ADVERSE REACTIONS Nephrotoxicity Dose-related and cumulative renal insufficiency, including acute renal failure, is the major dose-limiting toxicity of cisplatin. Renal toxicity has been noted in 28% to 36% of patients treated with a single dose of 50 mg/m2. It is first noted during the second week after a dose and is manifested by elevations in BUN and creatinine, serum uric acid and/or a decrease in creatinine clearance. Renal toxicity becomes more prolonged and severe with repeated courses of the drug. Renal function must return to normal before another dose of cisplatin can be given. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to nephrotoxicity (see PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use ). Impairment of renal function has been associated with renal tubular damage. The administration of cisplatin using a 6 hour to 8 hour infusion with intravenous hydration, and mannitol has been used to reduce nephrotoxicity. However, renal toxicity still can occur after utilization of these procedures. Ototoxicity Ototoxicity has been observed in up to 31% of patients treated with a single dose of cisplatin 50 mg/m2, and is manifested by tinnitus and/or hearing loss in the high frequency range (4,000 to 8,000 Hz). The prevalence of hearing loss in children is particularly high and is estimated to be 40 to 60%. Decreased ability to hear normal conversational tones may occur. Deafness after the initial dose of cisplatin has been reported. Ototoxic effects may be more severe in children receiving cisplatin. Hearing loss can be unilateral or bilateral and tends to become more frequent and severe with repeated cisplatin doses. It is unclear whether cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is reversible. Vestibular toxicity has also been reported. Ototoxic effects may be related to the peak plasma concentration of cisplatin. Ototoxicity can occur during treatment or be delayed. Audiometric monitoring should be performed prior to initiation of therapy, prior to each subsequent dose, and for several years post therapy. The risk of ototoxicity may be increased by prior or simultaneous cranial irradiation, and may be more severe in patients less than 5 years of age, patients being treated with other ototoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides and vancomycin), and in patients with renal impairment. Genetic factors (e.g., variants in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase [TPMT] gene) may contribute to cisplatin-induced ototoxicity; although this association has not been consistent across populations and study designs. Hematologic Myelosuppression occurs in 25% to 30% of patients treated with cisplatin. The nadirs in circulating platelets and leukocytes occur between days 18 to 23 (range 7.5 to 45) with most patients recovering by day 39 (range 13 to 62). Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are more pronounced at higher doses (>50 mg/m2). Anemia (decrease of 2 g hemoglobin/100 mL) occurs at approximately the same frequency and with the same timing as leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Fever and infection have also been reported in patients with neutropenia. Potential fatalities due to infection (secondary to myelosuppression) have been reported. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to myelosuppression (see PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use ). In addition to anemia secondary to myelosuppression, a Coombs' positive hemolytic anemia has been reported. In the presence of cisplatin hemolytic anemia, a further course of treatment may be accompanied by increased hemolysis and this risk should be weighed by the treating physician. The development of acute leukemia coincident with the use of cisplatin has been reported. In these reports, cisplatin was generally given in combination with other leukemogenic agents. Gastrointestinal Marked nausea and vomiting occur in almost all patients treated with cisplatin, and may be so severe that the drug must be discontinued. Nausea and vomiting may begin within 1 hour to 4 hours after treatment and last up to 24 hours. Various degrees of vomiting, nausea and/or anorexia may persist for up to 1 week after treatment. Delayed nausea and vomiting (begins or persists 24 hours or more after chemotherapy) has occurred in patients attaining complete emetic control on the day of cisplatin therapy. Diarrhea has also been reported. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Alvogen, Inc. at 1-866-770-3024 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch .