Data from FDA - Curated by Toby Galbraith - Last updated 09 October 2017

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Before instituting treatment with Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP appropriate specimens should be obtained for isolation of the causative organism and for determination of its susceptibility to the drug. Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining results of susceptibility testing. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP is indicated for the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible organisms: LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis or Serratia marcescens. ACUTE BACTERIAL OTITIS MEDIA caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase producing strains) or Moraxella catarrhalis (including beta-lactamase producing strains). NOTE: In one study lower clinical cure rates were observed with a single dose of Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP compared to 10 days of oral therapy. In a second study comparable cure rates were observed between single dose Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP and the comparator. The potentially lower clinical cure rate of Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP should be balanced against the potential advantages of parenteral therapy (see CLINICAL STUDIES ). SKIN AND SKIN STRUCTURE INFECTIONS caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Viridans group streptococci, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Bacteroides fragilis or Peptostreptococcus species. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS (complicated and uncomplicated) caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii or Klebsiella pneumoniae. UNCOMPLICATED GONORRHEA (cervical/urethral and rectal) caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including both penicillinase and nonpenicillinase-producing strains, and pharyngeal gonorrhea caused by nonpenicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP like other cephalosporins, has no activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Therefore, when cephalosporins are used in the treatment of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the suspected pathogens, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added. BACTERIAL SEPTICEMIA caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae or Klebsiella pneumoniae. BONE AND JOINT INFECTIONS caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Enterobacter species. INTRA-ABDOMINAL INFECTIONS caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium species (Note: most strains of Clostridium difficile are resistant) or Peptostreptococcus species. MENINGITIS caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP has also been used successfully in a limited number of cases of meningitis and shunt infection caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis Efficacy for this organism in this organ system was studied in fewer than ten infections. and Escherichia coli. SURGICAL PROPHYLAXIS The preoperative administration of a single 1 gm dose of Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP may reduce the incidence of postoperative infections in patients undergoing surgical procedures classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated (e.g., vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy or cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis in high-risk patients, such as those over 70 years of age, with acute cholecystitis not requiring therapeutic antimicrobials, obstructive jaundice or common duct bile stones) and in surgical patients for whom infection at the operative site would present serious risk (e.g., during coronary artery bypass surgery). Although Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP has been shown to have been as effective as cefazolin in the prevention of infection following coronary artery bypass surgery, no placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to evaluate any cephalosporin antibiotic in the prevention of infection following coronary artery bypass surgery. When administered prior to surgical procedures for which it is indicated, a single 1 gm dose of Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP provides protection from most infections due to susceptible organisms throughout the course of the procedure.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Hypersensitivity Ceftriaxone for injection is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to ceftriaxone, any of its excipients or to any other cephalosporin. Patients with previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin and other beta lactam antibacterial agents may be at greater risk of hypersensitivity to ceftriaxone (see WARNINGS - Hypersensitivity ). Neonates Premature neonates Ceftriaxone for injection is contraindicated in premature neonates up to a postmenstrual age of 41 weeks (gestational age + chronological age). Hyperbilirubinemic neonates Hyperbilirubinemic neonates should not be treated with Ceftriaxone for injection. Ceftriaxone can displace bilirubin from its binding to serum albumin, leading to a risk of bilirubin encephalopathy in these patients. Neonates Requiring Calcium Containing IV Solutions Ceftriaxone for injection is contraindicated in neonates (≤28 days) if they require (or are expected to require) treatment with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition because of the risk of precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Cases of fatal outcomes in which a crystalline material was observed in the lungs and kidneys at autopsy have been reported in neonates receiving ceftriaxone for injection and calcium-containing fluids. In some of these cases, the same intravenous infusion line was used for both ceftriaxone for injection and calcium-containing fluids and in some a precipitate was observed in the intravenous infusion line. There have been no similar reports in patients other than neonates. Lidocaine Intravenous administration of ceftriaxone solutions containing lidocaine is contraindicated. When lidocaine solution is used as a solvent with ceftriaxone for intramuscular injection, exclude all contraindications to lidocaine. Refer to the prescribing information of lidocaine.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS Development of Drug-resistant Bacteria Prescribing ceftriaxone for injection in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Prolonged use of Ceftriaxone for injection may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken. Patients with Renal or Hepatic Impairment Ceftriaxone is excreted via both biliary and renal excretion (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ). Therefore, patients with renal failure normally require no adjustment in dosage when usual doses of ceftriaxone for injection are administered. Dosage adjustments should not be necessary in patients with hepatic dysfunction; however, in patients with both hepatic dysfunction and significant renal disease, caution should be exercised and the ceftriaxone for injection dosage should not exceed 2 gm daily. Ceftriaxone is not removed by peritoneal- or hemodialysis. In patients undergoing dialysis no additional supplementary dosing is required following the dialysis. In patients with both severe renal and hepatic dysfunction, close clinical monitoring for safety and efficacy is advised. Effect on Prothrombin Time Alterations in prothrombin times have occurred in patients treated with ceftriaxone for injection. Monitor prothrombin time during ceftriaxone for injection treatment in patients with impaired vitamin K synthesis or low vitamin K stores (eg, chronic hepatic disease and malnutrition). Vitamin K administration (10 mg weekly) may be necessary if the prothrombin time is prolonged before or during therapy. Concomitant use of ceftriaxone with Vitamin K antagonists may increase the risk of bleeding. Coagulation parameters should be monitored frequently, and the dose of the anticoagulant adjusted accordingly, both during and after treatment with ceftriaxone (see ADVERSE REACTIONS ). Gallbladder Pseudolithiasis Ceftriaxone-calcium precipitates in the gallbladder have been observed in patients receiving Ceftriaxone for injection. These precipitates appear on sonography as an echo without acoustical shadowing suggesting sludge or as an echo with acoustical shadowing which may be misinterpreted as gallstones. The probability of such precipitates appears to be greatest in pediatric patients. Patients may be asymptomatic or may develop symptoms of gallbladder disease. The condition appears to be reversible upon discontinuation of ceftriaxone sodium and institution of conservative management. Discontinue ceftriaxone sodium in patients who develop signs and symptoms suggestive of gallbladder disease and/or the sonographic findings described above. Urolithiasis and Post-Renal Acute Renal Failure Ceftriaxone-calcium precipitates in the urinary tract have been observed in patients receiving Ceftriaxone for injection and may be detected as sonographic abnormalities. The probability of such precipitates appears to be greatest in pediatric patients. Patients may be asymptomatic or may develop symptoms of urolithiasis, and ureteral obstruction and post-renal acute renal failure. The condition appears to be reversible upon discontinuation of ceftriaxone sodium and institution of appropriate management. Ensure adequate hydration in patients receiving Ceftriaxone for injection. Discontinue Ceftriaxone for injection in patients who develop signs and symptoms suggestive of urolithiasis, oliguria or renal failure and/or the sonographic findings described above. Pancreatitis Cases of pancreatitis, possibly secondary to biliary obstruction, have been reported in patients treated with ceftriaxone for injection. Most patients presented with risk factors for biliary stasis and biliary sludge (preceding major therapy, severe illness, total parenteral nutrition). A cofactor role of ceftriaxone for injection related biliary precipitation cannot be ruled out. Information for Patients Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including ceftriaxone for injection should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., common cold). When ceftriaxone for injection is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by ceftriaxone for injection or other antibacterial drugs in the future. Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis Considering the maximum duration of treatment and the class of the compound, carcinogenicity studies with ceftriaxone in animals have not been performed. The maximum duration of animal toxicity studies was 6 months. Mutagenesis Genetic toxicology tests included the Ames test, a micronucleus test and a test for chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes cultured in vitro with ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone showed no potential for mutagenic activity in these studies. Impairment of Fertility Ceftriaxone produced no impairment of fertility when given intravenously to rats at daily doses up to 586 mg/kg/day, approximately 20 times the recommended clinical dose of 2 gm/day. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category B Reproductive studies have been performed in mice and rats at doses up to 20 times the usual human dose and have no evidence of embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity or teratogenicity. In primates, no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was demonstrated at a dose approximately 3 times the human dose. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nonteratogenic Effects In rats, in the Segment I (fertility and general reproduction) and Segment III (perinatal and postnatal) studies with intravenously administered ceftriaxone, no adverse effects were noted on various reproductive parameters during gestation and lactation, including postnatal growth, functional behavior and reproductive ability of the offspring, at doses of 586 mg/kg/day or less. Nursing Mothers Low concentrations of ceftriaxone are excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when ceftriaxone for injection is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of ceftriaxone for injection in neonates, infants and pediatric patients have been established for the dosages described in the DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section. In vitro studies have shown that ceftriaxone, like some other cephalosporins, can displace bilirubin from serum albumin. Ceftriaxone for injection should not be administered to hyperbilirubinemic neonates, especially prematures (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ). Geriatric Use Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of ceftriaxone for injection, 32% were 60 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. The pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were only minimally altered in geriatric patients compared to healthy adult subjects and dosage adjustments are not necessary for geriatric patients with ceftriaxone dosages up to 2 grams per day provided there is no severe renal and hepatic impairment. (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ). Influence on Diagnostic Tests In patients treated with Ceftriaxone for injection the Coombs' test may become positive. Ceftriaxone for injection, like other antibacterial drugs, may result in positive test results for galactosemia. Nonenzymatic methods for the glucose determination in urine may give false-positive results. For this reason, urine-glucose determination during therapy with Ceftriaxone for injection should be done enzymatically. The presence of ceftriaxone may falsely lower estimated blood glucose values obtained with some blood glucose monitoring systems. Please refer to instructions for use for each system. Alternative testing methods should be used if necessary.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Ceftriaxone for injection is generally well tolerated. In clinical trials, the following adverse reactions, which were considered to be related to ceftriaxone for injection therapy or of uncertain etiology, were observed: LOCAL REACTIONS - pain, induration and tenderness was 1% overall. Phlebitis was reported in <1% after IV administration. GENERAL DISORDERS AND ADMINISTRATION SITE CONDITIONS - injection site pain (0.6%). HYPERSENSITIVITY - rash (1.7%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were pruritus, fever or chills. INFECTIONS AND INFESTATIONS - genital fungal infection (0.1%). HEMATOLOGIC - eosinophilia (6%), thrombocytosis (5.1%) and leukopenia (2.1%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were anemia, hemolytic anemia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and prolongation of the prothrombin time. BLOOD AND LYMPHATIC DISORDERS - granulocytopenia (0.9%), coagulopathy (0.4%). GASTROINTESTINAL - diarrhea/loose stools (2.7%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were nausea or vomiting, and dysgeusia. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS ). HEPATIC - elevations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (3.1%) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (3.3%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were elevations of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. RENAL - elevations of the BUN (1.2%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were elevations of creatinine and the presence of casts in the urine. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - headache or dizziness were reported occasionally (<1%). GENITOURINARY - moniliasis or vaginitis were reported occasionally (<1%). MISCELLANEOUS - diaphoresis and flushing were reported occasionally (<1%). INVESTIGATIONS - blood creatinine increased (0.6%). Other rarely observed adverse reactions (<0.1%) include abdominal pain, agranulocytosis, allergic pneumonitis, anaphylaxis, basophilia, biliary lithiasis, bronchospasm, colitis, dyspepsia, epistaxis, flatulence, gallbladder sludge, glycosuria, hematuria, jaundice, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis, nephrolithiasis, palpitations, a decrease in the prothrombin time, renal precipitations, seizures, and serum sickness. Postmarketing Experience In addition to the adverse reactions reported during clinical trials, the following adverse experiences have been reported during clinical practice in patients treated with ceftriaxone for injection. Data are generally insufficient to allow an estimate of incidence or to establish causation. A small number of cases of fatal outcomes in which a crystalline material was observed in the lungs and kidneys at autopsy have been reported in neonates receiving ceftriaxone for injection and calcium-containing fluids. In some of these cases, the same intravenous infusion line was used for both ceftriaxone for injection and calcium-containing fluids and in some a precipitate was observed in the intravenous infusion line. At least one fatality has been reported in a neonate in whom ceftriaxone for injection and calcium-containing fluids were administered at different time points via different intravenous lines; no crystalline material was observed at autopsy in this neonate. There have been no similar reports in patients other than neonates. GASTROINTESTINAL - pancreatitis, stomatitis and glossitis. GENITOURINARY - oliguria, ureteric obstruction, post-renal acute renal failure. DERMATOLOGIC - exanthema, allergic dermatitis, urticaria, edema; acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and isolated cases of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Lyell's syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis) have been reported. HEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES: Isolated cases of agranulocytosis (<500/mm3) have been reported, most of them after 10 days of treatment and following total doses of 20 g or more. NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS: convulsion OTHER, Adverse Reactions: symptomatic precipitation of ceftriaxone calcium salt in the gallbladder, kernicterus, oliguria, and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions. Cephalosporin Class Adverse Reactions In addition to the adverse reactions listed above which have been observed in patients treated with ceftriaxone, the following adverse reactions and altered laboratory test results have been reported for cephalosporin class antibiotics: Adverse Reactions Allergic reactions, drug fever, serum sickness-like reaction, renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy, reversible hyperactivity, hypertonia, hepatic dysfunction including cholestasis, aplastic anemia, hemorrhage, and superinfection. Altered Laboratory Tests Positive direct Coombs' test, false-positive test for urinary glucose, and elevated LDH (see PRECAUTIONS ). Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment when the dosage was not reduced (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). If seizures associated with drug therapy occur, the drug should be discontinued. Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Ceftriaxone for injection may be administered intravenously. Ceftriaxone for injection should be administered intravenously by infusion over a period of 30 minutes. Do not use diluents containing calcium, such as Ringer's solution or Hartmann's solution, to reconstitute ceftriaxone for injection vials or to further dilute a reconstituted vial for IV administration because a precipitate can form. Precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium can also occur when ceftriaxone for injection is mixed with calcium-containing solutions in the same IV administration line. Ceftriaxone for injection must not be administered simultaneously with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition via a Y-site. However, in patients other than neonates, ceftriaxone for injection and calcium-containing solutions may be administered sequentially of one another if the infusion lines are thoroughly flushed between infusions with a compatible fluid (see WARNINGS ). There have been no reports of an interaction between ceftriaxone and oral calcium-containing products or interaction between intramuscular ceftriaxone and calcium-containing products (IV or oral). NEONATES Hyperbilirubinemic neonates, especially prematures, should not be treated with ceftriaxone for injection. Ceftriaxone for injection is contraindicated in premature neonates (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ). Ceftriaxone for injection is contraindicated in neonates (≤28 days) if they require (or are expected to require) treatment with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition because of the risk of precipitation of ceftriaxone- calcium (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ). Intravenous doses should be given over 60 minutes in neonates to reduce the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. PEDIATRIC PATIENTS For the treatment of skin and skin structure infections, the recommended total daily dose is 50 to 75 mg/kg given once a day (or in equally divided doses twice a day). The total daily dose should not exceed 2 grams. For the treatment of serious miscellaneous infections other than meningitis, the recommended total daily dose is 50 to 75 mg/kg, given in divided doses every 12 hours. The total daily dose should not exceed 2 grams. In the treatment of meningitis, it is recommended that the initial therapeutic dose be 100 mg/kg (not to exceed 4 grams). Thereafter, a total daily dose of 100 mg/kg/day (not to exceed 4 grams daily) is recommended. The daily dose may be administered once a day (or in equally divided doses every 12 hours). The usual duration of therapy is 7 to 14 days. ADULTS The usual adult daily dose is 1 to 2 grams given once a day (or in equally divided doses twice a day) depending on the type and severity of infection. The total daily dose should not exceed 4 grams. If Chlamydia trachomatis is a suspected pathogen, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added, because ceftriaxone sodium has no activity against this organism. For preoperative use (surgical prophylaxis), a single dose of 1 gram administered intravenously 1/2 to 2 hours before surgery is recommended. Generally, ceftriaxone for injection therapy should be continued for at least 2 days after the signs and symptoms of infection have disappeared. The usual duration of therapy is 4 to 14 days; in complicated infections, longer therapy may be required. When treating infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, therapy should be continued for at least 10 days. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with impairment of renal or hepatic function (see PRECAUTIONS ). The dosages recommended for adults require no modification in elderly patients, up to 2 gm per day, provided there is no severe renal and hepatic impairment (see PRECAUTIONS ).
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Low concentrations of ceftriaxone are excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when ceftriaxone for injection is administered to a nursing woman.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA065232
Agency product number 023Z5BR09K
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 60505-6103
Date Last Revised 21-09-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 309090
Storage and handling Storage Prior to Reconstitution Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light.
Marketing authorisation holder Apotex Corporation