8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Females of reproductive potential: Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with CRESTOR. (8.3) Severe renal impairment (not on hemodialysis): Starting dose is 5 mg, not to exceed 10 mg. ( 2.5, 5.1, 8.6) Asian population: Consider 5 mg starting dose. ( 2.3, 8.8) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary CRESTOR is contraindicated for use in pregnant women since safety in pregnant women has not been established and there is no apparent benefit to therapy with CRESTOR during pregnancy. Because HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, CRESTOR may cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. CRESTOR should be discontinued as soon as pregnancy is recognized [see Contraindications (4)] . Limited published data on the use of rosuvastatin are insufficient to determine a drug-associated risk of major congenital malformations or miscarriage. In animal reproduction studies, there were no adverse developmental effects with oral administration of rosuvastatin during organogenesis at systemic exposures equivalent to a maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 40 mg/day in rats or rabbits (based on AUC and body surface area, respectively). In rats and rabbits, decreased pup/fetal survival occurred at 12 times and equivalent, respectively, to the MRHD of 40 mg/day [see Data] . The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Data Human Data Limited published data on rosuvastatin have not shown an increased risk of major congenital malformations or miscarriage. Rare reports of congenital anomalies have been received following intrauterine exposure to other statins. In a review of approximately 100 prospectively followed pregnancies in women exposed to simvastatin or lovastatin, the incidences of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths/stillbirths did not exceed what would be expected in the general population. The number of cases is adequate to exclude a ≥3 to 4-fold increase in congenital anomalies over the background incidence. In 89% of the prospectively followed pregnancies, drug treatment was initiated prior to pregnancy and was discontinued at some point in the first trimester when pregnancy was identified. Animal Data Rosuvastatin crosses the placenta in rats and rabbits and is found in fetal tissue and amniotic fluid at 3% and 20%, respectively, of the maternal plasma concentration following a single 25 mg/kg oral gavage dose on gestation day 16 in rats. A higher fetal tissue distribution (25% maternal plasma concentration) was observed in rabbits after a single oral gavage dose of 1 mg/kg on gestation day 18. Rosuvastatin administration did not indicate a teratogenic effect in rats at ≤25 mg/kg/day or in rabbits ≤3 mg/kg/day (doses equivalent to the MRHD of 40 mg/day based on AUC and body surface area, respectively). In female rats given 5, 15 and 50 mg/kg/day before mating and continuing through to gestation day 7 resulted in decreased fetal body weight (female pups) and delayed ossification at 50 mg/kg/day (10 times the human exposure at the MRHD dose of 40 mg/day based on AUC). In pregnant rats given 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin from gestation day 7 through lactation day 21 (weaning), decreased pup survival occurred at 50 mg/kg/day (dose equivalent to 12 times the MRHD of 40 mg/day based body surface area). In pregnant rabbits given 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin from gestation day 6 to day 18, decreased fetal viability and maternal mortality was observed at 3 mg/kg/day (dose equivalent to the MRHD of 40 mg/day based on body surface area). 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Rosuvastatin use is contraindicated during breastfeeding [see Contraindications (4)] . Limited data indicate that CRESTOR is present in human milk. There is no available information on the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with CRESTOR. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Contraception CRESTOR may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)] . Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with CRESTOR. 8.4 Pediatric Use In children and adolescents 8 to 17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, the safety and effectiveness of CRESTOR as an adjunct to diet to reduce total cholesterol, LDL-C, and ApoB levels when, after an adequate trial of diet therapy, LDL-C exceeds 190 mg/dL or when LDL-C exceeds 160 mg/dL and there is a positive family history of premature CVD or two or more other CVD risk factors, were established in one controlled trial and in one open-label, uncontrolled trial [see Clinical Studies (14.7) ]. The long-term efficacy of CRESTOR therapy initiated in childhood to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood has not been established. The safety and effectiveness of CRESTOR in children and adolescents 10 to 17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were evaluated in a controlled clinical trial of 12 weeks duration followed by 40 weeks of open-label exposure. Patients treated with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg daily CRESTOR had an adverse experience profile generally similar to that of patients treated with placebo. There was no detectable effect of CRESTOR on growth, weight, BMI (body mass index), or sexual maturation [see Clinical Studies (14.7) ] in children and adolescents (10 to 17 years of age). CRESTOR has not been studied in controlled clinical trials involving prepubertal patients or patients younger than 10 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. However, the safety and effectiveness of CRESTOR were evaluated in a two year open-label uncontrolled trial that included children and adolescents 8 to 17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia [see Clinical Studies (14.7) ]. The safety and efficacy of CRESTOR in lowering LDL-C appeared generally consistent with that observed for adult patients, despite limitations of the uncontrolled study design. Children and adolescents 7 to 15 years of age with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were studied in a 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with CRESTOR 20 mg once daily followed by 12 weeks of open-label treatment [see Clinical Studies (14.6)] . In general, the safety profile in this trial was consistent with that of the previously established safety profile in adults. Although not all adverse reactions identified in the adult population have been observed in clinical trials of children and adolescent patients, the same warnings and precautions for adults should be considered for children and adolescents. Adolescent females should be counseled on appropriate contraceptive methods while on CRESTOR therapy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)] . 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the 10,275 patients in clinical studies with CRESTOR, 3159 (31%) were 65 years and older, and 698 (6.8%) were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Elderly patients are at higher risk of myopathy and CRESTOR should be prescribed with caution in the elderly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . 8.6 Renal Impairment Rosuvastatin exposure is not influenced by mild to moderate renal impairment (CL cr ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m 2). Exposure to rosuvastatin is increased to a clinically significant extent in patients with severe renal impairment (CL cr <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2) who are not receiving hemodialysis and dose adjustment is required [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) , Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment CRESTOR is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease, which may include unexplained persistent elevations of hepatic transaminase levels. Chronic alcohol liver disease is known to increase rosuvastatin exposure; CRESTOR should be used with caution in these patients [see Contraindications (4) , Warning and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . 8.8 Asian Patients Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated an approximate 2‑fold increase in median exposure to rosuvastatin in Asian subjects when compared with Caucasian controls. CRESTOR dosage should be adjusted in Asian patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .