Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 25 January 2018

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Chloroquine phosphate is indicated for the suppressive treatment and for acute attacks of malaria due to P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and susceptible strains of P. falciparum. The drug is also indicated for the treatment of extraintestinal amebiasis. Chloroquine phosphate does not prevent relapses in patients with vivax or malariae malaria because it is not effective against exoerythrocytic forms of the parasite, nor will it prevent vivax or malariae infection when administered as a prophylactic. It is highly effective as a suppressive agent in patients with vivax or malariae malaria, in terminating acute attacks, and significantly lengthening the interval between treatment and relapse. In patients with falciparum malaria it abolishes the acute attack and effects complete cure of the infection, unless due to a resistant strain of P. falciparum.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Use of this drug is contraindicated in the presence of retinal or visual field changes either attributable to 4-aminoquinoline compounds or to any other etiology, and in patients with known hypersensitivity to 4-aminoquinoline compounds. However, in the treatment of acute attacks of malaria caused by susceptible strains of plasmodia, the physician may elect to use this drug after carefully weighing the possible benefits and risks to the patient.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS Hematological Effects/Laboratory Tests Complete blood cell counts should be made periodically if patients are given prolonged therapy. If any severe blood disorder appears which is not attributable to the disease under treatment, discontinuance of the drug should be considered. The drug should be administered with caution to patients having G-6-PD (glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase) deficiency. Auditory Effects In patients with preexisting auditory damage, chloroquine should be administered with caution. In case of any defects in hearing, chloroquine should be immediately discontinued, and the patient closely observed (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Hepatic Effects Since this drug is known to concentrate in the liver, it should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease or alcoholism or in conjunction with known hepatotoxic drugs. Central Nervous System Effects Patients with history of epilepsy should be advised about the risk of chloroquine provoking seizures. Drug Interactions Antacids and kaolin: Antacids and kaolin can reduce absorption of chloroquine; an interval of at least 4 hours between intake of these agents and chloroquine should be observed. Cimetidine: Cimetidine can inhibit the metabolism of chloroquine, increasing its plasma level. Concomitant use of cimetidine should be avoided. Ampicillin: In a study of healthy volunteers, chloroquine significantly reduced the bioavailability of ampicillin. An interval of at least two hours between intake of this agent and chloroquine should be observed. Cyclosporine: After introduction of chloroquine (oral form), a sudden increase in serum cyclosporine level has been reported. Therefore, close monitoring of serum cyclosporine level is recommended and, if necessary, chloroquine should be discontinued. Mefloquine: Co-administration of chloroquine and mefloquine may increase the risk of convulsions. The blood concentrations of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine (the major metabolite of chloroquine, which also has antimalarial properties) were negatively associated with log antibody titers. Chloroquine taken in the dose recommended for malaria prophylaxis can reduce the antibody response to primary immunization with intradermal human diploid-cell rabies vaccine. Pregnancy See WARNINGS, Usage in Pregnancy. Nursing Mothers Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from chloroquine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the potential clinical benefit of the drug to the mother. The excretion of chloroquine and the major metabolite, desethylchloroquine, in breast milk was investigated in eleven lactating mothers following a single oral dose of chloroquine (600 mg base). The maximum daily dose of the drug that the infant can receive from breastfeeding was about 0.7% of the maternal start dose of the drug in malaria chemotherapy. Separate chemoprophylaxis for the infant is required. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Pediatric Use See WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of chloroquine phosphate did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. However, this drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Special Senses: Ocular: Maculopathy and macular degenration have been reported and may be irreversible (see WARNINGS), irreversible retinal damage in patients receiving long-term or high-dosage 4-aminoquinoline therapy; visual disturbances (blurring of vision and difficulty of focusing or accommodation); nyctalopia; scotomatous vision with field defects of paracentral, pericentral ring types, and typically temporal scotomas, e.g., difficulty in reading with words tending to disappear, seeing half an object, misty vision, and fog before the eyes. Reversible corneal opacities have also been reported. Auditory: Nerve type deafness; tinnitus, reduced hearing in patients with preexisting auditory damage. Musculoskeletal system: Skeletal muscle myopathy or neuromyopathy leading to progressive weakness and atrophy of proximal muscle groups, which may be associated with mild sensory changes, depression of tendon reflexes and abnormal nerve conduction, have been noted. Gastrointestinal system: Hepatitis, increased liver enzymes, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps. Skin and appendages: Rare reports of erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis and similar desquamation-type events. Pleomorphic skin eruptions, skin and mucosal pigmentary changes; lichen planus-like eruptions, pruritus, urticaria, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction including angioedema, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome); photosensitivity and hair loss and bleaching of hair pigment. Hematologic system: Rarely, pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, reversible agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. Nervous system: Convulsive seizures, mild and transient headache, polyneuritis. Acute extrapyramidal disorders (such as dystonia, dyskinesia, tongue protusion, torticollis) (see WARNINGS and OVER DOSE). Neuropsychiatric changes including psychosis, delirium, anxiety, agitation, insomnia, confusion, hallucinations, personality changes, and depression. Cardiovascular system: Rarely, hypotension, electrocardiographic change (particularly, inversion or depression of the T-wave with widening of the QRS complex), and cardiomyopathy.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The dosage of chloroquine phosphate is often expressed in terms of equivalent chloroquine base. Each 250 mg tablet of chloroquine phosphate contains the equivalent of 150 mg chloroquine base. In infants and children the dosage is preferably calculated by body weight. Malaria: Suppression - Adult Dose: 500 mg (= 300 mg base) on exactly the same day of each week. Pediatric Dose: The weekly suppressive dosage is 5 mg calculated as base, per kg of body weight, but should not exceed the adult dose regardless of weight. If circumstances permit, suppressive therapy should begin two weeks prior to exposure. However, failing this in adults, an initial double (loading) dose of 1 g (= 600 mg base), or in children 10 mg base/kg may be taken in two divided doses, six hours apart. The suppressive therapy should be continued for eight weeks after leaving the endemic area. For Treatment of Acute Attack Adults: An initial dose of 1 g (= 600 mg base) followed by an additional 500 mg (= 300 mg base) after six to eight hours and a single dose of 500 mg (= 300 mg base) on each of two consecutive days. This represents a total dose of 2.5 g chloroquine phosphate or 1.5 g base in three days. The dosage for adults of low body weight and for infants and children should be determined as follows: First dose: 10 mg base per kg (but not exceeding a single dose of 600 mg base). Second dose: (6 hours after first dose) 5 mg base per kg (but not exceeding a single dose of 300 mg base). Third dose: (24 hours after first dose) 5 mg base per kg. Fourth dose: (36 hours after first dose) 5 mg base per kg. For radical cure of vivax and malariae malaria concomitant therapy with an 8-aminoquinoline compound is necessary. Extraintestinal Amebiasis: Adults, 1 g (600 mg base) daily for two days, followed by 500 mg (300 mg base) daily for at least two to three weeks. Treatment is usually combined with an effective intestinal amebicide. Geriatric Use See PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA091621
Agency product number 6E17K3343P
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 64980-177
Date Last Revised 27-12-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 1117531
Marketing authorisation holder Rising Pharmaceuticals, Inc.