Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 31 December 2017

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Clolar® (clofarabine) Injection is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia after at least two prior regimens. This indication is based upon response rate. There are no trials verifying an improvement in disease-related symptoms or increased survival with Clolar. Clolar (clofarabine) injection is a purine nucleoside metabolic inhibitor indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia after at least two prior regimens. This indication is based upon response rate. There are no trials verifying an improvement in disease-related symptoms or increased survival with Clolar. (1)

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS None None. (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label: Myelosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Hemorrhage [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] Serious Infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] Hyperuricemia (Tumor Lysis) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and Capillary Leak Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] Venous Occlusive Disease of the Liver [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ] Hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ] Renal Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ] Enterocolitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ] Skin Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) ] Most common adverse reactions (≥25%): vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, febrile neutropenia, pruritus, headache, bacteremia, pyrexia, rash, tachycardia, abdominal pain, chills, fatigue, anorexia, pain in extremity, hypotension, epistaxis, and petechiae. (6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Genzyme Corporation at 1-800-RX-CLOLAR or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The data described below reflect exposure to Clolar in 115 pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) (70 patients) or Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) (45 patients). In total, 115 pediatric patients treated in clinical trials received the recommended dose of Clolar 52 mg/m2 daily × 5. The median number of cycles was 2. The median cumulative amount of Clolar received by pediatric patients during all cycles was 540 mg. Most common adverse reactions (≥25%): vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, febrile neutropenia, pruritus, headache, bacteremia, pyrexia, rash, tachycardia, abdominal pain, chills, fatigue, anorexia, pain in extremity, hypotension, epistaxis, and petechiae. Table 1 lists adverse reactions by System Organ Class, including severe or life-threatening (NCI CTC Grade 3 or Grade 4), reported in ≥5% of the 115 patients in the 52 mg/m2/day dose group (pooled analysis of pediatric patients with ALL and AML). More detailed information and follow-up of certain events is given below. Table 1: Most Commonly Reported (≥5% Overall) Adverse Reactions by System Organ Class (N=115 pooled analysis) Worst NCI Common Terminology Criteria GradePatients with more than one preferred term within a SOC are counted only once in the SOC totals. Patients with more than one occurrence of the same preferred term are counted only once within that term and at the highest severity grade. ALL/AML (N=115) 3 4 5 System Organ Class Preferred Term N % N % N % N % Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders Febrile neutropenia 63 55 59 51 3 3 . . Neutropenia 11 10 3 3 8 7 . . Cardiac Disorders Pericardial effusion 9 8 . . 1 1 . . Tachycardia 40 35 6 5 . . . . Gastrointestinal Disorders Abdominal pain 40 35 8 7 . . . . Abdominal pain upper 9 8 1 1 . . . . Diarrhea 64 56 14 12 . . . . Gingival or mouth bleeding 20 17 8 7 1 1 . . Nausea 84 73 16 14 1 1 . . Oral mucosal petechiae 6 5 4 4 . . . . Proctalgia 9 8 2 2 . . . . Stomatitis 8 7 1 1 . . . . Vomiting 90 78 9 8 1 1 . . General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions Asthenia 12 10 1 1 1 1 . . Chills 39 34 3 3 . . . . Fatigue 39 34 3 3 2 2 . . Irritability 11 10 1 1 . . . . Mucosal inflammation 18 16 2 2 . . . . Edema 14 12 2 2 . . . . Pain 17 15 7 6 1 1 . . Pyrexia 45 39 16 14 . . . . Hepatobiliary Disorder Jaundice 9 8 2 2 . . . . Infections and Infestations Bacteremia 10 9 10 9 . . . . Candidiasis 8 7 1 1 . . . . Catheter related infection 14 12 13 11 . . . . Cellulitis 9 8 7 6 . . . . Clostridium colitis 8 7 6 5 . . . . Herpes simplex 11 10 6 5 . . . . Herpes zoster 8 7 6 5 . . . . Oral candidiasis 13 11 2 2 . . . . Pneumonia 11 10 6 5 1 1 1 1 Sepsis, including septic shock 19 17 6 5 4 4 9 8 Staphylococcal bacteremia 7 6 5 4 1 1 . . Staphylococcal sepsis 6 5 5 4 1 1 . . Upper respiratory tract infection 6 5 1 1 . . . . Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Anorexia 34 30 6 5 8 7 . . Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders Arthralgia 10 9 3 3 . . . . Back pain 12 10 3 3 . . . . Bone pain 11 10 3 3 . . . . Myalgia 16 14 . . . . . . Pain in extremity 34 30 6 5 . . . . Neoplasms Benign, Malignant and Unspecified (incl. cysts and polyps) Tumor lysis syndrome 7 6 7 6 . . . . Nervous System Disorders Headache 49 43 6 5 . . . . Lethargy 12 10 1 1 . . . . Somnolence 11 10 1 1 . . . . Psychiatric Disorders Agitation 6 5 1 1 . . . . Anxiety 24 21 2 2 . . . . Renal and Urinary Disorders Hematuria 15 13 2 2 . . . . Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders Dyspnea 15 13 6 5 2 2 . . Epistaxis 31 27 15 13 . . . . Pleural effusion 14 12 4 4 2 2 . . Respiratory distress 12 10 5 4 4 4 1 1 Tachypnea 10 9 4 4 1 1 . . Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Erythema 13 11 . . . . . . Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome 18 16 8 7 . . . . Petechiae 30 26 7 6 . . . . Pruritus 49 43 1 1 . . . . Rash 44 38 8 7 . . . . Rash pruritic 9 8 . . . . . . Vascular Disorders Flushing 22 19 . . . . . . Hypertension 15 13 6 5 . . . . Hypotension 33 29 13 11 9 8 . . The following less common adverse reactions have been reported in 1–4% of the 115 pediatric patients with ALL or AML: Gastrointestinal Disorders: cecitis, pancreatitis Hepatobiliary Disorders: hyperbilirubinemia Immune System Disorders: hypersensitivity Infections and Infestations: bacterial infection, Enterococcal bacteremia, Escherichia bacteremia, Escherichia sepsis, fungal infection, fungal sepsis, gastroenteritis adenovirus, infection, influenza, parainfluenza virus infection, pneumonia fungal, pneumonia primary atypical, Respiratory syncytial virus infection, sinusitis, staphylococcal infection Investigations: blood creatinine increased Psychiatric Disorders: mental status change Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorder: pulmonary edema Table 2 lists the incidence of treatment-emergent laboratory abnormalities after Clolar administration at 52 mg/m2 among pediatric patients with ALL and AML (N=115). Table 2: Incidence of Treatment-Emergent Laboratory Abnormalities after Clolar Administration Parameter Any Grade Grade 3 or higher Anemia (N=114) 83% 75% Leukopenia (N=114) 88% 88% Lymphopenia (N=113) 82% 82% Neutropenia (N=113) 64% 64% Thrombocytopenia (N=114) 81% 80% Elevated Creatinine (N=115) 50% 8% Elevated SGOT (N=100) 74% 36% Elevated SGPT (N=113) 81% 43% Elevated Total Bilirubin (N=114) 45% 13% 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Clolar. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) reported frequency of the reaction, or (3) strength of causal connection to Clolar. Gastrointestinal disorders: Gastrointestinal hemorrhage including fatalities Metabolism and nutrition disorders: hyponatremia Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) (including fatal cases).

