PRECAUTIONS General Indirect hyperbilirubinemia has occurred frequently during treatment with CRIXIVAN and has infrequently been associated with increases in serum transaminases (see also ADVERSE REACTIONS, Clinical Trials and Post-Marketing Experience). It is not known whether CRIXIVAN will exacerbate the physiologic hyperbilirubinemia seen in neonates. (See Pregnancy.) Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Reports of tubulointerstitial nephritis with medullary calcification and cortical atrophy have been observed in patients with asymptomatic severe leukocyturia (>100 cells/ high power field). Patients with asymptomatic severe leukocyturia should be followed closely and monitored frequently with urinalyses. Further diagnostic evaluation may be warranted, and discontinuation of CRIXIVAN should be considered in all patients with severe leukocyturia. Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including CRIXIVAN. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune system responds may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia [PCP], or tuberculosis), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment. Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves' disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution; however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of treatment. Coexisting Conditions Patients with hemophilia: There have been reports of spontaneous bleeding in patients with hemophilia A and B treated with protease inhibitors. In some patients, additional factor VIII was required. In many of the reported cases, treatment with protease inhibitors was continued or restarted. A causal relationship between protease inhibitor therapy and these episodes has not been established. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS, Post-Marketing Experience.) Patients with hepatic insufficiency due to cirrhosis: In these patients, the dosage of CRIXIVAN should be lowered because of decreased metabolism of CRIXIVAN (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Patients with renal insufficiency: Patients with renal insufficiency have not been studied. Fat Redistribution Redistribution/accumulation of body fat including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and "cushingoid appearance" have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established. Information for Patients A statement to patients and health care providers is included on the product's bottle label. ALERT: Find out about medicines that should NOT be taken with CRIXIVAN. A Patient Package Insert (PPI) for CRIXIVAN is available for patient information. CRIXIVAN is not a cure for HIV-1 infection and patients may continue to experience illnesses associated with HIV-1 infection, including opportunistic infections. Patients should remain under the care of a physician when using CRIXIVAN. Patients should be advised to avoid doing things that can spread HIV-1 infection to others. Do not share needles or other injection equipment. Do not share personal items that can have blood or body fluids on them, like toothbrushes and razor blades. Do not have any kind of sex without protection. Always practice safe sex by using a latex or polyurethane condom to lower the chance of sexual contact with semen, vaginal secretions, or blood. Do not breastfeed. We do not know if CRIXIVAN can be passed to your baby in your breast milk and whether it could harm your baby. Also, mothers with HIV-1 should not breastfeed because HIV-1 can be passed to the baby in the breast milk. Patients should be advised to remain under the care of a physician when using CRIXIVAN and should not modify or discontinue treatment without first consulting the physician. Therefore, if a dose is missed, patients should take the next dose at the regularly scheduled time and should not double this dose. Therapy with CRIXIVAN should be initiated and maintained at the recommended dosage. CRIXIVAN may interact with some drugs; therefore, patients should be advised to report to their doctor the use of any other prescription, non-prescription medication or herbal products, particularly St. John's wort. For optimal absorption, CRIXIVAN should be administered without food but with water 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. Alternatively, CRIXIVAN may be administered with other liquids such as skim milk, juice, coffee, or tea, or with a light meal, e.g., dry toast with jelly, juice, and coffee with skim milk and sugar; or corn flakes, skim milk and sugar (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Effect of Food on Oral Absorption and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Ingestion of CRIXIVAN with a meal high in calories, fat, and protein reduces the absorption of indinavir. Patients receiving