Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 July 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as monotherapy and as adjunctive therapy to stimulant medications [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are a centrally acting alpha2 -adrenergic agonist indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to stimulant medications. (1)

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with a history of a hypersensitivity reaction to clonidine. Reactions have included generalized rash, urticaria, and angioedema [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. History of a hypersensitivity reaction to clonidine. Reactions have included generalized rash, urticaria, angioedema. (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are described in greater detail elsewhere in labeling: Hypotension/bradycardia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Sedation and somnolence [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Rebound hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Allergic reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Cardiac Conduction Abnormalities [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Most common adverse reactions (incidence at least 5% and twice the rate of placebo) as monotherapy in ADHD: somnolence, fatigue, irritability, nightmare, insomnia, constipation, dry mouth. (6.1) Most common adverse reactions (incidence at least 5% and twice the rate of placebo) as adjunct therapy to psychostimulant in ADHD: somnolence, fatigue, decreased appetite, dizziness. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Northstar Rx LLC at 1-800-206-7821 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trial Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Two clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets ADHD clinical studies (Study 1, CLON-301 and Study 2, CLON-302) evaluated 256 patients in two 8-week placebo-controlled studies. A third clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets ADHD clinical study (Study 3, SHN-KAP- 401) evaluated 135 children and adolescents in a 40-week placebo-controlled randomized-withdrawal study. Study 1: Fixed-dose Clonidine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Monotherapy Study 1 (CLON-301) was a short-term, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of two fixed doses (0.2 mg/day or 0.4 mg/day) of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets in children and adolescents (6 to 17 years of age) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD hyperactive or combined inattentive/hyperactive subtypes. Most Common Adverse Reactions (incidence of ≥5% and at least twice the rate of placebo): somnolence, fatigue, irritability, insomnia, nightmare, constipation, dry mouth. Adverse Events Leading to Discontinuation of Clonidine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets - Five patients (7%) in the low dose group (0.2 mg), 15 patients (20%) in the high dose group (0.4 mg), and 1 patient in the placebo group (1%) reported adverse reactions that led to discontinuation. The most common adverse reactions that led to discontinuation were somnolence and fatigue. Commonly observed adverse reactions (incidence of ≥2% in either active treatment group and greater than the rate on placebo) during the treatment period are listed in Table 2. Table 2 Common Adverse Reactions in the Fixed-Dose Monotherapy Trial-Treatment Period (Study 1) Percentage of Patients Reporting Event Preferred Term Clonidine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets 0.2 mg/day N=76 Clonidine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets 0.4 mg/day N=78 Placebo (N=76) PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS Somnolence Somnolence includes the terms "somnolence" and "sedation". 38% 31% 4% Nightmare 4% 9% 0% Emotional Disorder 4% 4% 1% Aggression 3% 1% 0% Tearfulness 1% 3% 0% Enuresis 0% 4% 0% Sleep Terror 3% 0% 0% Poor Quality Sleep 0% 3% 1% NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS Headache 20% 13% 16% Insomnia 5% 6% 1% Tremor 1% 4% 0% Abnormal Sleep-Related Event 3% 1% 0% GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS Upper Abdominal Pain 15% 10% 12% Nausea 4% 5% 3% Constipation 1% 6% 0% Dry Mouth 0% 5% 1% GENERAL DISORDERS FatigueFatigue includes the terms "fatigue" and "lethargy". 16% 13% 1% Irritability 9% 5% 4% CARDIAC DISORDERS Dizziness 7% 3% 5% Bradycardia 0% 4% 0% INVESTIGATIONS Increased Heart Rate 0% 3% 0% METABOLISM AND NUTRITION DISORDERS Decreased Appetite 3% 4% 4% Commonly observed adverse reactions (incidence of >2% in either active treatment group and greater than the rate on placebo) during the taper period are listed in Table 3. Table 3 Common Adverse Reactions in the Fixed-Dose Monotherapy Trial-Taper PeriodTaper Period: 0.2 mg dose, week 8; 0.4 mg dose, weeks 6-8; Placebo dose, weeks 6-8 (Study 1) Percentage of Patients Reporting Event Preferred Term Clonidine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets 0.2 mg/day N=76 Clonidine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets 0.4 mg/day N=78 Placebo (N=76) Abdominal Pain Upper 0% 6% 3% Headache 5% 2% 3% Gastrointestinal Viral 0% 5% 0% Somnolence 2% 3% 0% Heart Rate Increased 0% 3% 0% Otitis Media Acute 3% 0% 0% Study 2: Flexible-dose Clonidine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets as Adjunctive Therapy to Psychostimulants Study 2 (CLON-302) was a short-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a flexible dose of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets as adjunctive therapy to a psychostimulant in children and adolescents (6 to 17 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD hyperactive or combined inattentive/hyperactive subtypes during which clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets were initiated at 0.1 mg/day and titrated up to 0.4 mg/day over a 3-week period. Most clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets treated patients (75.5%) were escalated to the maximum dose of 0.4 mg/day. Most Common Adverse Reactions (incidence of ≥5% and at least twice the rate of placebo): somnolence, fatigue, decreased appetite, dizziness. Adverse Events Leading to Discontinuation - There was one patient in the CLON+STM group (1%) who discontinued because of an adverse event (severe bradyphrenia, with severe fatigue). Commonly observed adverse reactions (incidence of ≥2% in the treatment group and greater than the rate on placebo) during the treatment period are listed in Table 4. Table 4 Common Adverse Reactions in the Flexible-Dose Adjunctive to Stimulant Therapy Trial-Treatment Period (Study 2) Percentage of Patients Reporting Event Preferred Term Clonidine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets+STM (N=102) PBO+STM (N=96) PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS SomnolenceSomnolence includes the terms: "somnolence" and "sedation". 19% 7% Aggression 2% 1% Affect Lability 2% 1% Emotional Disorder 2% 0% GENERAL DISORDERS FatigueFatigue includes the terms "fatigue" and "lethargy". 14% 4% Irritability 2% 7% NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS Headache 7% 12% Insomnia 4% 3% GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS Upper Abdominal Pain 7% 4% RESPIRATORY DISORDERS Nasal Congestion 2% 2% METABOLISM AND NUTRITION DISORDERS Decreased Appetite 6% 3% CARDIAC DISORDERS Dizziness 5% 1% Commonly observed adverse reactions (incidence of ≥2% in the treatment group and greater than the rate on placebo) during the taper period are listed in Table 5. Table 5 Common Adverse Reactions in the Flexible-Dose Adjunctive to Stimulant Therapy Trial-Taper PeriodTaper Period: weeks 6-8 (Study 2) Percentage of Patients Reporting Event Preferred Term Clonidine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets+STM (N=102) PBO+STM (N=96) Nasal Congestion 4% 2% Headache 3% 1% Irritability 3% 2% Throat Pain 3% 1% Gastroenteritis Viral 2% 0% Rash 2% 0% Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation Thirteen percent (13%) of patients receiving clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets discontinued from the pediatric monotherapy study due to adverse events, compared to 1% in the placebo group. The most common adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets monotherapy treated patients were from somnolence/sedation (5%) and fatigue (4%). Effect on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate In patients that completed 5 weeks of treatment in a controlled, fixed-dose monotherapy study in pediatric patients, during the treatment period the maximum placebo-subtracted mean change in systolic blood pressure was -4.0 mmHg on clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets 0.2 mg/day and -8.8 mmHg on clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets 0.4 mg/day. The maximum placebo- subtracted mean change in diastolic blood pressure was -4.0 mmHg on clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets 0.2 mg/day and -7.3 mmHg on clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets 0.4 mg/day. The maximum placebo-subtracted mean change in heart rate was -4.0 beats per minute on clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets 0.2 mg/day and -7.7 beats per minute on clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets 0.4 mg/day. During the taper period of the fixed-dose monotherapy study the maximum placebo-subtracted mean change in systolic blood pressure was +3.4 mmHg on clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets 0.2 mg/day and -5.6 mmHg on clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets 0.4 mg/day. The maximum placebo-subtracted mean change in diastolic blood pressure was +3.3 mmHg on clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets 0.2 mg/day and -5.4 mmHg on clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets 0.4 mg/day. The maximum placebo-subtracted mean change in heart rate was - 0.6 beats per minute on clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets 0.2 mg/day and -3.0 beats per minute on clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets 0.4 mg/day. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These events exclude those already mentioned in 6.1: Psychiatric: hallucinations Cardiovascular: Q-T prolongation

