Data from FDA - Curated by Marshall Pearce - Last updated 10 November 2017

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE EMEND® for injection, in combination with other antiemetic agents, is indicated in adults for the prevention of: acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy (HEC) including high-dose cisplatin. delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy (MEC). EMEND® for injection is a substance P/neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, indicated in adults, in combination with other antiemetic agents, for the prevention of (1): acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy (HEC) including high-dose cisplatin. delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy (MEC). Limitations of Use (1) EMEND has not been studied for treatment of established nausea and vomiting. Limitations of Use EMEND has not been studied for the treatment of established nausea and vomiting.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS EMEND is contraindicated in patients: who are hypersensitive to any component of the product. Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylactic reactions, flushing, erythema, and dyspnea have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. taking pimozide. Inhibition of CYP3A4 by aprepitant, the active moiety, could result in elevated plasma concentrations of this drug, which is a CYP3A4 substrate, potentially causing serious or life-threatening reactions, such as QT prolongation, a known adverse reaction of pimozide [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Known hypersensitivity to any component of this drug. (4, 5.2) Concurrent use with pimozide. (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Most common adverse reactions (≥2%) are: fatigue, diarrhea, neutropenia, asthenia, anemia, peripheral neuropathy, leukopenia, dyspepsia, urinary tract infection, pain in extremity. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., at 1-877-888-4231 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. The overall safety of EMEND for injection was evaluated in approximately 1600 individuals. Adverse Reactions for the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting Associated with MEC In an active-controlled clinical trial in patients receiving MEC, safety was evaluated in 504 patients receiving a single dose of EMEND for injection in combination with ondansetron and dexamethasone (EMEND regimen) compared to 497 patients receiving ondansetron and dexamethasone alone (standard therapy). The most common adverse reactions are listed in Table 4. Table 4 Most Common Adverse Reactions in Patients Receiving MECReported in ≥ 2% of patients treated with the EMEND regimen and at a greater incidence than standard therapy. EMEND for injection, ondansetron, and dexamethasoneEMEND regimen (N=504) Ondansetron and dexamethasoneStandard therapy (N=497) fatigue 15% 13% diarrhea 13% 11% neutropenia 8% 7% asthenia 4% 3% anemia 3% 2% peripheral neuropathy 3% 2% leukopenia 2% 1% dyspepsia 2% 1% urinary tract infection 2% 1% pain in extremity 2% 1% Infusion-site reactions were reported in 2.2% of patients treated with the EMEND regimen compared to 0.6% of patients treated with standard therapy. The infusion-site reactions included: infusion-site pain (1.2%, 0.4%), injection-site irritation (0.2%, 0.0%), vessel puncture-site pain (0.2%, 0.0%), and infusion-site thrombophlebitis (0.6%, 0.0%), reported in the EMEND regimen compared to standard therapy, respectively. Adverse Reactions for the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting Associated with HEC In an active-controlled clinical study in patients receiving HEC, safety was evaluated for 1143 patients receiving a single dose of EMEND for injection compared to 1169 patients receiving the 3-day regimen of oral EMEND (aprepitant) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. The safety profile was generally similar to that seen in the MEC study with fosaprepitant and prior HEC studies with aprepitant. However, infusion-site reactions occurred at a higher incidence in patients in the fosaprepitant group (3.0%) compared to those in the aprepitant group (0.5%). The following additional infusion-site reactions occurred in the HEC study and were not reported in the MEC study described above: infusion-site erythema (0.5%, 0.1%), infusion-site pruritus (0.3%, 0.0%), and infusion-site induration (0.2%, 0.1%), reported in the fosaprepitant group compared to the aprepitant group, respectively. Since fosaprepitant is converted to aprepitant, those adverse reactions associated with aprepitant might also be expected to occur with EMEND for injection. See the full prescribing information for EMEND capsules for complete safety information regarding studies performed with oral aprepitant. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of EMEND. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: pruritus, rash, urticaria, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Immune system disorders: hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis and anaphylactic shock [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Nervous system disorders: ifosfamide-induced neurotoxicity reported after EMEND and ifosfamide coadministration.