Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 22 November 2019

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. Clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis, as described in the BOXED WARNING , before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (e.g., erythromycin). Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin. Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy. Clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the conditions listed below: Lower respiratory tract infections including pneumonia, empyema, and lung abscess caused by anaerobes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, other streptococci (except E. faecalis), and Staphylococcus aureus. Skin and skin structure infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and anaerobes. Gynecological infections including endometritis, nongonococcal tubo-ovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis, and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection caused by susceptible anaerobes. Intra-abdominal infections including peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess caused by susceptible anaerobic organisms. Septicemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci (except Enterococcus faecalis), and susceptible anaerobes. Bone and joint infections including acute hematogenous osteomyelitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and as adjunctive therapy in the surgical treatment of chronic bone and joint infections due to susceptible organisms. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS This drug is contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to preparations containing clindamycin or lincomycin.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency. Clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis. Clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals. Certain infections may require incision and drainage or other indicated surgical procedures in addition to antibiotic therapy. The use of clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms—particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation. Clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection should be infused over at least 10 to 60 minutes as directed in the DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section. Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease. Prescribing clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Information for Patients Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection or other antibacterial drugs in the future. Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible. Laboratory Tests During prolonged therapy periodic liver and kidney function tests and blood counts should be performed. Drug Interactions Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents. Clindamycin is metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by CYP3A5, to the major metabolite clindamycin sulfoxide and minor metabolite N-desmethylclindamycin. Therefore, inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 may increase plasma concentrations of clindamycin and inducers of these isoenzymes may reduce plasma concentrations of clindamycin. In the presence of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, monitor for adverse reactions. In the presence of strong CYP3A4 inducers such as rifampicin, monitor for loss of effectiveness. In vitro studies indicate that clindamycin does not inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1 or CYP2D6 and only moderately inhibits CYP3A4. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long term studies in animals have not been performed with clindamycin to evaluate carcinogenic potential. Genotoxicity tests performed included a rat micronucleus test and an Ames Salmonella reversion test. Both tests were negative. Fertility studies in rats treated orally with up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.1 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2) revealed no effects on fertility or mating ability. Pregnancy Teratogenic effects In clinical trials with pregnant women, the systemic administration of clindamycin during the second and third trimesters, has not been associated with an increased frequency of congenital abnormalities. Clindamycin should be used during the first trimester of pregnancy only if clearly needed. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of the human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Reproduction studies performed in rats and mice using oral doses of clindamycin up to 600 mg/kg/day (2.1 and 1.1 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2, respectively) or subcutaneous doses of clindamycin up to 250 mg/kg/day (0.9 and 0.5 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2, respectively) revealed no evidence of teratogenicity. Clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection contains benzyl alcohol. Benzyl alcohol can cross the placenta (see WARNINGS). Nursing Mothers Limited published data based on breast milk sampling reports that clindamycin appears in human breast milk in the range of less than 0.5 to 3.8 mcg/mL at dosages of 150 mg orally to 600 mg intravenously. Clindamycin has the potential to cause adverse effects on the breast-fed infant's gastrointestinal flora. If oral or intravenous clindamycin is required by a nursing mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but an alternate drug may be preferred. Monitor the breast-fed infant for possible adverse effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea, candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash) or rarely, blood in the stool indicating possible antibiotic-associated colitis. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for clindamycin and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed child from clindamycin or from the underlying maternal condition. Pediatric Use When clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection is administered to the pediatric population (birth to 16 years) appropriate monitoring of organ system functions is desirable. Usage in Newborns and Infants This product contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative. Benzyl alcohol has been associated with a fatal “Gasping Syndrome” in premature infants (see WARNINGS ). The potential for the toxic effect in the pediatric population from chemicals that may leach from the single dose premixed IV preparation in glass has not been evaluated (see WARNINGS ). Geriatric Use Clinical studies of clindamycin did not include sufficient numbers of patients age 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. However, other reported clinical experience indicates that antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea (due to Clostridium difficile) seen in association with most antibiotics occur more frequently in the elderly (>60 years) and may be more severe. These patients should be carefully monitored for the development of diarrhea. Pharmacokinetic studies with clindamycin have shown no clinically important differences between young and elderly subjects with normal hepatic function and normal (age-adjusted) renal function after oral or intravenous administration.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS The following reactions have been reported with the use of clindamycin. Infections and Infestations Clostridium difficile colitis. Gastrointestinal Antibiotic-associated colitis (see WARNINGS), pseudomembranous colitis, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS). An unpleasant or metallic taste has been reported after intravenous administration of the higher doses of clindamycin phosphate. Hypersensitivity Reactions Maculopapular rash and urticaria have been observed during drug therapy. Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like skin rashes are the most frequently reported of all adverse reactions. Severe skin reactions such as Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, some with fatal outcome, have been reported (see WARNINGS). Cases of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been associated with clindamycin. Anaphylactic shock, anaphylactic reaction and hypersensitivity have also been reported (see WARNINGS). Skin and Mucous Membranes Pruritus, vaginitis, angioedema and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported (see Hypersensitivity Reactions). Liver Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy. Renal Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/ or proteinuria has been observed. Hematopoietic Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing. Immune System Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) cases have been reported. Local Reactions Injection site irritation, pain, induration and sterile abscess have been reported after intramuscular injection and thrombophlebitis after intravenous infusion. Reactions can be minimized or avoided by giving deep intramuscular injections and avoiding prolonged use of indwelling intravenous catheters. Musculoskeletal Polyarthritis cases have been reported. Cardiovascular Cardiopulmonary arrest and hypotension have been reported following too rapid intravenous administration (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION If diarrhea occurs during therapy, this antibiotic should be discontinued (see BOXED WARNING ). Adults Parenteral (IV Administration): Serious infections due to aerobic gram-positive cocci and the more susceptible anaerobes (NOT generally including Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus species and Clostridium species other than Clostridium perfringens): 600 to 1,200 mg/day in 2, 3 or 4 equal doses. More severe infections, particularly those due to proven or suspected Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus species, or Clostridium species other than Clostridium perfringens: 1,200 to 2,700 mg/day in 2,3 or 4 equal doses. For more serious infections, these doses may have to be increased. In life-threatening situations due to either aerobes or anaerobes these doses may be increased. Doses of as much as 4,800 mg daily have been given intravenously to adults. See Infusion Rates section below. Alternatively, drug may be administered in the form of a single rapid infusion of the first dose followed by continuous IV infusion as follows: To maintain serum clindamycin levels Rapid infusion rate Maintenance infusion rate Above 4 mcg/mL 10 mg/min for 30 min 0.75 mg/min Above 5 mcg/mL 15 mg/min for 30 min 1 mg/min Above 6 mcg/mL 20 mg/min for 30 min 1.25 mg/min Neonates (less than 1 month) 15 to 20 mg/kg/day in 3 to 4 equal doses. The lower dosage may be adequate for small prematures. Pediatric patients 1 month of age to 16 years Parenteral (IV) Administration: 20 to 40 mg/kg/day in 3 or 4 equal doses. The higher doses would be used for more severe infections. As an alternative to dosing on a body weight basis, pediatric patients may be dosed on the basis of square meters body surface: 350 mg/m2/day for serious infections and 450 mg/m2/day for more severe infections. Parenteral therapy may be changed to oral clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride for oral solution or clindamycin hydrochloride capsules when the condition warrants and at the discretion of the physician. In cases of β-hemolytic streptococcal infections, treatment should be continued for at least 10 days. Infusion Rates Infusion rates for clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection should not exceed 30 mg per minute. The usual infusion rates are as follows: Dose Strength Time 300 mg/50 mL 6 mg/mL 10 min 600 mg/50 mL 12 mg/mL 20 min 900 mg/50 mL 18 mg/mL 30 min Administration of more than 1,200 mg in a single 1 -hour infusion is not recommended. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Compatibility Physical and biological compatibility studies monitored for 24 hours at room temperature have demonstrated no inactivation or incompatibility with the use of clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection in IV solutions containing sodium chloride, glucose, calcium or potassium, and solutions containing vitamin B complex in concentrations usually used clinically. No incompatibility has been demonstrated with the antibiotics cephalothin, kanamycin, gentamicin, penicillin or carbenicillin. The following drugs are physically incompatible with clindamycin phosphate: ampicillin sodium, phenytoin sodium, barbiturates, aminophylline, calcium gluconate, and magnesium sulfate.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Limited published data based on breast milk sampling reports that clindamycin appears in human breast milk in the range of less than 0.5 to 3.8 mcg/mL at dosages of 150 mg orally to 600 mg intravenously. Clindamycin has the potential to cause adverse effects on the breast-fed infant's gastrointestinal flora. If oral or intravenous clindamycin is required by a nursing mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but an alternate drug may be preferred. Monitor the breast-fed infant for possible adverse effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea, candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash) or rarely, blood in the stool indicating possible antibiotic-associated colitis. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for clindamycin and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed child from clindamycin or from the underlying maternal condition.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents. Clindamycin is metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by CYP3A5, to the major metabolite clindamycin sulfoxide and minor metabolite N-desmethylclindamycin. Therefore, inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 may increase plasma concentrations of clindamycin and inducers of these isoenzymes may reduce plasma concentrations of clindamycin. In the presence of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, monitor for adverse reactions. In the presence of strong CYP3A4 inducers such as rifampicin, monitor for loss of effectiveness. In vitro studies indicate that clindamycin does not inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1 or CYP2D6 and only moderately inhibits CYP3A4.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA203048
Agency product number EH6D7113I8
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 17478-120,17478-121,17478-122
Date Last Revised 10-10-2019
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 309339
Storage and handling Storage: Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Avoid temperatures above 30°C.
Marketing authorisation holder Akorn, Inc.
Warnings WARNING Clostridium difficile - associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile. Because clindamycin in 5% dextrose injection therapy has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally, it should be reserved for serious infections where less toxic antimicrobial agents are inappropriate, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. It should not be used in patients with nonbacterial infections such as most upper respiratory tract infections. C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.