Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 08 March 2017

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Lidocaine Ointment USP, 5% is indicated for production of anesthesia of accessible mucous membranes of the oropharynx. It is also useful as an anesthetic lubricant for intubation and for the temporary relief of pain associated with minor burns, including sunburn, abrasions of the skin, and insect bites.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Lidocaine is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type or to other components of Lidocaine Ointment USP, 5%.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS ). The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Repeated doses of lidocaine may cause significant increases in blood levels with each repeated dose because of slow accumulation of the drug and/or its metabolites. Tolerance to elevated blood levels varies with the status of the patient. Debilitated, elderly patients, acutely ill patients, and children should be given reduced doses commensurate with their age and physical condition. Lidocaine should also be used with caution in patients with severe shock or heart block. Lidocaine Ointment USP, 5% should be used with caution in patients with known drug sensitivities. Patients allergic to paraaminobenzoic acid derivatives (procaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, etc.) have not shown cross sensitivity to lidocaine. Many drugs used during the conduct of anesthesia are considered potential triggering agents for familial malignant hyperthermia. Since it is not known whether amide-type local anesthetics may trigger this reaction and since the need for supplemental general anesthesia cannot be predicted in advance, it is suggested that a standard protocol for the management of malignant hyperthermia should be available. Early unexplained signs of tachycardia, tachypnea, labile blood pressure and metabolic acidosis may precede temperature elevation. Successful outcome is dependent on early diagnosis, prompt discontinuance of the suspect triggering agent(s) and institution of treatment, including oxygen therapy, indicated supportive measures and dantrolene (consult dantrolene sodium intravenous package insert before using). Information for Patients When topical anesthetics are used in the mouth, the patient should be aware that the production of topical anesthesia may impair swallowing and thus enhance the danger of aspiration. For this reason, food should not be ingested for 60 minutes following the use of local anesthetic preparations in the mouth or throat area. This is particularly important in children because of their frequency of eating. Numbness of the tongue or buccal mucosa may enhance the danger of unintentional biting trauma. Food and chewing gum should not be taken while the mouth or throat area is anesthetized. Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility Studies of lidocaine in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic and mutagenic potential or the effect on fertility have not been conducted. Use in Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at doses up to 6.6 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus caused by lidocaine. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. General consideration should be given to this fact before administering lidocaine to women of childbearing potential, especially during early pregnancy when maximum organogenesis takes place. Labor and Delivery Lidocaine is not contraindicated in labor and delivery. Should Lidocaine Ointment USP, 5% be used concomitantly with other products containing lidocaine, the total dose contributed by all formulations must be kept in mind. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when lidocaine is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric use Dosage in children should be reduced, commensurate with age, body weight and physical condition. Caution must be taken to avoid overdosage when applying Lidocaine Ointment USP, 5% to large areas of injured or abraded skin, since the systemic absorption of lidocaine may be increased under such conditions. See DOSAGE and ADMINISTRATION .
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Adverse experiences following the administration of lidocaine are similar in nature to those observed with other amide local anesthetic agents. These adverse experiences are, in general, dose-related and may result from high plasma levels caused by excessive dosage or rapid absorption, or may result from a hypersensitivity, idiosyncrasy or diminished tolerance on the part of the patient. Serious adverse experiences are generally systemic in nature. The following types are those most commonly reported: Central nervous system CNS manifestations are excitatory and/or depressant and may be characterized by lightheadedness, nervousness, apprehension, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, tinnitus, blurred or double vision, vomiting, sensations of heat, cold or numbness, twitching, tremors, convulsions, unconsciousness, respiratory depression and arrest. The excitatory manifestations may be very brief or may not occur at all, in which case the first manifestation of toxicity may be drowsiness merging into unconsciousness and respiratory arrest. Drowsiness following the administration of lidocaine is usually an early sign of a high blood level of the drug and may occur as a consequence of rapid absorption. Cardiovascular system Cardiovascular manifestations are usually depressant and are characterized by bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse, which may lead to cardiac arrest. Allergic Allergic reactions are characterized by cutaneous lesions, urticaria, edema or anaphylactoid reactions. Allergic reactions may occur as a result of sensitivity either to the local anesthetic agent or to other components in the formulation. Allergic reactions as a result of sensitivity to lidocaine are extremely rare and, if they occur, should be managed by conventional means. The detection of sensitivity by skin testing is of doubtful value.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION When Lidocaine Ointment USP, 5% is used concomitantly with other products containing lidocaine, the total dose contributed by all formulations must be kept in mind. Adult A single application should not exceed 5 g of Lidocaine Ointment USP, 5%, containing 250 mg of lidocaine base (equivalent chemically to approximately 300 mg of lidocaine hydrochloride). This is roughly equivalent to squeezing a six (6) inch length of ointment from the tube. In a 70 kg adult this dose equals 3.6 mg/kg (1.6 mg/lb) lidocaine base. No more than one-half tube, approximately 17-20 g of ointment or 850-1000 mg lidocaine base, should be administered in any one day. Although the incidence of adverse effects with Lidocaine Ointment USP, 5% is quite low, caution should be exercised, particularly when employing large amounts, since the incidence of adverse effects is directly proportional to the total dose of local anesthetic agent administered. Dosage for children It is difficult to recommend a maximum dose of any drug for children since this varies as a function of age and weight. For children less than ten years who have a normal lean body mass and a normal lean body development, the maximum dose may be determined by the application of one of the standard pediatric drug formulas (e.g., Clark's rule). For example a child of five years weighing 50 lbs., the dose of lidocaine should not exceed 75-100 mg when calculated according to Clark's rule. In any case, the maximum amount of lidocaine administered should not exceed 4.5 mg/kg (2.0 mg/lb) of body weight. Administration For medical use, apply topically for adequate control of symptoms. The use of a sterile gauze pad is suggested for application to broken skin tissue. Apply to the tube prior to intubation. In dentistry, apply to previously dried oral mucosa. Subsequent removal of excess saliva with cotton rolls or saliva ejector minimizes dilution of the ointment, permits maximum penetration, and minimizes the possibility of swallowing the topical ointment. For use in connection with the insertion of new dentures, apply to all denture surfaces contacting mucosa. IMPORTANT: Patients should consult a dentist at intervals not exceeding 48 hours throughout the fitting period.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when lidocaine is administered to a nursing woman.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA205318
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 59088-811
Date Last Revised 22-09-2016
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Marketing authorisation holder PureTek Corporation