a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor (sildenafil, tadalafil, or vardenafil) should be advised that they may be at an increased risk of PDE5 inhibitor-associated adverse events including hypotension, visual changes, and priapism, and should promptly report any symptoms to their doctors (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS, Drug Interactions). Patients should be informed that redistribution or accumulation of body fat may occur in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy and that the cause and long-term health effects of these conditions are not known at this time. CRIXIVAN Capsules are sensitive to moisture. Patients should be informed that CRIXIVAN should be stored and used in the original container and the desiccant should remain in the bottle. Drug Interactions Indinavir is an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 isoform CYP3A4. Coadministration of CRIXIVAN and drugs primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 may result in increased plasma concentrations of the other drug, which could increase or prolong its therapeutic and adverse effects (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS). Indinavir is metabolized by CYP3A4. Drugs that induce CYP3A4 activity would be expected to increase the clearance of indinavir, resulting in lowered plasma concentrations of indinavir. Coadministration of CRIXIVAN and other drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 may decrease the clearance of indinavir and may result in increased plasma concentrations of indinavir. Table 8: Drugs That Should Not Be Coadministered with CRIXIVAN Drug Class: Drug Name Clinical Comment Alpha 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist: alfuzosin Potentially increased alfuzosin concentrations can result in hypotension. Antiarrhythmics: amiodarone CONTRAINDICATED due to potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions such as cardiac arrhythmias. Antimycobacterial: rifampin May lead to loss of virologic response and possible resistance to CRIXIVAN or to the class of protease inhibitors or other coadministered antiretroviral agents. Antipsychotics: lurasidone pimozide CONTRAINDICATED due to potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions. CONTRAINDICATED due to potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions such as cardiac arrhythmias. Ergot derivatives: dihydroergotamine, ergonovine, ergotamine, methylergonovine CONTRAINDICATED due to potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions such as acute ergot toxicity characterized by peripheral vasospasm and ischemia of the extremities and other tissues. GI motility agents: cisapride CONTRAINDICATED due to potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions such as cardiac arrhythmias. Herbal products: St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) May lead to loss of virologic response and possible resistance to CRIXIVAN or to the class of protease inhibitors. HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitors: lovastatin, simvastatin CONTRAINDICATED due to an increased risk for serious reactions such as myopathy including rhabdomyolysis. PDE5 inhibitor: RevatioRegistered trademark of Pfizer, Inc. (sildenafil) [for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension] A safe and effective dose has not been established when used with CRIXIVAN. There is increased potential for sildenafil-associated adverse events (which include visual disturbances, hypotension, prolonged erection, and syncope). Protease inhibitor: atazanavir Both CRIXIVAN and atazanavir are associated with indirect (unconjugated) hyperbilirubinemia. Combinations of these drugs have not been studied and coadministration of CRIXIVAN and atazanavir is not recommended. Sedative/hypnotics: Oral midazolam, triazolam, alprazolam CONTRAINDICATED due to potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions such as prolonged or increased sedation or respiratory depression. Table 9: Established and Other Potentially Significant Drug Interactions: Alteration in Dose or Regimen May Be Recommended Based on Drug Interaction Studies or Predicted Interaction (See also CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY for magnitude of interaction, WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) Drug Name Effect Clinical Comment HIV Antiviral Agents Note: ↑ = increase; ↓ = decrease Delavirdine ↑ indinavir concentration Dose reduction of CRIXIVAN to 600 mg every 8 hours should be considered when taking delavirdine 400 mg three times a day. Didanosine Indinavir and didanosine formulations containing buffer should be administered at least one hour apart on an empty stomach. Efavirenz ↓ indinavir concentration The optimal dose of indinavir, when given in combination with efavirenz, is not known. Increasing