ADVERSE REACTIONS Clinical Trial Adverse Events. Clomiphene citrate tablets USP, at recommended dosages, is generally well tolerated. Adverse reactions usually have been mild and transient and most have disappeared promptly after treatment has been discontinued. Adverse experiences reported in patients treated with clomiphene citrate during clinical studies are shown in Table 2. Table 2. Incidence of Adverse Events in Clinical Studies (Events Greater than 1%) (n = 8029*) Adverse Event % Ovarian Enlargement 13.6 Vasomotor Flushes 10.4 Abdominal-Pelvic Discomfort/Distention/Bloating 5.5 Nausea and Vomiting 2.2 Breast Discomfort 2.1 Visual Symptoms 1.5 Blurred vision, lights, floaters, waves, unspecified visual complaints, photophobia, diplopia, scotomata, phosphenes Headache 1.3 Abnormal Uterine Bleeding 1.3 Intermenstrual spotting, menorrhagia * Includes 498 patients whose reports may have been duplicated in the event totals and could not be distinguished as such. Also, excludes 47 patients who did not report symptom data. The following adverse events have been reported in fewer than 1% of patients in clinical trails: Acute abdomen, appetite increase, constipation, dermatitis or rash, depression, diarrhea, dizziness, fatigue, hair loss/dry hair, increased urinary frequency/volume, insomnia, light-headedness, nervous tension, vaginal dryness, vertigo, weight gain/loss. Patients on prolonged clomiphene citrate tablets USP therapy may show elevated serum levels of desmosterol. This is most likely due to a direct interference with cholesterol synthesis. However, the serum sterols in patients receiving the recommended dose of clomiphene citrate tablets USP are not significantly altered. Ovarian cancer has been infrequently reported in patients who have received fertility drugs. Infertility is a primary risk factor for ovarian cancer; however, epidemiology data suggest that prolonged use of clomiphene citrate tablets USP may increase the risk of a borderline or invasive ovarian tumor. Postmarketing Adverse Events The following adverse experiences were reported spontaneously with clomiphene citrate tablets USP. The cause and effect relationship of the listed events to the administration of clomiphene citrate tablets USP is not known. Dermatologic: Acne, allergic reaction, erythema, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, hypertrichosis, pruritus Central Nervous System: Migraine headache, paresthesia, seizure, stroke, syncope Psychiatric: Anxiety, irritability, mood changes, psychosis Visual Disorders: Abnormal accommodation, cataract, eye pain, macular edema, optic neuritis, photopsia, posterior vitreous detachment, retinal hemorrhage, retinal thrombosis, retinal vascular spasm, temporary loss of vision Cardiovascular: Arrhythmia, chest pain, edema, hypertension, palpitation, phlebitis, pulmonary embolism, shortness of breath, tachycardia, thrombophlebitis Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, back pain, myalgia Hepatic: Transaminases increased, hepatitis Neoplasms: Liver (hepatic hemangiosarcoma, liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma); breast (fibrocystic disease, breast carcinoma); endometrium (endometrial carcinoma); nervous system (astrocytoma, pituitary tumor, prolactinoma, neurofibromatosis, glioblastoma multiforme, brain abcess); ovary (luteoma of pregnancy, dermoid cyst of the ovary, ovarian carcinoma); trophoblastic (hydatiform mole, choriocarcinoma); miscellaneous (melanoma, myeloma, perianal cysts, renal cell carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, tongue carcinoma, bladder carcinoma); and neoplasms of offspring (neuroectodermal tumor, thyroid tumor, hepatoblastoma, lymphocytic leukemia) Genitourinary: Endometriosis, ovarian cyst (ovarian enlargement or cysts could, as such, be complicated by adnexal torsion), ovarian hemorrhage, tubal pregnancy, uterine hemorrhage Body as a Whole: Fever, tinnitus, weakness Other: Leukocytosis, thyroid disorder Fetal/Neonatal Anomalies. The following fetal abnormalities have also been reported during postmarketing surveillance: delayed development; abnormal bone development including skeletal malformations of the skull, face, nasal passages, jaw, hand, limb (ectromelia including amelia, hemimelia, and phocomelia), foot, and joints; tissue malformations including imperforate anus, tracheoesophageal fistula, diaphragmatic hernia, renal agenesis and dysgenesis, and malformations of the eye and lens (cataract), ear, lung, heart (ventricular septal defect and tetralogy of Fallot), and genitalia; as well as dwarfism, deafness, mental retardation, chromosomal disorders, and neural tube defects (including anencephaly).