WHOLE Abdominal Pain 4.6% 4.4% Back Pain 3.4% 2.5% Headache 3.2% 2.7% Asthenia 2.1% 3.0% Flu Syndrome 2.1% 2.7% DIGESTIVE Liver Function Test Abnormal 7.5% Significantly different from Placebo. 1.4% Diarrhea 2.3% 4.1% Nausea 2.3% 1.9% Constipation 2.1% 1.4% METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS SGPT Increased 3.0% 1.6% Creatine Phophokinase Increased 3.0% 1.4% SGOT Increased 3.4% 0.5% RESPIRATORY Respiratory Disorder 6.2% 5.5% Rhinitis 2.3% 1.1% Additional adverse events reported during post-marketing surveillance or by three or more patients in placebo-controlled trials or reported in other controlled or open trials, regardless of causality are listed below. BODY AS A WHOLE: Accidental injury, allergic reaction, chest pain, cyst, fever, hernia, infection, malaise and pain (unspecified). CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: Angina pectoris, arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular disorder, coronary artery disorder, electrocardiogram abnormal, extrasystoles, hypertension, hypotension, migraine, myocardial infarct, palpitation, peripheral vascular disorder, phlebitis, tachycardia, varicose vein, vascular disorder, vasodilatation, venous thromboembolic events (deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolus) and ventricular extrasystoles. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: Anorexia, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, colitis, diarrhea, duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, eructation, esophagitis, flatulence, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal disorder, increased appetite, jaundice, liver fatty deposit, nausea, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, rectal disorder, rectal hemorrhage, tooth disorder and vomiting. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: Diabetes mellitus. HEMIC AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM: Anemia, ecchymosis, eosinophilia, leukopenia, lymphadenopathy, and thrombocytopenia. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS: Alkaline phosphatase increased, bilirubin increased, blood urea nitrogen increased, serum creatinine increased, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase increased, lactate dehydrogenase increased, SGOT and SGPT increased. METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS: Edema, gout, hyperuricemia, hypoglycemia, peripheral edema, weight gain, and weight loss. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM: Arthralgia, arthritis, arthrosis, bursitis, joint disorder, leg cramps, myalgia, myasthenia, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and tenosynovitis. NERVOUS SYSTEM: Anxiety or nervousness, depression, dizziness, dry mouth, hypertonia, insomnia, libido decreased, neuralgia, paresthesia, somnolence and vertigo. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Allergic pulmonary alveolitis, asthma, bronchitis, cough increased, dyspnea, laryngitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia and sinusitis. SKIN AND APPENDAGES: Acne, alopecia, contact dermatitis, eczema, fungal dermatitis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, maculopapular rash, nail disorder, photosensitivity reaction, pruritus, rash, sweating, skin disorder, skin ulcer and urticaria. SPECIAL SENSES: Abnormal vision, amblyopia, cataract specified, conjunctivitis, ear pain, eye disorder, otitis media and refraction disorder. UROGENITAL SYSTEM: Abnormal kidney function, cystitis, dysuria, gynecomastia, prostatic disorder, unintended pregnancy, urinary frequency, urolithiasis and vaginal moniliasis.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Patients should be placed on an appropriate lipid-lowering diet before receiving fenofibrate tablets, and should continue this diet during treatment with fenofibrate tablets. Fenofibrate tablets should be given with meals, thereby optimizing the bioavailability of the medication. For the treatment of adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed hyperlipidemia, the initial dose of fenofibrate tablets is 160 mg per day. For adult patients with hypertriglyceridemia, the initial dose is 54 to 160 mg per day. Dosage should be individualized according to patient response, and should be adjusted if necessary following repeat lipid determinations at 4 to 8 week intervals. The maximum dose is 160 mg per day. Treatment with fenofibrate tablets should be initiated at a dose of 54 mg/day in patients having impaired renal function, and increased only after evaluation of the effects on renal function and lipid levels at this dose. In the elderly, the initial dose should likewise be limited to 54 mg/day. Lipid levels should be monitored periodically and consideration should be given to reducing the dosage of fenofibrate tablets if lipid levels fall significantly below the targeted range.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether fenofibrate is excreted into milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from fenofibrate, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or administration of fenofibrate taking into account the importance of the drug to the lactating woman.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Oral Anticoagulants: CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN COUMARIN ANTICOAGULANTS ARE GIVEN IN CONJUNCTION WITH FENOFIBRATE TABLETS. THE DOSAGE OF THE ANTICOAGULANTS SHOULD BE REDUCED TO MAINTAIN THE PROTHROMBIN TIME/INR AT THE DESIRED LEVEL TO PREVENT BLEEDING COMPLICATIONS. FREQUENT PROTHROMBIN TIME/INR DETERMINATIONS ARE ADVISABLE UNTIL IT HAS BEEN DEFINITELY DETERMINED THAT THE PROTHROMBIN TIME/INR HAS STABILIZED. HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: The combined use of fenofibrate tablets and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors should be avoided unless the benefit of further alterations in lipid levels is likely to outweigh the increased risk of this drug combination (see WARNINGS ). Resins: Since bile acid sequestrants may bind other drugs given concurrently, patients should take fenofibrate tablets at least 1 hour before or 4 to 6 hours after a bile acid binding resin to avoid impeding its absorption. Cyclosporine: Because cyclosporine can produce nephrotoxicity with decreases in creatinine clearance and rises in serum creatinine, and because renal excretion is the primary elimination route of fibrate drugs including fenofibrate tablets, there is a risk that an interaction will lead to deterioration. The benefits and risks of using fenofibrate tablets with immunosuppressants and other potentially nephrotoxic agents should be carefully considered, and the lowest effective dose employed.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA076509
Agency product number U202363UOS
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 68084-328,68084-827
Date Last Revised 09-10-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 349287
Storage and handling STORAGE Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep out of reach of children. Protect from moisture. FOR YOUR PROTECTION: Do not use if blister is torn or broken.
Marketing authorisation holder American Health Packaging