the indinavir dose to 1000 mg every 8 hours does not compensate for the increased indinavir metabolism due to efavirenz. Nelfinavir ↑ indinavir concentration The appropriate doses for this combination, with respect to efficacy and safety, have not been established. Nevirapine ↓ indinavir concentration Indinavir concentrations may be decreased in the presence of nevirapine. The appropriate doses for this combination, with respect to efficacy and safety, have not been established. Ritonavir ↑ indinavir concentration ↑ ritonavir concentration The appropriate doses for this combination, with respect to efficacy and safety, have not been established. Preliminary clinical data suggest that the incidence of nephrolithiasis is higher in patients receiving indinavir in combination with ritonavir than those receiving CRIXIVAN 800 mg q8h. Saquinavir ↑ saquinavir concentration The appropriate doses for this combination, with respect to efficacy and safety, have not been established. Other Agents Antiarrhythmics: bepridil, lidocaine(systemic) and quinidine ↑ antiarrhythmic agents concentration Caution is warranted and therapeutic concentration monitoring is recommended for antiarrhythmics when coadministered with CRIXIVAN. Anticonvulsants: carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin ↓ indinavir concentration Use with caution. CRIXIVAN may not be effective due to decreased indinavir concentrations in patients taking these agents concomitantly. Antidepressant: Trazodone ↑ trazodone concentration Concomitant use of trazodone and CRIXIVAN may increase plasma concentrations of trazodone. Adverse events of nausea, dizziness, hypotension and syncope have been observed following coadministration of trazodone and ritonavir. If trazodone is used with a CYP3A4 inhibitor such as CRIXIVAN, the combination should be used with caution and a lower dose of trazodone should be considered. Anti-gout: Colchicine ↑ colchicine concentration Patients with renal or hepatic impairment should not be given colchicine with CRIXIVAN. Treatment of gout flares: Co-administration of colchicine in patients on CRIXIVAN: 0.6 mg (1 tablet) x 1 dose, followed by 0.3 mg (half tablet) 1 hour later. Dose to be repeated no earlier than 3 days. Prophylaxis of gout flares: Co-administration of colchicine in patients on CRIXIVAN: If the original colchicine regimen was 0.6 mg twice a day, the regimen should be adjusted to 0.3 mg once a day. If the original colchicine regimen was 0.6 mg once a day, the regimen should be adjusted to 0.3 mg once every other day. Treatment of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF): Co-administration of colchicine in patients on CRIXIVAN: Maximum daily dose of 0.6 mg (may be given as 0.3 mg twice a day). Antipsychotics: Quetiapine ↑ quetiapine Initiation of CRIXIVAN in patients taking quetiapine: Consider alternative antiretroviral therapy to avoid increases in quetiapine drug exposures. If coadministration is necessary, reduce the quetiapine dose to 1/6 of the current dose and monitor for quetiapine-associated adverse reactions. Refer to the quetiapine prescribing information for recommendations on adverse reaction monitoring. Initiation of quetiapine in patients taking CRIXIVAN: Refer to the quetiapine prescribing information for initial dosing and titration of quetiapine. Calcium Channel Blockers, Dihydropyridine: e.g., felodipine, nifedipine, nicardipine ↑ dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers concentration Caution is warranted and clinical monitoring of patients is recommended. Clarithromycin ↑ clarithromycin concentration ↑ indinavir concentration The appropriate doses for this combination, with respect to efficacy and safety, have not been established. Endothelin receptor antagonist: Bosentan ↑ bosentan concentration Co-administration of bosentan in patients on CRIXIVAN or co-administration of CRIXIVAN in patients on bosentan: Start at or adjust bosentan to 62.5 mg once daily or every other day based upon individual tolerability. HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: atorvastatin, rosuvastatin ↑ atorvastatin concentration ↑ rosuvastatin concentration The atorvastatin and rosuvastatin doses should be carefully titrated; use the lowest dose necessary with careful monitoring during treatment with CRIXIVAN. Immunosuppressants: cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus ↑ immunosuppressant agents concentration Plasma concentrations may be increased by CRIXIVAN. Inhaled beta agonist: Salmeterol ↑ salmeterol Concurrent administration of salmeterol with CRIXIVAN is not recommended. The combination may result in increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events associated with salmeterol, including QT prolongation, palpitations and sinus tachycardia. Inhaled/nasal steroid: Fluticasone ↑ fluticasone concentration Concomitant use of fluticasone propionate and CRIXIVAN may increase plasma concentrations of fluticasone propionate. Use with caution. Consider alternatives to fluticasone propionate, particularly for long-term use. Fluticasone use is not recommended in situations where CRIXIVAN is coadministered with a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor such as ritonavir unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the risk of systemic corticosteroid side effects. Itraconazole ↑ indinavir concentration Dose reduction of CRIXIVAN to 600 mg every 8 hours is recommended when administering itraconazole concurrently. Ketoconazole ↑ indinavir concentration Dose reduction of CRIXIVAN to 600 mg every 8 hours should be considered. Midazolam (parenteral administration) ↑ midazolam concentration Concomitant use of parenteral midazolam with CRIXIVAN may increase plasma concentrations of midazolam. Coadministration should be done in a setting which ensures close clinical monitoring and appropriate medical management in case of respiratory depression and/or prolonged sedation. Dosage reduction for midazolam should be considered, especially if more than a single dose of midazolam is administered. Coadministration of oral midazolam with CRIXIVAN is CONTRAINDICATED (see Table 8). Rifabutin ↓ indinavir concentration ↑ rifabutin concentration Dose reduction of rifabutin to half the standard dose and a dose increase of CRIXIVAN to 1000 mg every 8 hours are recommended when rifabutin and CRIXIVAN are coadministered. Sildenafil ↑ sildenafil concentration (only the use of sildenafil at doses used for treatment of erectile dysfunction has been studied with CRIXIVAN) May result in an increase in PDE5 inhibitor-associated adverse events, including hypotension, syncope, visual disturbances, and priapism. Use of sildenafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): Use of RevatioRegistered trademark of Pfizer, Inc. (sildenafil) is contraindicated when used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Use of sildenafil for erectile dysfunction: Sildenafil dose should not exceed a maximum of 25 mg in a 48-hour period in patients receiving concomitant CRIXIVAN therapy. Use with increased monitoring for adverse events. Tadalafil ↑ tadalafil concentration May result in an increase in PDE5 inhibitor-associated adverse events, including hypotension, visual disturbances, and priapism. Use of tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): The following dose adjustments are recommended for use of AdcircaRegistered trademark of Eli Lilly and Company. (tadalafil) with CRIXIVAN: Co-administration of Adcirca in patients on CRIXIVAN or co-administration of CRIXIVAN in patients on Adcirca: Start at or adjust Adcirca to 20 mg once daily. Increase to 40 mg once daily based upon individual tolerability. Use of tadalafil for erectile dysfunction: Tadalafil dose should not exceed a maximum of 10 mg in a 72-hour period in patients receiving concomitant CRIXIVAN therapy. Use with increased monitoring for adverse events. Vardenafil ↑ vardenafil concentration Vardenafil dose should not exceed a maximum of 2.5 mg in a 24-hour period in patients receiving concomitant indinavir therapy. Venlafaxine ↓ indinavir concentration In a study of 9 healthy volunteers, venlafaxine administered under steady-state conditions at 150 mg/day resulted in a 28% decrease in the AUC of a single 800 mg oral dose of indinavir and a 36% decrease in indinavir Cmax. Indinavir did not affect the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine and ODV. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenicity studies were conducted in mice and rats. In mice, no increased incidence of any tumor type was observed. The highest dose tested in rats was 640 mg/kg/day; at this dose a statistically significant increased incidence of thyroid adenomas was seen only in male rats. At that dose, daily systemic exposure in rats was approximately 1.3 times higher than daily systemic exposure in humans. No evidence of mutagenicity or genotoxicity was observed in in vitro microbial mutagenesis (Ames) tests, in vitro alkaline elution assays for DNA breakage, in vitro and in vivo chromosomal aberration studies, and in vitro mammalian cell mutagenesis assays. No treatment-related effects on mating, fertility, or embryo survival were seen in female rats and no treatment-related effects on mating performance were seen in male rats at doses providing systemic exposure comparable to or slightly higher than that with the clinical dose. In addition, no treatment-related effects were observed in fecundity or fertility of untreated females mated to treated males. Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C: Developmental toxicity studies were performed in rabbits (at doses up to 240 mg/kg/day), dogs (at doses up to 80 mg/kg/day), and rats (at doses up to 640 mg/kg/day). The highest doses in these studies produced systemic exposures in these species comparable to or slightly greater than human exposure. No treatment-related external, visceral, or skeletal changes were observed in rabbits or dogs. No treatment-related external or visceral changes were observed in rats. Treatment-related increases over controls in the incidence of supernumerary ribs (at exposures at or below those in humans) and of cervical ribs (at exposures comparable to or slightly greater than those in humans) were seen in rats. In all three species, no treatment-related effects on embryonic/fetal survival or fetal weights were observed. In rabbits, at a maternal dose of 240 mg/kg/day, no drug was detected in fetal plasma 1 hour after dosing. Fetal plasma drug levels 2 hours after dosing were approximately 3% of maternal plasma drug levels. In dogs, at a maternal dose of 80 mg/kg/day, fetal plasma drug levels were approximately 50% of maternal plasma drug levels both 1 and 2 hours after dosing. In rats, at maternal doses of 40 and 640 mg/kg/day, fetal plasma drug levels were approximately 10 to 15% and 10 to 20% of maternal plasma drug levels 1 and 2 hours after dosing, respectively. Indinavir was administered to Rhesus monkeys during the third trimester of pregnancy (at doses up to 160 mg/kg twice daily) and to neonatal Rhesus monkeys (at doses up to 160 mg/kg twice daily). When administered to neonates, indinavir caused an exacerbation of the transient physiologic hyperbilirubinemia seen in this species after birth; serum bilirubin values were approximately fourfold above controls at 160 mg/kg twice daily. A similar exacerbation did not occur in neonates after in utero exposure to indinavir during the third trimester of pregnancy. In Rhesus monkeys, fetal plasma drug levels were approximately 1 to 2% of maternal plasma drug levels approximately 1 hour after maternal dosing at 40, 80, or 160 mg/kg twice daily. Hyperbilirubinemia has occurred during treatment with CRIXIVAN (see PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). It is unknown whether CRIXIVAN administered to the mother in the perinatal period will exacerbate physiologic hyperbilirubinemia in neonates. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant patients. CRIXIVAN should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. A CRIXIVAN dose of 800 mg every 8 hours (with zidovudine 200 mg every 8 hours and lamivudine 150 mg twice a day) has been studied in 16 HIV-infected pregnant patients at 14 to 28 weeks of gestation at enrollment (study PACTG 358). Given the substantially lower antepartum exposures observed and the limited data in this patient population, indinavir use is not recommended in HIV-infected pregnant patients (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pregnant Patients). Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry To monitor maternal-fetal outcomes of pregnant patients exposed to CRIXIVAN, an Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry has been established. Physicians are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-800-258-4263. Nursing Mothers Studies in lactating rats have demonstrated that indinavir is excreted in milk. Although it is not known whether CRIXIVAN is excreted in human milk, there exists the potential for adverse effects from indinavir in nursing infants. Mothers should be instructed to discontinue nursing if they are receiving CRIXIVAN. This is consistent with the recommendation by the U.S. Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that HIV-infected mothers not breast-feed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV. Pediatric Use The optimal dosing regimen for use of indinavir in pediatric patients has not been established. A dose of 500 mg/m2 every eight hours has been studied in uncontrolled studies of 70 children, 3 to 18 years of age. The pharmacokinetic profiles of indinavir at this dose were not comparable to profiles previously observed in adults receiving the recommended dose (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pediatric). Although viral suppression was observed in some of the 32 children who were followed on this regimen through 24 weeks, a substantially higher rate of nephrolithiasis was reported when compared to adult historical data (see WARNINGS, Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis). Physicians considering the use of indinavir in pediatric patients without other protease inhibitor options should be aware of the limited data available in this population and the increased risk of nephrolithiasis. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of CRIXIVAN did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.