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Administer the recommended pediatric dose of 52 mg/m2 as an intravenous infusion over 2 hours daily for 5 consecutive days of a 28-day cycle. Repeat cycles every 2–6 weeks. (2.1) Provide supportive care, such as intravenous infusion fluids, antihyperuricemic treatment, and alkalinization of urine throughout the 5 days of Clolar administration to reduce the risk of tumor lysis and other adverse events. (2.1) Discontinue Clolar if hypotension develops during the 5 days of administration. (2.1) Reduce the dose in patients with renal impairment. (2.1) Use dose modification for toxicity. (2.3) 2.1 Recommended Dosage Administer the recommended pediatric dose of 52 mg/m2 as an intravenous infusion over 2 hours daily for 5 consecutive days. Treatment cycles are repeated following recovery or return to baseline organ function, approximately every 2 to 6 weeks. The dosage is based on the patient's body surface area (BSA), calculated using the actual height and weight before the start of each cycle. To prevent drug incompatibilities, no other medications should be administered through the same intravenous line. Provide supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, antihyperuricemic treatment, and alkalinize urine throughout the 5 days of Clolar administration to reduce the effects of tumor lysis and other adverse events. Discontinue Clolar if hypotension develops during the 5 days of administration. Monitor renal and hepatic function during the 5 days of Clolar administration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.8) ]. Monitor patients taking medications known to affect blood pressure. Monitor cardiac function during administration of Clolar. Reduce the dose by 50% in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCL) between 30 and 60 mL/min. There is insufficient information to make a dosage recommendation in patients with CrCL less than 30 mL/min [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7) ]. 2.2 Supportive Medications and Medications to Avoid Consider prophylactic anti-emetic medications as Clolar is moderately emetogenic. Consider the use of prophylactic steroids to mitigate Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) or capillary leak syndrome (e.g., hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnea, and pulmonary edema). Minimize exposure to drugs with known renal toxicity during the 5 days of Clolar administration since the risk of renal toxicity may be increased. Consider avoiding concomitant use of medications known to induce hepatic toxicity. 2.3 Dose Modifications and Reinitiation of Therapy Hematologic Toxicity Administer subsequent cycles no sooner than 14 days from the starting day of the previous cycle and provided the patient's ANC is ≥0.75 × 109/L. If a patient experiences a Grade 4 neutropenia (ANC <0.5 × 109/L) lasting ≥4 weeks, reduce dose by 25% for the next cycle. Non-hematologic Toxicity Withhold Clolar if a patient develops a clinically significant infection, until the infection is controlled, then restart at the full dose. Withhold Clolar for a Grade 3 non-infectious non-hematologic toxicity (excluding transient elevations in serum transaminases and/or serum bilirubin and/or nausea/vomiting controlled by antiemetic therapy). Re-institute Clolar administration at a 25% dose reduction when resolution or return to baseline. Discontinue Clolar administration for a Grade 4 non-infectious non-hematologic toxicity. Discontinue Clolar administration if a patient shows early signs or symptoms of SIRS or capillary leak (e.g., hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnea, and pulmonary edema) occur and provide appropriate supportive measures. Discontinue Clolar administration if Grade 3 or higher increases in creatinine or bilirubin are noted. Re-institute Clolar with a 25% dose reduction, when the patient is stable and organ function has returned to baseline. If hyperuricemia is anticipated (tumor lysis), initiate measures to control uric acid. 2.4 Reconstitution/Preparation Clolar should be filtered through a sterile 0.2 micron syringe filter and then diluted with 5% Dextrose Injection, USP, or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, prior to intravenous (IV) infusion to a final concentration between 0.15 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL. Use within 24 hours of preparation. Store diluted Clolar at room temperature (15–30°C). 2.5 Incompatibilities Do not administer any other medications through the same intravenous line.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Embryo-fetal Toxicity: fetal harm can occur when administered to a pregnant woman. Women should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant when receiving Clolar. (5.11, 8.1) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D Clolar (clofarabine) may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Clofarabine was teratogenic in rats and rabbits. Developmental toxicity (reduced fetal body weight and increased post-implantation loss) and increased incidences of malformations and variations (gross external, soft tissue, skeletal and retarded ossification) were observed in rats receiving 54 mg/m2/day (approximately equivalent to the recommended clinical dose on a mg/m2 basis), and in rabbits receiving 12 mg/m2/day (approximately 23% of the recommended clinical dose on a mg/m2 basis). There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women using clofarabine. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving treatment with clofarabine. All patients should be advised to use effective contraceptive measures to prevent pregnancy. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether clofarabine or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for clofarabine in animal studies and the potential for serious adverse reactions, women treated with clofarabine should not nurse. Female patients should be advised to avoid breastfeeding during treatment with Clolar. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness have been established in pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 8.5 Geriatric Use Safety and effectiveness of Clolar has not been established in geriatric patients aged 65 and older. 8.6 Adults with Hematologic Malignancies Safety and effectiveness have not been established in adults. 8.7 Renal Impairment Reduce the Clolar starting dose by 50% in patients with CrCL of 30 to 60 mL/min. There is insufficient information to make a dosage recommendation in patients with CrCL less than 30 mL/min or in patients on dialysis. The pharmacokinetics of clofarabine in patients with renal impairment and normal renal function were obtained from a population pharmacokinetic analysis of three pediatric and two adult studies. In patients with CrCL 60 to less than 90 mL/min (N=47) and CrCL 30 to less than 60 mL/min (N=30), the average AUC of clofarabine increased by 60% and 140%, respectively, compared to patients with normal (N=66) renal function (CrCL greater than 90 mL/min).
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether clofarabine or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for clofarabine in animal studies and the potential for serious adverse reactions, women treated with clofarabine should not nurse. Female patients should be advised to avoid breastfeeding during treatment with Clolar.

Interactions

Drug-Drug Interactions In vitro studies suggested that clofarabine undergoes limited metabolism and does not inhibit or induce major CYP enzymes. CYP inhibitors and inducers are unlikely to affect the metabolism of clofarabine. Clofarabine is unlikely to affect the metabolism of CYP substrates. However, no in vivo drug interaction studies have been conducted. An in vitro transporter study suggested that clofarabine is a substrate of human transporters OAT1, OAT3, and OCT1. A preclinical study using perfused rat kidney demonstrated that the renal excretion of clofarabine was decreased by cimetidine, an inhibitor of the hOCT2. Although the clinical implications of this finding have not been determined, signs of Clolar toxicity should be monitored when administered with other hOAT1, hOAT3, hOCT1 and hOCT2 substrates or inhibitors.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA021673
Agency product number 762RDY0Y2H
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0024-5860
Date Last Revised 08-12-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 486419
Storage and handling Vials containing undiluted Clolar should be stored at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15 – 30°C (59 – 86°F). Diluted admixtures may be stored at room temperature, but must be used within 24 hours of preparation. Procedures for proper handling and disposal should be utilized. Handling and disposal of Clolar should conform to guidelines issued for cytotoxic drugs. Several guidelines on this subject have been published. 1
Marketing authorisation holder sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC