Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 28 March 2018

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Renal, Cardiac, and Hepatic Transplant CellCept is indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving allogeneic renal, cardiac or hepatic transplants. CellCept should be used concomitantly with cyclosporine and corticosteroids. CellCept Intravenous is an alternative dosage form to CellCept capsules, tablets and oral suspension. CellCept Intravenous should be administered within 24 hours following transplantation. CellCept Intravenous can be administered for up to 14 days; patients should be switched to oral CellCept as soon as they can tolerate oral medication.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Allergic reactions to CellCept have been observed; therefore, CellCept is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to mycophenolate mofetil, mycophenolic acid or any component of the drug product. CellCept Intravenous is contraindicated in patients who are allergic to Polysorbate 80 (TWEEN).
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS Pregnancy Exposure Prevention and Planning Females of reproductive potential must be made aware of the increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and congenital malformations and must be counseled regarding pregnancy prevention and planning. Females of reproductive potential include girls who have entered puberty and all women who have a uterus and have not passed through menopause. Menopause is the permanent end of menstruation and fertility. Menopause should be clinically confirmed by a patient's healthcare practitioner. Some commonly used diagnostic criteria include 1) 12 months of spontaneous amenorrhea (not amenorrhea induced by a medical condition or medical therapy) or 2) postsurgical from a bilateral oophorectomy. Pregnancy Testing To prevent unplanned exposure during pregnancy, females of reproductive potential should have a serum or urine pregnancy test with a sensitivity of at least 25 mIU/mL immediately before starting CellCept. Another pregnancy test with the same sensitivity should be done 8 to 10 days later. Repeat pregnancy tests should be performed during routine follow-up visits. Results of all pregnancy tests should be discussed with the patient. In the event of a positive pregnancy test, females should be counseled with regard to whether the maternal benefits of mycophenolate treatment may outweigh the risks to the fetus in certain situations. Contraception Females of reproductive potential taking CellCept must receive contraceptive counseling and use acceptable contraception (see Table 8 for acceptable contraception methods). Patients must use acceptable birth control during entire CellCept therapy, and for 6 weeks after stopping CellCept, unless the patient chooses abstinence (she chooses to avoid heterosexual intercourse completely). Patients should be aware that CellCept reduces blood levels of the hormones in the oral contraceptive pill and could theoretically reduce its effectiveness (see PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients and PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions: Oral Contraceptives ). Table 8 Acceptable Contraception Methods for Females of Reproductive Potential Pick from the following birth control options: Option 1 Methods to Use Alone Intrauterine devices (IUDs) Tubal sterilization Patient's partner had a vasectomy OR Option 2 Hormone Methods choose 1 Barrier Methods choose 1 Choose One Hormone Method AND One Barrier Method Estrogen and Progesterone Oral Contraceptive Pill Transdermal patch Vaginal ring Progesterone-only Injection Implant AND Diaphragm with spermicide Cervical cap with spermicide Contraceptive sponge Male condom Female condom OR Option 3 Barrier Methods choose 1 Barrier Methods choose 1 Choose One Barrier Method from each column (must choose two methods) Diaphragm with spermicide Cervical cap with spermicide Contraceptive sponge AND Male condom Female condom Pregnancy Planning For patients who are considering pregnancy, consider alternative immunosuppressants with less potential for embryofetal toxicity. Risks and benefits of CellCept should be discussed with the patient. Gastrointestinal Disorders Gastrointestinal bleeding (requiring hospitalization) has been observed in approximately 3% of renal, in 1.7% of cardiac, and in 5.4% of hepatic transplant patients treated with CellCept 3 g daily. In pediatric renal transplant patients, 5/148 cases of gastrointestinal bleeding (requiring hospitalization) were observed. Gastrointestinal perforations have rarely been observed. Most patients receiving CellCept were also receiving other drugs known to be associated with these complications. Patients with active peptic ulcer disease were excluded from enrollment in studies with mycophenolate mofetil. Because CellCept has been associated with an increased incidence of digestive system adverse events, including infrequent cases of gastrointestinal tract ulceration, hemorrhage, and perforation, CellCept should be administered with caution in patients with active serious digestive system disease. Patients with Renal Impairment Subjects with severe chronic renal impairment (GFR <25 mL/min/1.73 m2) who have received single doses of CellCept showed higher plasma MPA and MPAG AUCs relative to subjects with lesser degrees of renal impairment or normal healthy volunteers. No data are available on the safety of long-term exposure to these levels of MPAG. Doses of CellCept greater than 1 g administered twice a day to renal transplant patients should be avoided and they should be carefully observed (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). No data are available for cardiac or hepatic transplant patients with severe chronic renal impairment. CellCept may be used for cardiac or hepatic transplant patients with severe chronic renal impairment if the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks. In patients with delayed renal graft function posttransplant, mean MPA AUC(0-12h) was comparable, but MPAG AUC(0-12h) was 2-fold to 3-fold higher, compared to that seen in posttransplant patients without delayed renal graft function. In the three controlled studies of prevention of renal rejection, there were 298 of 1483 patients (20%) with delayed graft function. Although patients with delayed graft function have a higher incidence of certain adverse events (anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperkalemia) than patients without delayed graft function, these events were not more frequent in patients receiving CellCept than azathioprine or placebo. No dose adjustment is recommended for these patients; however, they should be carefully observed (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Infections in Cardiac Transplant Patients In cardiac transplant patients, the overall incidence of opportunistic infections was approximately 10% higher in patients treated with CellCept than in those receiving azathioprine therapy, but this difference was not associated with excess mortality due to infection/sepsis among patients treated with CellCept (see ADVERSE REACTIONS ). There were more herpes virus (H. simplex, H. zoster, and cytomegalovirus) infections in cardiac transplant patients treated with CellCept compared to those treated with azathioprine (see ADVERSE REACTIONS ). Concomitant Medications It is recommended that CellCept not be administered concomitantly with azathioprine because both have the potential to cause bone marrow suppression and such concomitant administration has not been studied clinically. In view of the significant reduction in the AUC of MPA by cholestyramine, caution should be used in the concomitant administration of CellCept with drugs that interfere with enterohepatic recirculation because of the potential to reduce the efficacy of CellCept (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions ). Patients with HGPRT Deficiency CellCept is an IMPDH (inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase) inhibitor; therefore it should be avoided in patients with rare hereditary deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HGPRT) such as Lesch-Nyhan and Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome. Immunizations During treatment with CellCept, the use of live attenuated vaccines should be avoided and patients should be advised that vaccinations may be less effective (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions: Live Vaccines ). Phenylketonurics CellCept Oral Suspension contains aspartame, a source of phenylalanine (0.56 mg phenylalanine/mL suspension). Therefore, care should be taken if CellCept Oral Suspension is administered to patients with phenylketonuria. Information for Patients See Medication Guide Inform females of reproductive potential that use of CellCept during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and an increased risk of congenital malformations, and advise them as to the appropriate steps to manage these risks, including that they must use acceptable contraception (see WARNINGS: Embryofetal Toxicity, PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy Exposure Prevention and Planning). Discuss pregnancy testing, pregnancy prevention and planning with females of reproductive potential. In the event of a positive pregnancy test, females should be counseled with regard to whether the maternal benefits of mycophenolate treatment may outweigh the risks to the fetus in certain situations. Females of reproductive potential must use acceptable birth control during entire CellCept therapy and for 6 weeks after stopping CellCept, unless the patient chooses to avoid heterosexual intercourse completely (abstinence) (see PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy Exposure Prevention and Planning, Table 8). For patients who are considering pregnancy, discuss appropriate alternative immunosuppressants with less potential for embryofetal toxicity. Risks and benefits of CellCept should be discussed with the patient. Give patients complete dosage instructions and inform them about the increased risk of lymphoproliferative disease and certain other malignancies. Inform patients that they need repeated appropriate laboratory tests while they are taking CellCept. Advise patients that they should not breastfeed during CellCept therapy. Laboratory Tests Complete blood counts should be performed weekly during the first month, twice monthly for the second and third months of treatment, then monthly through the first year (see WARNINGS, ADVERSE REACTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Drug Interactions Drug interaction studies with mycophenolate mofetil have been conducted with acyclovir, antacids, cholestyramine, cyclosporine, ganciclovir, oral contraceptives, sevelamer, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, and metronidazole. Drug interaction studies have not been conducted with other drugs that may be commonly administered to renal, cardiac or hepatic transplant patients. CellCept has not been administered concomitantly with azathioprine. Acyclovir Coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g) and acyclovir (800 mg) to 12 healthy volunteers resulted in no significant change in MPA AUC and Cmax. However, MPAG and acyclovir plasma AUCs were increased 10.6% and 21.9%, respectively. Because MPAG plasma concentrations are increased in the presence of renal impairment, as are acyclovir concentrations, the potential exists for mycophenolate and acyclovir or its prodrug (eg, valacyclovir) to compete for tubular secretion, further increasing the concentrations of both drugs. Antacids With Magnesium and Aluminum Hydroxides Absorption of a single dose of mycophenolate mofetil (2 g) was decreased when administered to ten rheumatoid arthritis patients also taking Maalox® TC (10 mL qid). The Cmax and AUC(0-24h) for MPA were 33% and 17% lower, respectively, than when mycophenolate mofetil was administered alone under fasting conditions. CellCept may be administered to patients who are also taking antacids containing magnesium and aluminum hydroxides; however, it is recommended that CellCept and the antacid not be administered simultaneously. Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) Coadministration of PPIs (e.g., lansoprazole, pantoprazole) in single doses to healthy volunteers and multiple doses to transplant patients receiving CellCept has been reported to reduce the exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA). An approximate reduction of 30 to 70% in the Cmax and 25% to 35% in the AUC of MPA has been observed, possibly due to a decrease in MPA solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical impact of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving PPIs and CellCept. Because clinical relevance has not been established, PPIs should be used with caution when coadministered to transplant patients being treated with CellCept. Cholestyramine Following single-dose administration of 1.5 g mycophenolate mofetil to 12 healthy volunteers pretreated with 4 g tid of cholestyramine for 4 days, MPA AUC decreased approximately 40%. This decrease is consistent with interruption of enterohepatic recirculation which may be due to binding of recirculating MPAG with cholestyramine in the intestine. Some degree of enterohepatic recirculation is also anticipated following intravenous administration of CellCept. Therefore, CellCept is not recommended to be given with cholestyramine or other agents that may interfere with enterohepatic recirculation. Cyclosporine Cyclosporine (Sandimmune®) pharmacokinetics (at doses of 275 to 415 mg/day) were unaffected by single and multiple doses of 1.5 g bid of mycophenolate mofetil in 10 stable renal transplant patients. The mean (±SD) AUC(0-12h) and Cmax of cyclosporine after 14 days of multiple doses of mycophenolate mofetil were 3290 (±822) ng∙h/mL and 753 (±161) ng/mL, respectively, compared to 3245 (±1088) ng∙h/mL and 700 (±246) ng/mL, respectively, 1 week before administration of mycophenolate mofetil. Cyclosporine A interferes with MPA enterohepatic recirculation. In renal transplant patients, mean MPA exposure (AUC0-12h) was approximately 30-50% greater when mycophenolate mofetil is administered without cyclosporine compared with when mycophenolate mofetil is coadministered with cyclosporine. This interaction is due to cyclosporine inhibition of multidrug-resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2) transporter in the biliary tract, thereby preventing the excretion of MPAG into the bile that would lead to enterohepatic recirculation of MPA. This information should be taken into consideration when MMF is used without cyclosporine; changes in MPA exposure should be expected when switching patients from cyclosporine A to one of the immunosuppressants which do not interfere with MPA's enterohepatic cycle (e.g., tacrolimus; belatacept). Telmisartan Concommitant administration of telmisartan and CellCept resulted in an approximately 30% decrease in mycophenolic acid (MPA) concentrations. Telmisartan changes MPA's elimination by enhancing PPAR gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) expression, which in turn results in an enhanced UGT1A9 expression and activity. Ganciclovir Following single-dose administration to 12 stable renal transplant patients, no pharmacokinetic interaction was observed between mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g) and intravenous ganciclovir (5 mg/kg). Mean (±SD) ganciclovir AUC and Cmax (n=10) were 54.3 (±19.0) µg∙h/mL and 11.5 (±1.8) µg/mL, respectively, after coadministration of the two drugs, compared to 51.0 (±17.0) µg∙h/mL and 10.6 (±2.0) µg/mL, respectively, after administration of intravenous ganciclovir alone. The mean (±SD) AUC and Cmax of MPA (n=12) after coadministration were 80.9 (±21.6) µg∙h/mL and 27.8 (±13.9) µg/mL, respectively, compared to values of 80.3 (±16.4) µg∙h/mL and 30.9 (±11.2) µg/mL, respectively, after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone. Because MPAG plasma concentrations are increased in the presence of renal impairment, as are ganciclovir concentrations, the two drugs will compete for tubular secretion and thus further increases in concentrations of both drugs may occur. In patients with renal impairment in which MMF and ganciclovir or its prodrug (eg, valganciclovir) are coadministered, patients should be monitored carefully. Oral Contraceptives A study of coadministration of CellCept (1 g bid) and combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (0.02 mg to 0.04 mg) and levonorgestrel (0.05 mg to 0.20 mg), desogestrel (0.15 mg) or gestodene (0.05 mg to 0.10 mg) was conducted in 18 women with psoriasis over 3 consecutive menstrual cycles. Mean AUC(0-24h) was similar for ethinylestradiol and 3-keto desogestrel; however, mean levonorgestrel AUC(0-24h) significantly decreased by about 15%. There was large inter-patient variability (%CV in the range of 60% to 70%) in the data, especially for ethinylestradiol. Mean serum levels of LH, FSH and progesterone were not significantly affected. CellCept may not have any influence on the ovulation-suppressing action of the studied oral contraceptives. It is recommended to coadminister CellCept with hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pill, transdermal patch, vaginal ring, injection, and implant) with caution and additional barrier contraceptive methods must be used (see PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy Exposure Prevention and Planning ). Sevelamer Concomitant administration of sevelamer and mycophenolate mofetil in adult and pediatric patients decreased the mean MPA Cmax and AUC0-12h by 36% and 26% respectively. This data suggest that sevelamer and other calcium free phosphate binders should not be administered simultaneously with CellCept. Alternatively, it is recommended that sevelamer and other calcium free phosphate binders preferentially could be given 2 hours after CellCept intake to minimize the impact on the absorption of MPA. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole Following single-dose administration of mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g) to 12 healthy male volunteers on day 8 of a 10 day course of trimethoprim 160 mg/sulfamethoxazole 800 mg administered bid, no effect on the bioavailability of MPA was observed. The mean (±SD) AUC and Cmax of MPA after concomitant administration were 75.2 (±19.8) µg∙h/mL and 34.0 (±6.6) µg/mL, respectively, compared to 79.2 (±27.9) µg∙h/mL and 34.2 (±10.7) µg/mL, respectively, after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone. Norfloxacin and Metronidazole Following single-dose administration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g) to 11 healthy volunteers on day 4 of a 5 day course of a combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole, the mean MPA AUC0-48h was significantly reduced by 33% compared to the administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone (p<0.05). Therefore, CellCept is not recommended to be given with the combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole. There was no significant effect on mean MPA AUC0-48h when mycophenolate mofetil was concomitantly administered with norfloxacin or metronidazole separately. The mean (±SD) MPA AUC0-48h after coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil with norfloxacin or metronidazole separately was 48.3 (±24) µg∙h/mL and 42.7 (±23) µg∙h/mL, respectively, compared with 56.2 (±24) µg∙h/mL after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone. Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin plus Clavulanic Acid A total of 64 CellCept-treated renal transplant recipients received either oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg bid or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid 375 mg tid for 7 or at least 14 days. Approximately 50% reductions in median trough MPA concentrations (pre-dose) from baseline (CellCept alone) were observed in 3 days following commencement of oral ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. These reductions in trough MPA concentrations tended to diminish within 14 days of antibiotic therapy and ceased within 3 days after discontinuation of antibiotics. The postulated mechanism for this interaction is an antibiotic-induced reduction in glucuronidase-possessing enteric organisms leading to a decrease in enterohepatic recirculation of MPA. The change in trough level may not accurately represent changes in overall MPA exposure; therefore, clinical relevance of these observations is unclear. Rifampin In a single heart-lung transplant patient, after correction for dose, a 67% decrease in MPA exposure (AUC0-12h) has been observed with concomitant administration of mycophenolate mofetil and rifampin. Therefore, CellCept is not recommended to be given with rifampin concomitantly unless the benefit outweighs the risk. Other Interactions The measured value for renal clearance of MPAG indicates removal occurs by renal tubular secretion as well as glomerular filtration. Consistent with this, coadministration of probenecid, a known inhibitor of tubular secretion, with mycophenolate mofetil in monkeys results in a 3-fold increase in plasma MPAG AUC and a 2-fold increase in plasma MPA AUC. Thus, other drugs known to undergo renal tubular secretion may compete with MPAG and thereby raise plasma concentrations of MPAG or the other drug undergoing tubular secretion. Drugs that alter the gastrointestinal flora may interact with mycophenolate mofetil by disrupting enterohepatic recirculation. Interference of MPAG hydrolysis may lead to less MPA available for absorption. Live Vaccines During treatment with CellCept, the use of live attenuated vaccines should be avoided and patients should be advised that vaccinations may be less effective (see PRECAUTIONS: Immunizations ). Influenza vaccination may be of value. Prescribers should refer to national guidelines for influenza vaccination. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility In a 104-week oral carcinogenicity study in mice, mycophenolate mofetil in daily doses up to 180 mg/kg was not tumorigenic. The highest dose tested was 0.5 times the recommended clinical dose (2 g/day) in renal transplant patients and 0.3 times the recommended clinical dose (3 g/day) in cardiac transplant patients when corrected for differences in body surface area (BSA). In a 104-week oral carcinogenicity study in rats, mycophenolate mofetil in daily doses up to 15 mg/kg was not tumorigenic. The highest dose was 0.08 times the recommended clinical dose in renal transplant patients and 0.05 times the recommended clinical dose in cardiac transplant patients when corrected for BSA. While these animal doses were lower than those given to patients, they were maximal in those species and were considered adequate to evaluate the potential for human risk (see WARNINGS ). The genotoxic potential of mycophenolate mofetil was determined in five assays. Mycophenolate mofetil was genotoxic in the mouse lymphoma/thymidine kinase assay and the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. Mycophenolate mofetil was not genotoxic in the bacterial mutation assay, the yeast mitotic gene conversion assay or the Chinese hamster ovary cell chromosomal aberration assay. Mycophenolate mofetil had no effect on fertility of male rats at oral doses up to 20 mg/kg/day. This dose represents 0.1 times the recommended clinical dose in renal transplant patients and 0.07 times the recommended clinical dose in cardiac transplant patients when corrected for BSA. In a female fertility and reproduction study conducted in rats, oral doses of 4.5 mg/kg/day caused malformations (principally of the head and eyes) in the first generation offspring in the absence of maternal toxicity. This dose was 0.02 times the recommended clinical dose in renal transplant patients and 0.01 times the recommended clinical dose in cardiac transplant patients when corrected for BSA. No effects on fertility or reproductive parameters were evident in the dams or in the subsequent generation. Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D See WARNINGS section. Use of MMF during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and an increased risk of congenital malformations, especially external ear and other facial abnormalities including cleft lip and palate, and anomalies of the distal limbs, heart, esophagus, kidney, and nervous system. In animal studies, congenital malformations and pregnancy loss occurred when pregnant rats and rabbits received mycophenolic acid at dose multiples similar to and less than clinical doses. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Risks and benefits of CellCept should be discussed with the patient. When appropriate, consider alternative immunosuppressants with less potential for embryofetal toxicity. In certain situations, the patient and her healthcare practitioner may decide that the maternal benefits outweigh the risks to the fetus. For those females using CellCept at any time during pregnancy and those becoming pregnant within 6 weeks of discontinuing therapy, the healthcare practitioner should report the pregnancy to the Mycophenolate Pregnancy Registry (1-800-617-8191). The healthcare practitioner should strongly encourage the patient to enroll in the pregnancy registry. The information provided to the registry will help the healthcare community better understand the effects of mycophenolate in pregnancy. In the National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry (NTPR), there were data on 33 MMF-exposed pregnancies in 24 transplant patients; there were 15 spontaneous abortions (45%) and 18 live-born infants. Four of these 18 infants had structural malformations (22%). In postmarketing data (collected 1995-2007) on 77 females exposed to systemic MMF during pregnancy, 25 had spontaneous abortions and 14 had a malformed infant or fetus. Six of 14 malformed offspring had ear abnormalities. Because these postmarketing data are reported voluntarily, it is not always possible to reliably estimate the frequency of particular adverse outcomes. These malformations are similar to findings in animal reproductive toxicology studies. For comparison, the background rate for congenital anomalies in the United States is about 3%, and NTPR data show a rate of 4-5% among babies born to organ transplant patients using other immunosuppressive drugs. In animal reproductive toxicology studies, there were increased rates of fetal resorptions and malformations in the absence of maternal toxicity. Female rats and rabbits received mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) doses equivalent to 0.02 to 0.9 times the recommended human dose for renal and cardiac transplant patients, based on body surface area conversions. In rat offspring, malformations included anophthalmia, agnathia, and hydrocephaly. In rabbit offspring, malformations included ectopia cordis, ectopic kidneys, diaphragmatic hernia, and umbilical hernia. Nursing Mothers Studies in rats treated with mycophenolate mofetil have shown mycophenolic acid to be excreted in milk. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from mycophenolate mofetil, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use Based on pharmacokinetic and safety data in pediatric patients after renal transplantation, the recommended dose of CellCept oral suspension is 600 mg/m2 bid (up to a maximum of 1 g bid). Also see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, CLINICAL STUDIES, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION . Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients receiving allogeneic cardiac or hepatic transplants have not been established. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of CellCept did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function and of concomitant or other drug therapy. Elderly patients may be at an increased risk of adverse reactions compared with younger individuals (see ADVERSE REACTIONS ).
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS The principal adverse reactions associated with the administration of CellCept include diarrhea, leukopenia, sepsis, vomiting, and there is evidence of a higher frequency of certain types of infections eg, opportunistic infection (see WARNINGS: Serious Infections and WARNINGS: New or Reactivated Viral Infections ). The adverse event profile associated with the administration of CellCept Intravenous has been shown to be similar to that observed after administration of oral dosage forms of CellCept. CellCept Oral The incidence of adverse events for CellCept was determined in randomized, comparative, double-blind trials in prevention of rejection in renal (2 active, 1 placebo-controlled trials), cardiac (1 active-controlled trial), and hepatic (1 active-controlled trial) transplant patients. Geriatrics Elderly patients (≥65 years), particularly those who are receiving CellCept as part of a combination immunosuppressive regimen, may be at increased risk of certain infections (including cytomegalovirus [CMV] tissue invasive disease) and possibly gastrointestinal hemorrhage and pulmonary edema, compared to younger individuals (see PRECAUTIONS ). Safety data are summarized below for all active-controlled trials in renal (2 trials), cardiac (1 trial), and hepatic (1 trial) transplant patients. Approximately 53% of the renal patients, 65% of the cardiac patients, and 48% of the hepatic patients have been treated for more than 1 year. Adverse events reported in ≥20% of patients in the CellCept treatment groups are presented below. Table 9 Adverse Events in Controlled Studies in Prevention of Renal, Cardiac or Hepatic Allograft Rejection (Reported in ≥20% of Patients in the CellCept Group) Renal Studies Cardiac Study Hepatic Study CellCept 2 g/day CellCept 3 g/day Azathioprine 1 to 2 mg/kg/day or 100 to 150 mg/day CellCept 3 g/day Azathioprine 1.5 to 3 mg/kg/day CellCept 3 g/day Azathioprine 1 to 2 mg/kg/day (n=336) (n=330) (n=326) (n=289) (n=289) (n=277) (n=287) % % % % % % % Body as a Whole Pain 33.0 31.2 32.2 75.8 74.7 74.0 77.7 Abdominal pain 24.7 27.6 23.0 33.9 33.2 62.5 51.2 Fever 21.4 23.3 23.3 47.4 46.4 52.3 56.1 Headache 21.1 16.1 21.2 54.3 51.9 53.8 49.1 Infection 18.2 20.9 19.9 25.6 19.4 27.1 25.1 Sepsis – – – – – 27.4 26.5 Asthenia – – – 43.3 36.3 35.4 33.8 Chest pain – – – 26.3 26.0 – – Back pain – – – 34.6 28.4 46.6 47.4 Ascites – – – – – 24.2 22.6 Hematologic and Lymphatic Anemia 25.6 25.8 23.6 42.9 43.9 43.0 53.0 Leukopenia 23.2 34.5 24.8 30.4 39.1 45.8 39.0 Thrombocytopenia – – – 23.5 27.0 38.3 42.2 Hypochromic anemia – – – 24.6 23.5 – – Leukocytosis – – – 40.5 35.6 22.4 21.3 Urogenital Urinary tract infection 37.2 37.0 33.7 – – – – Kidney function abnormal – – – 21.8 26.3 25.6 28.9 Cardiovascular Hypertension 32.4 28.2 32.2 77.5 72.3 62.1 59.6 Hypotension – – – 32.5 36.0 – – Cardiovascular disorder – – – 25.6 24.2 – – Tachycardia – – – 20.1 18.0 22.0 15.7 Metabolic and Nutritional Peripheral edema 28.6 27.0 28.2 64.0 53.3 48.4 47.7 Hyper-cholesteremia – – – 41.2 38.4 – – Edema – – – 26.6 25.6 28.2 28.2 Hypokalemia – – – 31.8 25.6 37.2 41.1 Hyperkalemia – – – – – 22.0 23.7 Hyperglycemia – – – 46.7 52.6 43.7 48.8 Creatinine increased – – – 39.4 36.0 – – BUN increased – – – 34.6 32.5 – – Lactic dehydrogenase increased – – – 23.2 17.0 – – Hypomagnesemia – – – – – 39.0 37.6 Hypocalcemia – – – – – 30.0 30.0 Digestive Diarrhea 31.0 36.1 20.9 45.3 34.3 51.3 49.8 Constipation 22.9 18.5 22.4 41.2 37.7 37.9 38.3 Nausea 19.9 23.6 24.5 54.0 54.3 54.5 51.2 Dyspepsia – – – – – 22.4 20.9 Vomiting – – – 33.9 28.4 32.9 33.4 Anorexia – – – – – 25.3 17.1 Liver function tests abnormal – – – – – 24.9 19.2 Respiratory Infection 22.0 23.9 19.6 37.0 35.3 – – Dyspnea – – – 36.7 36.3 31.0 30.3 Cough increased – – – 31.1 25.6 – – Lung disorder – – – 30.1 29.1 22.0 18.8 Sinusitis – – – 26.0 19.0 – – Pleural effusion – – – – – 34.3 35.9 Skin and Appendages Rash – – – 22.1 18.0 – – Nervous System Tremor – – – 24.2 23.9 33.9 35.5 Insomnia – – – 40.8 37.7 52.3 47.0 Dizziness – – – 28.7 27.7 – – Anxiety – – – 28.4 23.9 – – Paresthesia – – – 20.8 18.0 – – The placebo-controlled renal transplant study generally showed fewer adverse events occurring in ≥20% of patients. In addition, those that occurred were not only qualitatively similar to the azathioprine-controlled renal transplant studies, but also occurred at lower rates, particularly for infection, leukopenia, hypertension, diarrhea and respiratory infection. The above data demonstrate that in three controlled trials for prevention of renal rejection, patients receiving 2 g/day of CellCept had an overall better safety profile than did patients receiving 3 g/day of CellCept. The above data demonstrate that the types of adverse events observed in multicenter controlled trials in renal, cardiac, and hepatic transplant patients are qualitatively similar except for those that are unique to the specific organ involved. Sepsis, which was generally CMV viremia, was slightly more common in renal transplant patients treated with CellCept compared to patients treated with azathioprine. The incidence of sepsis was comparable in CellCept and in azathioprine-treated patients in cardiac and hepatic studies. In the digestive system, diarrhea was increased in renal and cardiac transplant patients receiving CellCept compared to patients receiving azathioprine, but was comparable in hepatic transplant patients treated with CellCept or azathioprine. Patients receiving CellCept alone or as part of an immunosuppressive regimen are at increased risk of developing lymphomas and other malignancies, particularly of the skin (see WARNINGS: Lymphoma and Malignancy ). The incidence of malignancies among the 1483 patients treated in controlled trials for the prevention of renal allograft rejection who were followed for ≥1 year was similar to the incidence reported in the literature for renal allograft recipients. Lymphoproliferative disease or lymphoma developed in 0.4% to 1% of patients receiving CellCept (2 g or 3 g daily) with other immunosuppressive agents in controlled clinical trials of renal, cardiac, and hepatic transplant patients followed for at least 1 year (see WARNINGS: Lymphoma and Malignancy ). Non-melanoma skin carcinomas occurred in 1.6% to 4.2% of patients, other types of malignancy in 0.7% to 2.1% of patients. Three-year safety data in renal and cardiac transplant patients did not reveal any unexpected changes in incidence of malignancy compared to the 1-year data. In pediatric patients, no other malignancies besides lymphoproliferative disorder (2/148 patients) have been observed. Severe neutropenia (ANC <0.5 × 103/µL) developed in up to 2.0% of renal transplant patients, up to 2.8% of cardiac transplant patients and up to 3.6% of hepatic transplant patients receiving CellCept 3 g daily (see WARNINGS: Neutropenia, PRECAUTIONS: Laboratory Tests and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). All transplant patients are at increased risk of opportunistic infections. The risk increases with total immunosuppressive load (see WARNINGS: Serious Infections and WARNINGS: New or Reactivated Viral Infections ). Table 10 shows the incidence of opportunistic infections that occurred in the renal, cardiac, and hepatic transplant populations in the azathioprine-controlled prevention trials: Table 10 Viral and Fungal Infections in Controlled Studies in Prevention of Renal, Cardiac or Hepatic Transplant Rejection Renal Studies Cardiac Study Hepatic Study CellCept 2 g/day CellCept 3 g/day Azathioprine 1 to 2 mg/kg/day or 100 to 150 mg/day CellCept 3 g/day Azathioprine 1.5 to 3 mg/kg/day CellCept 3 g/day Azathioprine 1 to 2 mg/kg/day (n=336) (n=330) (n=326) (n=289) (n=289) (n=277) (n=287) % % % % % % % Herpes simplex 16.7 20.0 19.0 20.8 14.5 10.1 5.9 CMV – Viremia/syndrome 13.4 12.4 13.8 12.1 10.0 14.1 12.2 – Tissue invasive disease 8.3 11.5 6.1 11.4 8.7 5.8 8.0 Herpes zoster 6.0 7.6 5.8 10.7 5.9 4.3 4.9 – Cutaneous disease 6.0 7.3 5.5 10.0 5.5 4.3 4.9 Candida 17.0 17.3 18.1 18.7 17.6 22.4 24.4 – Mucocutaneous 15.5 16.4 15.3 18.0 17.3 18.4 17.4 The following other opportunistic infections occurred with an incidence of less than 4% in CellCept patients in the above azathioprine-controlled studies: Herpes zoster, visceral disease; Candida, urinary tract infection, fungemia/disseminated disease, tissue invasive disease; Cryptococcosis; Aspergillus/Mucor; Pneumocystis carinii. In the placebo-controlled renal transplant study, the same pattern of opportunistic infection was observed compared to the azathioprine-controlled renal studies, with a notably lower incidence of the following: Herpes simplex and CMV tissue-invasive disease. In patients receiving CellCept (2 g or 3 g) in controlled studies for prevention of renal, cardiac or hepatic rejection, fatal infection/sepsis occurred in approximately 2% of renal and cardiac patients and in 5% of hepatic patients (see WARNINGS: Serious Infections ). In cardiac transplant patients, the overall incidence of opportunistic infections was approximately 10% higher in patients treated with CellCept than in those receiving azathioprine, but this difference was not associated with excess mortality due to infection/sepsis among patients treated with CellCept. The following adverse events were reported with 3% to <20% incidence in renal, cardiac, and hepatic transplant patients treated with CellCept, in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids. Table 11 Adverse Events Reported in 3% to <20% of Patients Treated With CellCept in Combination With Cyclosporine and Corticosteroids Body System Body as a Whole abdomen enlarged, abscess, accidental injury, cellulitis, chills occurring with fever, cyst, face edema, flu syndrome, hemorrhage, hernia, lab test abnormal, malaise, neck pain, pelvic pain, peritonitis Hematologic and Lymphatic coagulation disorder, ecchymosis, pancytopenia, petechia, polycythemia, prothrombin time increased, thromboplastin time increased Urogenital acute kidney failure, albuminuria, dysuria, hydronephrosis, hematuria, impotence, kidney failure, kidney tubular necrosis, nocturia, oliguria, pain, prostatic disorder, pyelonephritis, scrotal edema, urine abnormality, urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, urinary tract disorder Cardiovascular angina pectoris, arrhythmia, arterial thrombosis, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, bradycardia, cardiovascular disorder, congestive heart failure, extrasystole, heart arrest, heart failure, hypotension, pallor, palpitation, pericardial effusion, peripheral vascular disorder, postural hypotension, pulmonary hypertension, supraventricular tachycardia, supraventricular extrasystoles, syncope, tachycardia, thrombosis, vasodilatation, vasospasm, ventricular extrasystole, ventricular tachycardia, venous pressure increased Metabolic and Nutritional abnormal healing, acidosis, alkaline phosphatase increased, alkalosis, bilirubinemia, creatinine increased, dehydration, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase increased, generalized edema, gout, hypercalcemia, hypercholesteremia, hyperlipemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypervolemia, hypocalcemia, hypochloremia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia, hypoproteinemia, hypovolemia, hypoxia, lactic dehydrogenase increased, respiratory acidosis, SGOT increased, SGPT increased, thirst, weight gain, weight loss Digestive anorexia, cholangitis, cholestatic jaundice, dysphagia, esophagitis, flatulence, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal disorder, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal moniliasis, gingivitis, gum hyperplasia, hepatitis, ileus, infection, jaundice, liver damage, liver function tests abnormal, melena, mouth ulceration, nausea and vomiting, oral moniliasis, rectal disorder, stomach ulcer, stomatitis Respiratory apnea, asthma, atelectasis, bronchitis, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hiccup, hyperventilation, lung edema, lung disorder, neoplasm, pain, pharyngitis, pleural effusion, pneumonia, pneumothorax, respiratory disorder, respiratory moniliasis, rhinitis, sinusitis, sputum increased, voice alteration Skin and Appendages acne, alopecia, fungal dermatitis, hemorrhage, hirsutism, pruritus, rash, skin benign neoplasm, skin carcinoma, skin disorder, skin hypertrophy, skin ulcer, sweating, vesiculobullous rash Nervous agitation, anxiety, confusion, convulsion, delirium, depression, dry mouth, emotional lability, hallucinations, hypertonia, hypesthesia, nervousness, neuropathy, paresthesia, psychosis, somnolence, thinking abnormal, vertigo Endocrine Cushing's syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, parathyroid disorder Musculoskeletal arthralgia, joint disorder, leg cramps, myalgia, myasthenia, osteoporosis Special Senses abnormal vision, amblyopia, cataract (not specified), conjunctivitis, deafness, ear disorder, ear pain, eye hemorrhage, tinnitus, lacrimation disorder Pediatrics The type and frequency of adverse events in a clinical study in 100 pediatric patients 3 months to 18 years of age dosed with CellCept oral suspension 600 mg/m2 bid (up to 1 g bid) were generally similar to those observed in adult patients dosed with CellCept capsules at a dose of 1 g bid with the exception of abdominal pain, fever, infection, pain, sepsis, diarrhea, vomiting, pharyngitis, respiratory tract infection, hypertension, leukopenia, and anemia, which were observed in a higher proportion in pediatric patients. CellCept Intravenous The adverse event profile of CellCept Intravenous was determined from a single, double-blind, controlled comparative study of the safety of 2 g/day of intravenous and oral CellCept in renal transplant patients in the immediate posttransplant period (administered for the first 5 days). The potential venous irritation of CellCept Intravenous was evaluated by comparing the adverse events attributable to peripheral venous infusion of CellCept Intravenous with those observed in the intravenous placebo group; patients in this group received active medication by the oral route. Adverse events attributable to peripheral venous infusion were phlebitis and thrombosis, both observed at 4% in patients treated with CellCept Intravenous. In the active controlled study in hepatic transplant patients, 2 g/day of CellCept Intravenous were administered in the immediate posttransplant period (up to 14 days). The safety profile of intravenous CellCept was similar to that of intravenous azathioprine. Postmarketing Experience Congenital Disorders Embryofetal Toxicity Congenital malformations, including ear, facial, cardiac and nervous system malformations and an increased incidence of first trimester pregnancy loss have been reported following exposure to mycophenolate mofetil during pregnancy (see PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy ). Digestive Colitis (sometimes caused by cytomegalovirus), pancreatitis, isolated cases of intestinal villous atrophy. Hematologic and Lymphatic Cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and hypogammaglobulinemia have been reported in patients treated with CellCept in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. Infections (see WARNINGS: Serious Infections, New or Reactivated Viral Infections ) Serious life-threatening infections such as meningitis and infectious endocarditis have been reported occasionally. There is evidence of a higher frequency of certain types of serious infections such as tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterial infection. Cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), sometimes fatal, have been reported in patients treated with CellCept. The reported cases generally had risk factors for PML, including treatment with immunosuppressant therapies and impairment of immune function. Polyomavirus associated neuropathy (PVAN), especially due to BK virus infection, has been observed in patients receiving immunosuppressants, including CellCept. This infection is associated with serious outcomes, including deteriorating renal function and renal graft loss. Viral reactivation has been reported in patients infected with HBV or HCV. Respiratory Interstitial lung disorders, including fatal pulmonary fibrosis, have been reported rarely and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary symptoms ranging from dyspnea to respiratory failure in posttransplant patients receiving CellCept.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Renal Transplantation Adults A dose of 1 g administered orally or intravenously (over NO LESS THAN 2 HOURS) twice a day (daily dose of 2 g) is recommended for use in renal transplant patients. Although a dose of 1.5 g administered twice daily (daily dose of 3 g) was used in clinical trials and was shown to be safe and effective, no efficacy advantage could be established for renal transplant patients. Patients receiving 2 g/day of CellCept demonstrated an overall better safety profile than did patients receiving 3 g/day of CellCept. Pediatrics (3 months to 18 years of age) The recommended dose of CellCept oral suspension is 600 mg/m2 administered twice daily (up to a maximum daily dose of 2 g/10 mL oral suspension). Patients with a body surface area of 1.25 m2 to 1.5 m2 may be dosed with CellCept capsules at a dose of 750 mg twice daily (1.5 g daily dose). Patients with a body surface area >1.5 m2 may be dosed with CellCept capsules or tablets at a dose of 1 g twice daily (2 g daily dose). Cardiac Transplantation Adults A dose of 1.5 g bid administered intravenously (over NO LESS THAN 2 HOURS) or 1.5 g bid oral (daily dose of 3 g) is recommended for use in adult cardiac transplant patients. Hepatic Transplantation Adults A dose of 1 g bid administered intravenously (over NO LESS THAN 2 HOURS) or 1.5 g bid oral (daily dose of 3 g) is recommended for use in adult hepatic transplant patients. CellCept Capsules, Tablets, and Oral Suspension The initial oral dose of CellCept should be given as soon as possible following renal, cardiac or hepatic transplantation. Food had no effect on MPA AUC, but has been shown to decrease MPA Cmax by 40%. Therefore, it is recommended that CellCept be administered on an empty stomach. However, in stable renal transplant patients, CellCept may be administered with food if necessary. Patients should be instructed to take a missed dose as soon as they remember, except if it is near the next scheduled dose, and then continue to take CellCept at the usual times. Note: If required, CellCept Oral Suspension can be administered via a nasogastric tube with a minimum size of 8 French (minimum 1.7 mm interior diameter). Patients With Hepatic Impairment No dose adjustments are recommended for renal patients with severe hepatic parenchymal disease. However, it is not known whether dose adjustments are needed for hepatic disease with other etiologies (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics ). No data are available for cardiac transplant patients with severe hepatic parenchymal disease. Geriatrics The recommended oral dose of 1 g bid for renal transplant patients, 1.5 g bid for cardiac transplant patients, and 1 g bid administered intravenously or 1.5 g bid administered orally in hepatic transplant patients is appropriate for elderly patients (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use ). Preparation of Oral Suspension It is recommended that CellCept Oral Suspension be constituted by the pharmacist prior to dispensing to the patient. CellCept Oral Suspension should not be mixed with any other medication. Mycophenolate mofetil has demonstrated teratogenic effects in humans. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and HANDLING AND DISPOSAL ). Care should be taken to avoid inhalation or direct contact with skin or mucous membranes of the dry powder or the constituted suspension. If such contact occurs, wash thoroughly with soap and water; rinse eyes with water. Tap the closed bottle several times to loosen the powder. Measure 94 mL of water in a graduated cylinder. Add approximately half the total amount of water for constitution to the bottle and shake the closed bottle well for about 1 minute. Add the remainder of water and shake the closed bottle well for about 1 minute. Remove the child-resistant cap and push bottle adapter into neck of bottle. Close bottle with child-resistant cap tightly. This will assure the proper seating of the bottle adapter in the bottle and child-resistant status of the cap. Dispense with patient instruction sheet and oral dispensers. It is recommended to write the date of expiration of the constituted suspension on the bottle label. (The shelf-life of the constituted suspension is 60 days.) After constitution the oral suspension contains 200 mg/mL mycophenolate mofetil. Store constituted suspension at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F). Storage in a refrigerator at 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F) is acceptable. Do not freeze. Discard any unused portion 60 days after constitution. CellCept Intravenous Adults CellCept Intravenous is an alternative dosage form to CellCept capsules, tablets and oral suspension recommended for patients unable to take oral CellCept. CellCept Intravenous should be administered within 24 hours following transplantation. CellCept Intravenous can be administered for up to 14 days; patients should be switched to oral CellCept as soon as they can tolerate oral medication. CellCept Intravenous must be reconstituted and diluted to a concentration of 6 mg/mL using 5% Dextrose Injection USP. CellCept Intravenous is incompatible with other intravenous infusion solutions. Following reconstitution, CellCept Intravenous must be administered by slow intravenous infusion over a period of NO LESS THAN 2 HOURS by either peripheral or central vein. CAUTION: CELLCEPT INTRAVENOUS SOLUTION MUST NOT BE ADMINISTERED BY RAPID OR BOLUS INTRAVENOUS INJECTION (see WARNINGS ). Preparation of Infusion Solution (6 mg/mL) Caution should be exercised in the handling and preparation of solutions of CellCept Intravenous. Avoid direct contact of the prepared solution of CellCept Intravenous with skin or mucous membranes. If such contact occurs, wash thoroughly with soap and water; rinse eyes with plain water (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and HANDLING AND DISPOSAL ). CellCept Intravenous does not contain an antibacterial preservative; therefore, reconstitution and dilution of the product must be performed under aseptic conditions. Additionally, this product is sealed under vacuum and should retain a vacuum throughout its shelf life. If a lack of vacuum in the vial is noted while adding diluent, the vial should not be used. CellCept Intravenous infusion solution must be prepared in two steps: the first step is a reconstitution step with 5% Dextrose Injection USP, and the second step is a dilution step with 5% Dextrose Injection USP. A detailed description of the preparation is given below: Step 1 a)Two (2) vials of CellCept Intravenous are used for preparing each 1 g dose, whereas three (3) vials are needed for each 1.5 g dose. Reconstitute the contents of each vial by injecting 14 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection USP. b)Gently shake the vial to dissolve the drug. c)Inspect the resulting slightly yellow solution for particulate matter and discoloration prior to further dilution. Discard the vials if particulate matter or discoloration is observed. Step 2 a)To prepare a 1 g dose, further dilute the contents of the two reconstituted vials (approx. 2 × 15 mL) into 140 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection USP. To prepare a 1.5 g dose, further dilute the contents of the three reconstituted vials (approx. 3 × 15 mL) into 210 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection USP. The final concentration of both solutions is 6 mg mycophenolate mofetil per mL. b)Inspect the infusion solution for particulate matter or discoloration. Discard the infusion solution if particulate matter or discoloration is observed. If the infusion solution is not prepared immediately prior to administration, the commencement of administration of the infusion solution should be within 4 hours from reconstitution and dilution of the drug product. Keep solutions at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F). CellCept Intravenous should not be mixed or administered concurrently via the same infusion catheter with other intravenous drugs or infusion admixtures. Dosage Adjustments In renal transplant patients with severe chronic renal impairment (GFR <25 mL/min/1.73 m2) outside the immediate posttransplant period, doses of CellCept greater than 1 g administered twice a day should be avoided. These patients should also be carefully observed. No dose adjustments are needed in renal transplant patients experiencing delayed graft function postoperatively (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics and PRECAUTIONS: Patients with Renal Impairment ). No data are available for cardiac or hepatic transplant patients with severe chronic renal impairment. CellCept may be used for cardiac or hepatic transplant patients with severe chronic renal impairment if the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks. If neutropenia develops (ANC <1.3 × 103/µL), dosing with CellCept should be interrupted or the dose reduced, appropriate diagnostic tests performed, and the patient managed appropriately (see WARNINGS: Neutropenia , ADVERSE REACTIONS, and PRECAUTIONS: Laboratory Tests ).
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Studies in rats treated with mycophenolate mofetil have shown mycophenolic acid to be excreted in milk. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from mycophenolate mofetil, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Drug interaction studies with mycophenolate mofetil have been conducted with acyclovir, antacids, cholestyramine, cyclosporine, ganciclovir, oral contraceptives, sevelamer, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, and metronidazole. Drug interaction studies have not been conducted with other drugs that may be commonly administered to renal, cardiac or hepatic transplant patients. CellCept has not been administered concomitantly with azathioprine. Acyclovir Coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g) and acyclovir (800 mg) to 12 healthy volunteers resulted in no significant change in MPA AUC and Cmax. However, MPAG and acyclovir plasma AUCs were increased 10.6% and 21.9%, respectively. Because MPAG plasma concentrations are increased in the presence of renal impairment, as are acyclovir concentrations, the potential exists for mycophenolate and acyclovir or its prodrug (eg, valacyclovir) to compete for tubular secretion, further increasing the concentrations of both drugs. Antacids With Magnesium and Aluminum Hydroxides Absorption of a single dose of mycophenolate mofetil (2 g) was decreased when administered to ten rheumatoid arthritis patients also taking Maalox® TC (10 mL qid). The Cmax and AUC(0-24h) for MPA were 33% and 17% lower, respectively, than when mycophenolate mofetil was administered alone under fasting conditions. CellCept may be administered to patients who are also taking antacids containing magnesium and aluminum hydroxides; however, it is recommended that CellCept and the antacid not be administered simultaneously. Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) Coadministration of PPIs (e.g., lansoprazole, pantoprazole) in single doses to healthy volunteers and multiple doses to transplant patients receiving CellCept has been reported to reduce the exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA). An approximate reduction of 30 to 70% in the Cmax and 25% to 35% in the AUC of MPA has been observed, possibly due to a decrease in MPA solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical impact of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving PPIs and CellCept. Because clinical relevance has not been established, PPIs should be used with caution when coadministered to transplant patients being treated with CellCept. Cholestyramine Following single-dose administration of 1.5 g mycophenolate mofetil to 12 healthy volunteers pretreated with 4 g tid of cholestyramine for 4 days, MPA AUC decreased approximately 40%. This decrease is consistent with interruption of enterohepatic recirculation which may be due to binding of recirculating MPAG with cholestyramine in the intestine. Some degree of enterohepatic recirculation is also anticipated following intravenous administration of CellCept. Therefore, CellCept is not recommended to be given with cholestyramine or other agents that may interfere with enterohepatic recirculation. Cyclosporine Cyclosporine (Sandimmune®) pharmacokinetics (at doses of 275 to 415 mg/day) were unaffected by single and multiple doses of 1.5 g bid of mycophenolate mofetil in 10 stable renal transplant patients. The mean (±SD) AUC(0-12h) and Cmax of cyclosporine after 14 days of multiple doses of mycophenolate mofetil were 3290 (±822) ng∙h/mL and 753 (±161) ng/mL, respectively, compared to 3245 (±1088) ng∙h/mL and 700 (±246) ng/mL, respectively, 1 week before administration of mycophenolate mofetil. Cyclosporine A interferes with MPA enterohepatic recirculation. In renal transplant patients, mean MPA exposure (AUC0-12h) was approximately 30-50% greater when mycophenolate mofetil is administered without cyclosporine compared with when mycophenolate mofetil is coadministered with cyclosporine. This interaction is due to cyclosporine inhibition of multidrug-resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2) transporter in the biliary tract, thereby preventing the excretion of MPAG into the bile that would lead to enterohepatic recirculation of MPA. This information should be taken into consideration when MMF is used without cyclosporine; changes in MPA exposure should be expected when switching patients from cyclosporine A to one of the immunosuppressants which do not interfere with MPA's enterohepatic cycle (e.g., tacrolimus; belatacept). Telmisartan Concommitant administration of telmisartan and CellCept resulted in an approximately 30% decrease in mycophenolic acid (MPA) concentrations. Telmisartan changes MPA's elimination by enhancing PPAR gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) expression, which in turn results in an enhanced UGT1A9 expression and activity. Ganciclovir Following single-dose administration to 12 stable renal transplant patients, no pharmacokinetic interaction was observed between mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g) and intravenous ganciclovir (5 mg/kg). Mean (±SD) ganciclovir AUC and Cmax (n=10) were 54.3 (±19.0) µg∙h/mL and 11.5 (±1.8) µg/mL, respectively, after coadministration