Data from FDA - Curated by Marshall Pearce - Last updated 05 December 2017

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Dextroamphetamine Saccharate, Amphetamine Aspartate, Dextroamphetamine Sulfate and Amphetamine Sulfate Tablets (Mixed Salts of a Single Entity Amphetamine Product) are indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Narcolepsy. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) A diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; DSM-IV®) implies the presence of hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment and were present before age 7 years. The symptoms must cause clinically significant impairment, e.g., in social, academic, or occupational functioning, and be present in two or more settings, e.g., school (or work) and at home. The symptoms must not be better accounted for by another mental disorder. For the Inattentive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: lack of attention to details/careless mistakes; lack of sustained attention; poor listener; failure to follow through on tasks; poor organization; avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort; loses things; easily distracted; forgetful. For the Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: fidgeting/squirming; leaving seat; inappropriate running/climbing; difficulty with quiet activities; “on the go;” excessive talking; blurting answers; can't wait turn; intrusive. The Combined Type requires both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive criteria to be met. Special Diagnostic Considerations Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use not only of medical but of special psychological, educational, and social resources. Learning may or may not be impaired. The diagnosis must be based upon a complete history and evaluation of the child and not solely on the presence of the required number of DSM-IV® characteristics. Need for Comprehensive Treatment Program Dextroamphetamine Saccharate, Amphetamine Aspartate, Dextroamphetamine Sulfate and Amphetamine Sulfate Tablets (Mixed Salts of a Single Entity Amphetamine Product) are indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social) for patients with this syndrome. Drug treatment may not be indicated for all children with this syndrome. Stimulants are not intended for use in the child who exhibits symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is often helpful. When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe stimulant medication will depend upon the physician's assessment of the chronicity and severity of the child's symptoms. Long-Term Use The effectiveness of Dextroamphetamine Saccharate, Amphetamine Aspartate, Dextroamphetamine Sulfate and Amphetamine Sulfate Tablets (Mixed Salts of a Single Entity Amphetamine Product) for long-term use has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to use Dextroamphetamine Saccharate, Amphetamine Aspartate, Dextroamphetamine Sulfate and Amphetamine Sulfate Tablets (Mixed Salts of a Single Entity Amphetamine Product) for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Advanced arteriosclerosis, symptomatic cardiovascular disease, moderate to severe hypertension, hyperthyroidism, known hypersensitivity or idiosyncrasy to the sympathomimetic amines, glaucoma. Agitated states. Patients with a history of drug abuse. During or within 14 days following the administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (hypertensive crises may result).
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General The least amount of amphetamine feasible should be prescribed or dispensed at one time in order to minimize the possibility of overdosage. Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets should be used with caution in patients who use other sympathomimetic drugs. Tics Amphetamines have been reported to exacerbate motor and phonic tics and Tourette’s syndrome. Therefore, clinical evaluation for tics and Tourette’s syndrome in children and their families should precede use of stimulant medications. Information for Patients Amphetamines may impair the ability of the patient to engage in potentially hazardous activities such as operating machinery or vehicles; the patient should therefore be cautioned accordingly. Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with amphetamine or dextroamphetamine and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide is available for dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document. Circulation Problems in Fingers and Toes [Peripheral Vasculopathy, Including Raynaud’s Phenomenon] •Instruct patients beginning treatment with dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets about the risk of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon, and associated signs and symptoms: fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful, and/or may change color from pale, to blue, to red. •Instruct patients to report to their physician any new numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in fingers or toes. • Instruct patients to call their physician immediately with any signs of unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets. •Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients. Drug Interactions Acidifying Agents Gastrointestinal acidifying agents (guanethidine, reserpine, glutamic acid HCl, ascorbic acid, fruit juices, etc.) lower absorption of amphetamines. Urinary Acidifying Agents (ammonium chloride, sodium acid phosphate, etc.) increase the concentration of the ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby increasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents lower blood levels and efficacy of amphetamines. Adrenergic Blockers Adrenergic blockers are inhibited by amphetamines. Alkalinizing Agents Gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate, etc.) increase absorption of amphetamines. Coadministration of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and