Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 22 November 2019

Indication(s)

INDICATION & USAGE SECTION Clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP are indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. Clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP are also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis, as described in the WARNING box, before selecting clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP are the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (e.g., erythromycin). Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis, and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tubo-ovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis, and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection. Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections. Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections. Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections. Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS SECTION Clindamycin hydrochloride capsules are contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to preparations containing clindamycin or lincomycin.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS SECTION General Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency. Clindamycin hydrochloride should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis. Clindamycin hydrochloride should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals. Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy. The use of clindamycin hydrochloride occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms—particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation. Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease. Prescribing clindamycin hydrochloride capsules in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Information for Patients Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs, including clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When clindamycin hydrochloride capsules are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by clindamycin hydrochloride capsules or other antibacterial drugs in the future. Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible. Laboratory Tests During prolonged therapy, periodic liver and kidney function tests and blood counts should be performed. Drug Interactions Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents. Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long-term studies in animals have not been performed with clindamycin to evaluate carcinogenic potential. Genotoxicity tests performed included a rat micronucleus test and an Ames Salmonella reversion test. Both tests were negative. Fertility studies in rats treated orally with up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.6 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2) revealed no effects on fertility or mating ability. Pregnancy: Teratogenic effects Pregnancy Category B Reproduction studies performed in rats and mice using oral doses of clindamycin up to 600 mg/kg/day (3.2 and 1.6 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2, respectively) or subcutaneous doses of clindamycin up to 250 mg/kg/day (1.3 and 0.7 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2, respectively) revealed no evidence of teratogenicity. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of the human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nursing Mothers Clindamycin has been reported to appear in breast milk in the range of 0.7 to 3.8 mcg/mL. Pediatric Use When clindamycin hydrochloride is administered to the pediatric population (birth to 16 years), appropriate monitoring of organ system functions is desirable. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of clindamycin did not include sufficient numbers of patients age 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. However, other reported clinical experience indicates that antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea (due to Clostridium difficile) seen in association with most antibiotics occur more frequently in the elderly (> 60 years) and may be more severe. These patients should be carefully monitored for the development of diarrhea. Pharmacokinetic studies with clindamycin have shown no clinically important differences between young and elderly subjects with normal hepatic function and normal (age-adjusted) renal function after oral or intravenous administration.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS SECTION The following reactions have been reported with the use of clindamycin. Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (see WARNING box). The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS). HypersensitivityReactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported. Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported. (See Hypersensitivity Reactions.) Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy. Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances. Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing. Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION SECTION If significant diarrhea occurs during therapy, this antibiotic should be discontinued (see WARNING box). Adults: Serious infections—150 to 300 mg every 6 hours. More severe infections - 300 to 450 mg every 6 hours. Pediatric Patients: Serious infections - 8 to 16 mg/kg/day (4 to 8 mg/lb/day) divided into three or four equal doses. More severe infections - 16 to 20 mg/kg/day (8 to 10 mg/lb/day) divided into three or four equal doses. To avoid the possibility of esophageal irritation, clindamycin hydrochloride capsules should be taken with a full glass of water. Serious infections due to anaerobic bacteria are usually treated with clindamycin injection. However, in clinically appropriate circumstances, the physician may elect to initiate treatment or continue treatment with clindamycin hydrochloride capsules. In cases of β-hemolytic streptococcal infections, treatment should continue for at least 10 days.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA065061
Agency product number T20OQ1YN1W
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 61919-441
Date Last Revised 14-10-2019
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 284215
Marketing authorisation holder DIRECT RX
Warnings BOXED WARNING To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin hydrochloride capsules and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin hydrochloride capsules should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin hydrochloride and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, leading to overgrowth of C. difficile. Because clindamycin hydrochloride therapy has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally, it should be reserved for serious infections where less toxic antimicrobial agents are inappropriate, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. It should not be used in patients with nonbacterial infections such as most upper respiratory tract infections. C. difficile produces toxins A and B, which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.