of the two drugs, compared to 51.0 (±17.0) µg∙h/mL and 10.6 (±2.0) µg/mL, respectively, after administration of intravenous ganciclovir alone. The mean (±SD) AUC and Cmax of MPA (n=12) after coadministration were 80.9 (±21.6) µg∙h/mL and 27.8 (±13.9) µg/mL, respectively, compared to values of 80.3 (±16.4) µg∙h/mL and 30.9 (±11.2) µg/mL, respectively, after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone. Because MPAG plasma concentrations are increased in the presence of renal impairment, as are ganciclovir concentrations, the two drugs will compete for tubular secretion and thus further increases in concentrations of both drugs may occur. In patients with renal impairment in which MMF and ganciclovir or its prodrug (eg, valganciclovir) are coadministered, patients should be monitored carefully. Oral Contraceptives A study of coadministration of CellCept (1 g bid) and combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (0.02 mg to 0.04 mg) and levonorgestrel (0.05 mg to 0.20 mg), desogestrel (0.15 mg) or gestodene (0.05 mg to 0.10 mg) was conducted in 18 women with psoriasis over 3 consecutive menstrual cycles. Mean AUC(0-24h) was similar for ethinylestradiol and 3-keto desogestrel; however, mean levonorgestrel AUC(0-24h) significantly decreased by about 15%. There was large inter-patient variability (%CV in the range of 60% to 70%) in the data, especially for ethinylestradiol. Mean serum levels of LH, FSH and progesterone were not significantly affected. CellCept may not have any influence on the ovulation-suppressing action of the studied oral contraceptives. It is recommended to coadminister CellCept with hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pill, transdermal patch, vaginal ring, injection, and implant) with caution and additional barrier contraceptive methods must be used (see PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy Exposure Prevention and Planning ). Sevelamer Concomitant administration of sevelamer and mycophenolate mofetil in adult and pediatric patients decreased the mean MPA Cmax and AUC0-12h by 36% and 26% respectively. This data suggest that sevelamer and other calcium free phosphate binders should not be administered simultaneously with CellCept. Alternatively, it is recommended that sevelamer and other calcium free phosphate binders preferentially could be given 2 hours after CellCept intake to minimize the impact on the absorption of MPA. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole Following single-dose administration of mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g) to 12 healthy male volunteers on day 8 of a 10 day course of trimethoprim 160 mg/sulfamethoxazole 800 mg administered bid, no effect on the bioavailability of MPA was observed. The mean (±SD) AUC and Cmax of MPA after concomitant administration were 75.2 (±19.8) µg∙h/mL and 34.0 (±6.6) µg/mL, respectively, compared to 79.2 (±27.9) µg∙h/mL and 34.2 (±10.7) µg/mL, respectively, after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone. Norfloxacin and Metronidazole Following single-dose administration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g) to 11 healthy volunteers on day 4 of a 5 day course of a combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole, the mean MPA AUC0-48h was significantly reduced by 33% compared to the administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone (p<0.05). Therefore, CellCept is not recommended to be given with the combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole. There was no significant effect on mean MPA AUC0-48h when mycophenolate mofetil was concomitantly administered with norfloxacin or metronidazole separately. The mean (±SD) MPA AUC0-48h after coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil with norfloxacin or metronidazole separately was 48.3 (±24) µg∙h/mL and 42.7 (±23) µg∙h/mL, respectively, compared with 56.2 (±24) µg∙h/mL after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone. Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin plus Clavulanic Acid A total of 64 CellCept-treated renal transplant recipients received either oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg bid or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid 375 mg tid for 7 or at least 14 days. Approximately 50% reductions in median trough MPA concentrations (pre-dose) from baseline (CellCept alone) were observed in 3 days following commencement of oral ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. These reductions in trough MPA concentrations tended to diminish within 14 days of antibiotic therapy and ceased within 3 days after discontinuation of antibiotics. The postulated mechanism for this interaction is an antibiotic-induced reduction in glucuronidase-possessing enteric organisms leading to a decrease in enterohepatic recirculation of MPA. The change in trough level may not accurately represent changes in overall MPA exposure; therefore, clinical relevance of these observations is unclear. Rifampin In a single heart-lung transplant patient, after correction for dose, a 67% decrease in MPA exposure (AUC0-12h) has been observed with concomitant administration of mycophenolate mofetil and rifampin. Therefore, CellCept is not recommended to be given with rifampin concomitantly unless the benefit outweighs the risk. Other Interactions The measured value for renal clearance of MPAG indicates removal occurs by renal tubular secretion as well as glomerular filtration. Consistent with this, coadministration of probenecid, a known inhibitor of tubular secretion, with mycophenolate mofetil in monkeys results in a 3-fold increase in plasma MPAG AUC and a 2-fold increase in plasma MPA AUC. Thus, other drugs known to undergo renal tubular secretion may compete with MPAG and thereby raise plasma concentrations of MPAG or the other drug undergoing tubular secretion. Drugs that alter the gastrointestinal flora may interact with mycophenolate mofetil by disrupting enterohepatic recirculation. Interference of MPAG hydrolysis may lead to less MPA available for absorption. Live Vaccines During treatment with CellCept, the use of live attenuated vaccines should be avoided and patients should be advised that vaccinations may be less effective (see PRECAUTIONS: Immunizations ). Influenza vaccination may be of value. Prescribers should refer to national guidelines for influenza vaccination.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA050722
Agency product number 9242ECW6R0
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0004-0260,0004-0259,0004-0261,0004-0298
Date Last Revised 26-12-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 311881
Storage and handling Storage Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).
Marketing authorisation holder Genentech, Inc.
Warnings WARNING: EMBRYOFETAL TOXICITY, MALIGNANCIES AND SERIOUS INFECTIONS Use during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of first trimester pregnancy loss and congenital malformations. Females of reproductive potential (FRP) must be counseled regarding pregnancy prevention and planning (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS). Immunosuppression may lead to increased susceptibility to infection and possible development of lymphoma. Only physicians experienced in immunosuppressive therapy and management of renal, cardiac or hepatic transplant patients should prescribe CellCept. Patients receiving the drug should be managed in facilities equipped and staffed with adequate laboratory and supportive medical resources. The physician responsible for maintenance therapy should have complete information requisite for the follow-up of the patient (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).