gastrointestinal alkalizing agents, such as antacids, should be avoided. Urinary alkalinizing agents (acetazolamide, some thiazides) increase the concentration of the non-ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby decreasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents increase blood levels and therefore potentiate the actions of amphetamines. Antidepressants, Tricyclic Amphetamines may enhance the activity of tricyclic or sympathomimetic agents; d-amphetamine with desipramine or protriptyline and possibly other tricyclics cause striking and sustained increases in the concentration of d-amphetamine in the brain; cardiovascular effects can be potentiated. CYP2D6 Inhibitors The concomitant use of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tabletsand CYP2D6 inhibitors may increase the exposure of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tabletscompared to the use of the drug alone and increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Initiate with lower doses and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome particularly during dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets initiation and after a dosage increase. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and the CYP2D6 inhibitor [see WARNINGS , OVERDOSAGE ]. Examples of CYP2D6 Inhibitors include paroxetine and fluoxetine (also serotonergic drugs), quinidine, ritonavir. Serotonergic Drugs The concomitant use of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and serotonergic drugs increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Initiate with lower doses and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome, particularly during dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets initiation or dosage increase. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and the concomitant serotonergic drug(s) [see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ]. Examples of serotonergic drugs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, St. John’s Wort. MAO Inhibitors MAOI antidepressants, as well as a metabolite of furazolidone, slow amphetamine metabolism. This slowing potentiates amphetamines, increasing their effect on the release of norepinephrine and other monoamines from adrenergic nerve endings; this can cause headaches and other signs of hypertensive crisis. A variety of neurological toxic effects and malignant hyperpyrexia can occur, sometimes with fatal results. Antihistamines Amphetamines may counteract the sedative effect of antihistamines. Antihypertensives Amphetamines may antagonize the hypotensive effects of antihypertensives. Chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine blocks dopamine and norepinephrine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines, and can be used to treat amphetamine poisoning. Ethosuximide Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of ethosuximide. Haloperidol Haloperidol blocks dopamine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines. Lithium Carbonate The anorectic and stimulatory effects of amphetamines may be inhibited by lithium carbonate. Meperidine Amphetamines potentiate the analgesic effect of meperidine. Methenamine Therapy Urinary excretion of amphetamines is increased, and efficacy is reduced, by acidifying agents used in methenamine therapy. Norepinephrine Amphetamines enhance the adrenergic effect of norepinephrine. Phenobarbital Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenobarbital; coadministration of phenobarbital may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action. Phenytoin Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenytoin; coadministration of phenytoin may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action. Propoxyphene In cases of propoxyphene overdosage, amphetamine CNS stimulation is potentiated and fatal convulsions can occur. Proton Pump Inhibitors PPIs act on proton pumps by blocking acid production, thereby reducing gastric acidity. When AdderallXR® (20 mg single-dose) was administered concomitantly with the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole (40 mg once daily for 14 days), the median Tmax of d-amphetamine was decreased by 1.25 hours (from 4 to 2.75 hours), and the median Tmax of l-amphetamine was decreased by 2.5 hours (from 5.5 to 3 hours), compared to AdderallXR® administered alone. The AUC and Cmax of each moiety were unaffected. Therefore, coadministration of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and proton pump inhibitors should be monitored for changes in clinical effect. Veratrum Alkaloids Amphetamines inhibit the hypotensive effect of veratrum alkaloids. Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions Amphetamines can cause a significant elevation in plasma corticosteroid levels. This increase is greatest in the evening. Amphetamines may interfere with urinary steroid determinations. Carcinogenesis/Mutagenesis and Impairment of Fertility No evidence of carcinogenicity was found in studies in which d,l-amphetamine (enantiomer ratio of 1:1) was administered to mice and rats in the diet for 2 years at doses of up to 30 mg/kg/day in male mice, 19 mg/kg/day in female mice, and 5 mg/kg/day in male and female rats. These doses are approximately 2.4, 1.5, and 0.8 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose of 30 mg/day [child] on a mg/m2 body surface area basis. Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio present in dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets (immediate-release) (d- to l- ratio of 3:1), was not clastogenic in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test in vivo and was negative when tested in the E. coli component of the Ames test in vitro. D, l-Amphetamine (1:1 enantiomer ratio) has been reported to produce a positive response in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, an equivocal response in the Ames test, and negative responses in the in vitro sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration assays. Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio present in dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets (immediate-release)(d- to l- ratio of 3:1), did not adversely affect fertility or early embryonic development in the rat at doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the maximum recommended human dose of 30 mg/day on a mg/m2 body surface area basis). Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio present in dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets (d- to l- ratio of 3:1), had no apparent effects on embryofetal morphological development or survival when orally administered to pregnant rats and rabbits throughout the period of organogenesis at doses of up to 6 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 1.5 and 8 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose of 30 mg/day [child] on a mg/m2 body surface area basis. Fetal malformations and death have been reported in mice following parenteral administration of d-amphetamine doses of 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times that of a human dose of 30 mg/day [child] on a mg/m2 basis) or greater to pregnant animals. Administration of these doses was also associated with severe maternal toxicity. A number of studies in rodents indicate that prenatal or early postnatal exposure to amphetamine (d- or d,l-), at doses similar to those used clinically, can result in long-term neurochemical and behavioral alterations. Reported behavioral effects include learning and memory deficits, altered locomotor activity, and changes in sexual function. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. There has been one report of severe congenital bony deformity, tracheo-esophageal fistula, and anal atresia (vater association) in a baby born to a woman who took dextroamphetamine sulfate with lovastatin during the first trimester of pregnancy. Amphetamines should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nonteratogenic Effects Infants born to mothers dependent on amphetamines have an increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight. Also, these infants may experience symptoms of withdrawal as demonstrated by dysphoria, including agitation, and significant lassitude. Usage in Nursing Mothers Amphetamines are excreted in human milk. Mothers taking amphetamines should be advised to refrain from nursing. Pediatric Use Long-term effects of amphetamines in children have not been well established. Amphetamines are not recommended for use in children under 3 years of age with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder described under INDICATIONS AND USAGE . Geriatric Use Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets have not been studied in the geriatric population.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Cardiovascular Palpitations, tachycardia, elevation of blood pressure, sudden death, myocardial infarction. There have been isolated reports of cardiomyopathy associated with chronic amphetamine use. Central Nervous System Psychotic episodes at recommended doses, overstimulation, restlessness, irritability, euphoria, dyskinesia, dysphoria, depression, tremor, tics, aggression, anger, logorrhea, dermatillomania. Eye Disorders Vision blurred, mydriasis. Gastrointestinal Dryness of the mouth, unpleasant taste, diarrhea, constipation, other gastrointestinal disturbances. Anorexia and weight loss may occur as undesirable effects. Allergic Urticaria, rash, hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema and anaphylaxis. Serious skin rashes, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported. Endocrine Impotence, changes in libido, frequent or prolonged erections. Skin Alopecia. Musculoskeletal Rhabdomyolysis.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Regardless of indication, amphetamines should be administered at the lowest effective dosage, and dosage should be individually adjusted according to the therapeutic needs and response of the patient. Late evening doses should be avoided because of the resulting insomnia. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Not recommended for children under 3 years of age. In children from 3 to 5 years of age, start with 2.5 mg daily; daily dosage may be raised in increments of 2.5 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. In children 6 years of age and older, start with 5 mg once or twice daily; daily dosage may be raised in increments of 5 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. Only in rare cases will it be necessary to exceed a total of 40 mg per day. Give first dose on awakening; additional doses (1 or 2) at intervals of 4 to 6 hours. Where possible, drug administration should be interrupted occasionally to determine if there is a recurrence of behavioral symptoms sufficient to require continued therapy. Narcolepsy Usual dose 5 mg to 60 mg per day in divided doses, depending on the individual patient response. Narcolepsy seldom occurs in children under 12 years of age; however, when it does, dextroamphetamine sulfate may be used. The suggested initial dose for patients aged 6 to 12 is 5 mg daily; daily dose may be raised in increments of 5 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. In patients 12 years of age and older, start with 10 mg daily; daily dosage may be raised in increments of 10 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. If bothersome adverse reactions appear (e.g., insomnia or anorexia), dosage should be reduced. Give first dose on awakening; additional doses (1 or 2) at intervals of 4 to 6 hours.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Acidifying Agents Gastrointestinal acidifying agents (guanethidine, reserpine, glutamic acid HCl, ascorbic acid, fruit juices, etc.) lower absorption of amphetamines. Urinary Acidifying Agents (ammonium chloride, sodium acid phosphate, etc.) increase the concentration of the ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby increasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents lower blood levels and efficacy of amphetamines. Adrenergic Blockers Adrenergic blockers are inhibited by amphetamines. Alkalinizing Agents Gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate, etc.) increase absorption of amphetamines. Coadministration of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and gastrointestinal alkalizing agents, such as antacids, should be avoided. Urinary alkalinizing agents (acetazolamide, some thiazides) increase the concentration of the non-ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby decreasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents increase blood levels and therefore potentiate the actions of amphetamines. Antidepressants, Tricyclic Amphetamines may enhance the activity of tricyclic or sympathomimetic agents; d-amphetamine with desipramine or protriptyline and possibly other tricyclics cause striking and sustained increases in the concentration of d-amphetamine in the brain; cardiovascular effects can be potentiated. CYP2D6 Inhibitors The concomitant use of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tabletsand CYP2D6 inhibitors may increase the exposure of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tabletscompared to the use of the drug alone and increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Initiate with lower doses and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome particularly during dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets initiation and after a dosage increase. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and the CYP2D6 inhibitor [see WARNINGS , OVERDOSAGE ]. Examples of CYP2D6 Inhibitors include paroxetine and fluoxetine (also serotonergic drugs), quinidine, ritonavir. Serotonergic Drugs The concomitant use of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and serotonergic drugs increases the risk of serotonin syndrome. Initiate with lower doses and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome, particularly during dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets initiation or dosage increase. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and the concomitant serotonergic drug(s) [see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ]. Examples of serotonergic drugs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, St. John’s Wort. MAO Inhibitors MAOI antidepressants, as well as a metabolite of furazolidone, slow amphetamine metabolism. This slowing potentiates amphetamines, increasing their effect on the release of norepinephrine and other monoamines from adrenergic nerve endings; this can cause headaches and other signs of hypertensive crisis. A variety of neurological toxic effects and malignant hyperpyrexia can occur, sometimes with fatal results. Antihistamines Amphetamines may counteract the sedative effect of antihistamines. Antihypertensives Amphetamines may antagonize the hypotensive effects of antihypertensives. Chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine blocks dopamine and norepinephrine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines, and can be used to treat amphetamine poisoning. Ethosuximide Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of ethosuximide. Haloperidol Haloperidol blocks dopamine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines. Lithium Carbonate The anorectic and stimulatory effects of amphetamines may be inhibited by lithium carbonate. Meperidine Amphetamines potentiate the analgesic effect of meperidine. Methenamine Therapy Urinary excretion of amphetamines is increased, and efficacy is reduced, by acidifying agents used in methenamine therapy. Norepinephrine Amphetamines enhance the adrenergic effect of norepinephrine. Phenobarbital Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenobarbital; coadministration of phenobarbital may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action. Phenytoin Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenytoin; coadministration of phenytoin may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action. Propoxyphene In cases of propoxyphene overdosage, amphetamine CNS stimulation is potentiated and fatal convulsions can occur. Proton Pump Inhibitors PPIs act on proton pumps by blocking acid production, thereby reducing gastric acidity. When AdderallXR® (20 mg single-dose) was administered concomitantly with the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole (40 mg once daily for 14 days), the median Tmax of d-amphetamine was decreased by 1.25 hours (from 4 to 2.75 hours), and the median Tmax of l-amphetamine was decreased by 2.5 hours (from 5.5 to 3 hours), compared to AdderallXR® administered alone. The AUC and Cmax of each moiety were unaffected. Therefore, coadministration of dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate and amphetamine sulfate tablets and proton pump inhibitors should be monitored for changes in clinical effect. Veratrum Alkaloids Amphetamines inhibit the hypotensive effect of veratrum alkaloids.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA040422
Agency product number G83415V073
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 63629-3731
Date Last Revised 17-09-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 577961
Marketing authorisation holder Bryant Ranch Prepack
Warnings Amphetamines Have A High Potential For Abuse. Administration Of Amphetamines For Prolonged Periods Of Time May Lead To Drug Dependence And Must Be Avoided. Particular Attention Should Be Paid To The Possibility Of Subjects Obtaining Amphetamines For Non-Therapeutic Use Or Distribution To Others, And The Drugs Should Be Prescribed Or Dispensed Sparingly. Misuse Of Amphetamine May Cause Sudden Death And Serious Cardiovascular Adverse Events.