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Dosage (2.1) Recommended dosage in adults is 150 mg on Day 1 as an intravenous infusion over 20 to 30 minutes approximately 30 minutes prior to chemotherapy. See Full Prescribing Information for recommended dosages of concomitant dexamethasone and a 5-HT3 antagonist for HEC and MEC. Preparation (2.2) Reconstitute with 5 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride. Add to infusion bag containing 145 mL 0.9% sodium chloride for a final concentration of 1 mg/mL. 2.1 Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting Associated with HEC and MEC The recommended dosage of EMEND for injection, dexamethasone, and a 5-HT3 antagonist in adults for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with administration of HEC or MEC is shown in Table 1 or Table 2, respectively. Administer EMEND for injection as an intravenous infusion on Day 1 over 20 to 30 minutes approximately 30 minutes prior to chemotherapy. Table 1 Recommended Dosing for the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting Associated with HEC Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 EMEND for injection 150 mg intravenously over 20 to 30 minutes approximately 30 minutes prior to chemotherapy none none none DexamethasoneAdminister dexamethasone 30 minutes prior to chemotherapy treatment on Day 1 and in the morning on Days 2 through 4. Also administer dexamethasone in the evenings on Days 3 and 4. A 50% dosage reduction of dexamethasone on Days 1 and 2 is recommended to account for a drug interaction with EMEND [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 12 mg orally 8 mg orally 8 mg orally twice daily 8 mg orally twice daily 5-HT3 antagonist See selected 5-HT3 antagonist prescribing information for the recommended dosage none none none Table 2 Recommended Dosing for the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting Associated with MEC Day 1 EMEND for injection 150 mg intravenously over 20 to 30 minutes approximately 30 minutes prior to chemotherapy DexamethasoneAdminister dexamethasone 30 minutes prior to chemotherapy treatment on Day 1. A 50% dosage reduction of dexamethasone is recommended to account for a drug interaction with EMEND [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 12 mg orally 5-HT3 antagonist See selected 5-HT3 antagonist prescribing information for the recommended dosage 2.2 Preparation of EMEND for Injection Table 3 Preparation Instructions for EMEND for Injection Step 1 Aseptically inject 5 mL 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP into the vial. Assure that 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP is added to the vial along the vial wall in order to prevent foaming. Swirl the vial gently. Avoid shaking and jetting 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP into the vial. Step 2 Aseptically prepare an infusion bag filled with 145 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. Step 3 Aseptically withdraw the entire volume from the vial and transfer it into the infusion bag containing 145 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP to yield a total volume of 150 mL and a final concentration of 1 mg/mL. Step 4 Gently invert the bag 2 to 3 times. Step 5 Before administration, inspect the bag for particulate matter and discoloration. Discard the bag if particulate and/or discoloration are observed. Caution: Do not mix or reconstitute EMEND for injection with solutions for which physical and chemical compatibility have not been established. EMEND for injection is incompatible with any solutions containing divalent cations (e.g., Ca2+, Mg2+), including Lactated Ringer's Solution and Hartmann's Solution. Storage The reconstituted final drug solution is stable for 24 hours at ambient room temperature [at or below 25°C (77°F)].
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary There are insufficient data on use of EMEND in pregnant women to inform a drug associated risk. In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed in rats or rabbits exposed during the period of organogenesis to systemic drug levels (AUC) approximately equivalent to the exposure at the recommended human dose (RHD) of 150 mg [see Data]. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Data Animal Data In embryofetal development studies in rats and rabbits, aprepitant was administered during the period of organogenesis at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg twice daily (rats) and up to the maximum tolerated dose of 25 mg/kg/day (rabbits). No embryofetal lethality or malformations were observed at any dose level in either species. The exposures (AUC) in pregnant rats at 1000 mg/kg twice daily and in pregnant rabbits at 125 mg/kg/day were approximately equivalent to the exposure at the RHD of 150 mg. Aprepitant crosses the placenta in rats and rabbits. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Lactation studies have not been conducted to assess the presence of aprepitant in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Aprepitant is present in rat milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for EMEND and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from EMEND or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Contraception Upon administration of EMEND, the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Advise females of reproductive potential using hormonal contraceptives to use an effective alternative or back-up non-hormonal contraceptive (such as condoms and spermicides) during treatment with EMEND and for 1 month following the last dose [see Drug Interactions (7.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of EMEND for injection have not been established in pediatric patients. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the 1649 adult cancer patients treated with intravenous EMEND in HEC and MEC clinical studies, 27% were aged 65 and over, while 5% were aged 75 and over. Other reported clinical experience with EMEND has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, use caution when dosing elderly patients as they have a greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function and concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.6 Patients with Hepatic Impairment The pharmacokinetics of aprepitant in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment were similar to those of healthy subjects with normal hepatic function. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 5 to 9). There are no clinical or pharmacokinetic data in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score greater than 9). Therefore, additional monitoring for adverse reactions in these patients may be warranted when EMEND is administered [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS See Full Prescribing Information for a list of clinically significant drug interactions. (4, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 7.1, 7.2) 7.1 Effect of Fosaprepitant/Aprepitant on the Pharmacokinetics of Other Drugs When administered intravenously, fosaprepitant, a prodrug of aprepitant, is converted to aprepitant within 30 minutes. Therefore, drug interactions following administration of EMEND for injection are likely to occur with drugs that interact with oral aprepitant. Fosaprepitant, given as a single 150-mg dose, is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4, and the weak inhibition of CYP3A4 continues for 2 days after single dose administration. Single dose fosaprepitant does not induce CYP3A4. Aprepitant is a substrate, an inhibitor, and an inducer of CYP3A4. Aprepitant is also an inducer of CYP2C9 [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Some substrates of CYP3A4 are contraindicated with EMEND [see Contraindications (4)]. Dosage adjustment of some CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 substrates may be warranted, as shown in Table 5. Table 5 Effects of Fosaprepitant/Aprepitant on the Pharmacokinetics of Other Drugs CYP3A4 Substrates Pimozide Clinical Impact Increased pimozide exposure Intervention EMEND is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)]. Benzodiazepines Clinical Impact Increased exposure to midazolam or other benzodiazepines metabolized via CYP3A4 (alprazolam, triazolam) may increase the risk of adverse reactions [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention Monitor for benzodiazepine-related adverse reactions. Dexamethasone Clinical Impact Increased dexamethasone exposure [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention Reduce the dose of oral dexamethasone by approximately 50% [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Methylprednisolone Clinical Impact Increased methylprednisolone exposure [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention Reduce the dose of oral methylprednisolone by approximately 50% on Days 1 and 2 for patients receiving HEC and on Day 1 for patients receiving MEC. Reduce the dose of intravenous methylprednisolone by 25% on Days 1 and 2 for patients receiving HEC and on Day 1 for patients receiving MEC. Chemotherapeutic agents that are metabolized by CYP3A4 Clinical Impact Increased exposure of the chemotherapeutic agent may increase the risk of adverse reactions [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention Vinblastine, vincristine, or ifosfamide or other chemotherapeutic agents Monitor for chemotherapeutic-related adverse reactions. Etoposide, vinorelbine, paclitaxel, and docetaxel No dosage adjustment needed. Hormonal Contraceptives Clinical Impact Decreased hormonal exposure during administration of and for 28 days after administration of the last dose of EMEND [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), Use in Specific Populations (8.3), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention Effective alternative or back-up methods of contraception (such as condoms and spermicides) should be used during treatment with EMEND and for 1 month following administration of EMEND. Examples birth control pills, skin patches, implants, and certain IUDs CYP2C9 Substrates Warfarin Clinical Impact Decreased warfarin exposure and prolongation of prothrombin time (INR) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention In patients on chronic warfarin therapy, monitor the prothrombin time (INR) in the 2-week period, particularly at 7 to 10 days, following administration of EMEND with each chemotherapy cycle. Other 5-HT3 Antagonists Clinical Impact No change in the exposure of the 5-HT3 antagonist [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention No dosage adjustment needed Examples ondansetron, granisetron, dolasetron 7.2 Effect of Other Drugs on the Pharmacokinetics of Fosaprepitant/Aprepitant Aprepitant is a CYP3A4 substrate [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Co-administration of EMEND with drugs that are inhibitors or inducers of CYP3A4 may result in increased or decreased plasma concentrations of aprepitant, respectively, as shown in Table 6. Table 6 Effects of Other Drugs on Pharmacokinetics of Fosaprepitant/Aprepitant Moderate to Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors Clinical Impact Significantly increased exposure of aprepitant may increase the risk of adverse reactions associated with EMEND [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention Avoid concomitant use of EMEND Examples Moderate inhibitor: diltiazem Strong inhibitors: ketoconazole, itraconazole, nefazodone, troleandomycin, clarithromycin, ritonavir, nelfinavir Strong CYP3A4 Inducers Clinical Impact Substantially decreased exposure of aprepitant in patients chronically taking a strong CYP3A4 inducer may decrease the efficacy of EMEND [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention Avoid concomitant use of EMEND Examples rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA022023
Agency product number D35FM8T64X
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0006-3884,0006-3941
Date Last Revised 09-08-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 1731077
Storage and handling Storage Emend for injection vials must be refrigerated, store at 2°C-8°C (36°F-46°F). The reconstituted final drug solution is stable for 24 hours at ambient room temperature [at or below 25°C (77°F)].
Marketing authorisation holder Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.