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Start with one 0.1 mg tablet at bedtime for one week. Increase daily dosage in increments of 0.1 mg/day at weekly intervals until the desired response is achieved. Take twice a day, with either an equal or higher split dosage being given at bedtime, as depicted below (2.2) Total Daily Dose Morning Dose Bedtime Dose 0.1 mg/day 0.1 mg 0.2 mg/day 0.1 mg 0.1 mg 0.3 mg/day 0.1 mg 0.2 mg 0.4 mg/day 0.2 mg 0.2 mg Do not crush, chew or break tablet before swallowing. (2.1) Do not substitute for other clonidine products on a mg-per-mg basis, because of differing pharmacokinetic profiles. (2.1) When discontinuing, taper the dose in decrements of no more than 0.1 mg every 3 to 7 days to avoid rebound hypertension. (2.3) 2.1 General Dosing Information Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are to be taken orally with or without food. Swallow tablets whole. Do not crush, chew, or break tablets because this will increase the rate of clonidine release. Due to the lack of controlled clinical trial data and differing pharmacokinetic profiles, substitution of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets for other clonidine products on a mg-per-mg basis is not recommended [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 2.2 Dose Selection The dose of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets, administered either as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to a psychostimulant, should be individualized according to the therapeutic needs and response of the patient. Dosing should be initiated with one 0.1 mg tablet at bedtime, and the daily dosage should be adjusted in increments of 0.1 mg/day at weekly intervals until the desired response is achieved. Doses should be taken twice a day, with either an equal or higher split dosage being given at bedtime (see Table 1). Table 1 Clonidine Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Dosing Guidance Total Daily Dose Morning Dose Bedtime Dose 0.1 mg/day 0.1 mg 0.2 mg/day 0.1 mg 0.1 mg 0.3 mg/day 0.1 mg 0.2 mg 0.4 mg/day 0.2 mg 0.2 mg Doses of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets higher than 0.4 mg/day (0.2 mg twice daily) were not evaluated in clinical trials for ADHD and are not recommended. When clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are being added-on to a psychostimulant, the dose of the psychostimulant can be adjusted depending on the patient's response to clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets. 2.3 Discontinuation When discontinuing clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets, the total daily dose should be tapered in decrements of no more than 0.1 mg every 3 to 7 days to avoid rebound hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. 2.4 Missed Doses If patients miss a dose of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets, they should skip that dose and take the next dose as scheduled. Do not take more than the prescribed total daily amount of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets in any 24-hour period.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Based on animal data, clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets may cause fetal harm. (8.1) Renal Impairment: The dosage of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets must be adjusted according to the degree of impairment, and patients should be carefully monitored. (8.6, 12.3) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C: Risk Summary There are no adequate or well-controlled studies with clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets in pregnant women. In animal embryofetal studies, increased resorptions were seen in rats and mice administered oral clonidine hydrochloride from implantation through organogenesis at 10 and 5 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD). No embryotoxic or teratogenic effects were seen in rabbits administered oral clonidine hydrochloride during organogenesis at doses up to 3 times the MRHD. Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Animal Data Oral administration of clonidine hydrochloride to pregnant rabbits during the period of embryo/fetal organogenesis at doses of up to 80 mcg/kg/day (approximately 3 times the oral maximum recommended daily dose [MRHD] of 0.4 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis) produced no evidence of teratogenic or embryotoxic potential. In pregnant rats, however, doses as low as 15 mcg/kg/day (1/3 the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) were associated with increased resorptions in a study in which dams were treated continuously from 2 months prior to mating and throughout gestation. Increased resorptions were not associated with treatment at the same or at higher dose levels (up to 3 times the MRHD) when treatment of the dams was restricted to gestation days 6-15. Increases in resorptions were observed in both rats and mice at 500 mcg/kg/day (10 and 5 times the MRHD in rats and mice, respectively) or higher when the animals were treated on gestation days 1-14; 500 mcg/kg/day was the lowest dose employed in this study. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Clonidine hydrochloride is present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets or from the underlying maternal condition. Exercise caution when clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and efficacy of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets in the treatment of ADHD have been established in pediatric patients 6 to 17 years of age. Use of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets in pediatric patients 6 to 17 years of age is supported by three adequate and well-controlled studies; a short-term, placebo-controlled monotherapy trial, a short-term adjunctive therapy trial and a longer-term randomized monotherapy trial [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients below the age of 6 years has not been established. Juvenile Animal Data In studies in juvenile rats, clonidine hydrochloride alone or in combination with methylphenidate had an effect on bone growth at clinically relevant doses and produced a slight delay in sexual maturation in males at 3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) for clonidine and methylphenidate. In a study where juvenile rats were treated orally with clonidine hydrochloride from day 21 of age to adulthood, a slight delay in onset of preputial separation (delayed sexual maturation) was seen in males treated with 300 mcg/kg/day, which is approximately 3 times the MRHD of 0.4 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis. The no-effect dose was 100 mcg/kg/day, which is approximately equal to the MRHD. There was no drug effects on fertility or on other measures of sexual or neurobehavioral development. In a study where juvenile rats were treated with clonidine alone (300 mcg/kg/day) or in combination with methylphenidate (10 mg/kg/day in females and 50/30 mg/kg/day in males; the dose was lowered from 50 to 30 mg/kg/day in males due to self-injurious behavior during the first week of treatment) from day 21 of age to adulthood, decreases in bone mineral density and mineral content were observed in males treated with 300 mcg/kg/day clonidine alone and in combination with 50/30 mg/kg/day methylphenidate and a decrease in femur length was observed in males treated with the combination at the end of the treatment period. These doses are approximately 3 times the MRHD of 0.4 mg/day clonidine and 54 mg/day methylphenidate on a mg/m2 basis. All these effects in males were not reversed at the end of a 4-week recovery period. In addition, similar findings were seen in males treated with a lower dose of clonidine (30 mcg/kg/day) in combination with 50 mg/kg/day of methylphenidate and a decrease in femur length was observed in females treated with clonidine alone at the end of the recovery period. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in body weight gain in treated animals during the treatment period but the effect was reversed at the end of the recovery period. A delay in preputial separation (sexual maturation) was observed in males treated with the combination treatment of 300 mcg/kg/day clonidine and 50/30 mg/kg/day methylphenidate. There was no effect on reproduction or sperm analysis in these males. 8.6 Renal Impairment The impact of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of clonidine in children has not been assessed. The initial dosage of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be based on degree of impairment. Monitor patients carefully for hypotension and bradycardia, and titrate to higher doses cautiously. Since only a minimal amount of clonidine is removed during routine hemodialysis, there is no need to give supplemental clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets following dialysis.
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers Clonidine hydrochloride is present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets or from the underlying maternal condition. Exercise caution when clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are administered to a nursing woman.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS The following have been reported with other oral immediate release formulations of clonidine: Table 6 Clinically Important Drug Interactions Concomitant Drug Name or Drug Class Clinical Rationale Clinical Recommendation Tricyclic antidepressants Increase blood pressure and may counteract clonidine's hypotensive effects Monitor blood pressure and adjust as needed Antihypertensive drugs Potentiate clonidine's hypotensive effects Monitor blood pressure and adjust as needed CNS depressants Potentiate sedating effects Avoid use Drugs that affect sinus node function or AV node conduction (e.g., digitalis, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers) Potentiate bradycardia and risk of AV block Avoid use Sedating Drugs: Clonidine may potentiate the CNS-depressive effects of alcohol, barbiturates or other sedating drugs. (7) Tricyclic Antidepressants: May reduce the hypotensive effect of clonidine. (7) Drugs Known to Affect Sinus Node Function or AV Nodal Conduction: Caution is warranted in patients receiving clonidine concomitantly with agents known to affect sinus node function or AV nodal conduction (e.g., digitalis, calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers) due to a potential for additive effects such as bradycardia and AV block. (7) Antihypertensive drugs: Use caution when coadministered with clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets. (7)

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA210680
Agency product number W76I6XXF06
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 16714-839
Date Last Revised 25-06-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Storage and handling Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in a tight container.
Marketing authorisation holder Northstar Rx LLC