Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 01 June 2018

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Cefpodoxime proxetil is indicated for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below. Recommended dosages, durations of therapy, and applicable patient populations vary among these infections. Please see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for specific recommendations. Acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (excluding penicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase-producing strains), or Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis (including beta-lactamase producing strains). Pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. NOTE: Only penicillin by the intramuscular route of administration has been shown to be effective in the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever. Cefpodoxime proxetil is generally effective in the eradication of streptococci from the oropharynx. However, data establishing the efficacy of cefpodoxime proxetil for the prophylaxis of subsequent rheumatic fever are not available. Community-acquired pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae or H. Influenzae (including beta-lactamase-producing strains). Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae (non-beta-lactamase-producing strains only), or M. catarrhalis. Data are insufficient at this time to establish efficacy in patients with acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by beta-lactamase-producing strains of H. influenzae. Acute, uncomplicated urethral and cervical gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including penicillinase-producing strains). Acute, uncomplicated ano-rectal infections in women due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including penicillinase-producing strains). NOTE: The efficacy of cefpodoxime in treating male patients with rectal infections caused by N. gonorrhoeae has not been established. Data do not support the use of cefpodoxime proxetil in the treatment of pharyngeal infections due to N. gonorrhoeae in men or women. Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase-producing strains) or Streptococcus pyogenes. Abscesses should be surgically drained as clinically indicated. NOTE: In clinical trials, successful treatment of uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections was dose-related. The effective therapeutic dose for skin infections was higher than those used in other recommended indications. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .) Acute maxillary sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase-producing strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (cystitis) caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, or Staphylococcus saprophyticus. NOTE: In considering the use of cefpodoxime proxetil in the treatment of cystitis, cefpodoxime proxetil’s lower bacterial eradication rates should be weighed against the increased eradication rates and different safety profiles of some other classes of approved agents. (See CLINICAL STUDIES section.) Appropriate specimens for bacteriological examination should be obtained in order to isolate and identify causative organisms and to determine their susceptibility to cefpodoxime. Therapy may be instituted while awaiting the results of these studies. Once these results become available, antimicrobial therapy should be adjusted accordingly. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of cefpodoxime proxetil and other antibacterial drugs, cefpodoxime proxetil should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Cefpodoxime proxetil is contraindicated in patients with a known allergy to cefpodoxime or to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General: In patients with transient or persistent reduction in urinary output due to renal insufficiency, the total daily dose of cefpodoxime proxetil should be reduced because high and prolonged serum antibiotic concentrations can occur in such individuals following usual doses. Cefpodoxime, like other cephalosporins, should be administered with caution to patients receiving concurrent treatment with potent diuretics. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .) As with other antibiotics, prolonged use of cefpodoxime proxetil may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms. Repeated evaluation of the patient’s condition is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken. Prescribing cefpodoxime proxetil in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Information for Patients: Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including cefpodoxime proxetil should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When cefpodoxime proxetil is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by cefpodoxime proxetil or other antibacterial drugs in the future. Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible. Drug Interactions: Antacids: Concomitant administration of high doses of antacids (sodium bicarbonate and aluminum hydroxide) or H2 blockers reduces peak plasma levels by 24% to 42% and the extent of absorption by 27% to 32%, respectively. The rate of absorption is not altered by these concomitant medications. Oral anti-cholinergics (e.g., propantheline) delay peak plasma levels (47% increase in Tmax), but do not affect the extent of absorption (AUC). Probenecid: As with other beta-lactam antibiotics, renal excretion of cefpodoxime was inhibited by probenecid and resulted in an approximately 31% increase in AUC and 20% increase in peak cefpodoxime plasma levels. Nephrotoxic drugs: Although nephrotoxicity has not been noted when cefpodoxime proxetil was given alone, close monitoring of renal function is advised when cefpodoxime proxetil is administered concomitantly with compounds of known nephrotoxic potential. Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions: Cephalosporins, including cefpodoxime proxetil, are known to occasionally induce a positive direct Coombs’ test. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: Long-term animal carcinogenesis studies of cefpodoxime proxetil have not been performed. Mutagenesis studies of cefpodoxime, including the Ames test both with and without metabolic activation, the chromosome aberration test, the unscheduled DNA synthesis assay, mitotic recombination and gene conversion, the forward gene mutation assay and the in vivo micronucleus test, were all negative. No untoward effects on fertility or reproduction were noted when 100 mg/kg/day or less (2 times the human dose based on mg/m2) was administered orally to rats. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B Cefpodoxime proxetil was neither teratogenic nor embryocidal when administered to rats during organogenesis at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (2 times the human dose based on mg/m2) or to rabbits at doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (1 to 2 times the human dose based on mg/m2). There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies of cefpodoxime proxetil use in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Labor and Delivery: Cefpodoxime proxetil has not been studied for use during labor and delivery. Treatment should only be given if clearly needed. Nursing Mothers: Cefpodoxime is excreted in human milk. In a study of 3 lactating women, levels of cefpodoxime in human milk were 0%, 2% and 6% of concomitant serum levels at 4 hours following a 200 mg oral dose of cefpodoxime proxetil. At 6 hours post-dosing, levels were 0%, 9% and 16% of concomitant serum levels. Because of the potential for serious reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use: Safety and efficacy in infants less than 2 months of age have not been established. Geriatric Use: Of the 3338 patients in multiple-dose clinical studies of cefpodoxime proxetil film-coated tablets, 521 (16%) were 65 and over, while 214 (6%) were 75 and over. No overall differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between the elderly and younger patients. In healthy geriatric subjects with normal renal function, cefpodoxime half-life in plasma averaged 4.2 hours and urinary recovery averaged 21% after a 400 mg dose was given every 12 hours for 15 days. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were unchanged relative to those observed in healthy younger subjects. Dose adjustment in elderly patients with normal renal function is not necessary.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Clinical Trials: In clinical trials using multiple doses of cefpodoxime proxetil granules for oral suspension, 2128 pediatric patients (93% of whom were less than 12 years of age) were treated with the recommended dosages of cefpodoxime (10 mg/kg/day Q 24 hours or divided Q 12 hours to a maximum equivalent adult dose). There were no deaths or permanent disabilities in any of the patients in these studies. Twenty-four patients (1.1%) discontinued medication due to adverse events thought possibly or probably related to study drug. Primarily, these discontinuations were for gastrointestinal disturbances, usually diarrhea, vomiting, or rashes. Adverse events thought possibly or probably related, or of unknown relationship to cefpodoxime proxetil for oral suspension in multiple dose clinical trials (N=2128 patients treated with cefpodoxime) were: Incidence Greater Than 1%: Diarrhea 6% The incidence of diarrhea in infants and toddlers (age 1 month to 2 years) was 12.8%. Diaper rash/Fungal skin rash 2% (includes moniliasis) The incidence of diaper rash in infants and toddlers was 8.5%. Other skin rashes 1.8% Vomiting 2.3% Incidence Less Than 1%: Body: Localized abdominal pain, abdominal cramp, headache, monilia, generalized abdominal pain, asthenia, fever, fungal infection. Digestive: Nausea, monilia, anorexia, dry mouth, stomatitis, pseudomembranous colitis. Hemic & Lymphatic: Thrombocythemia, positive direct Coombs’ test, eosinophilia, leukocytosis, leukopenia, prolonged partial thromboplastin time, thrombocytopenic purpura. Metabolic & Nutritional: Increased SGPT. Musculo-Skeletal: Myalgia. Nervous: Hallucination, hyperkinesia, nervousness, somnolence. Respiratory: Epistaxis, rhinitis. Skin: Skin moniliasis, urticaria, fungal dermatitis, acne, exfoliative dermatitis, maculopapular rash. Special Senses: Taste perversion. Laboratory Changes Significant laboratory changes that have been reported in adult and pediatric patients in clinical trials of cefpodoxime proxetil, without regard to drug relationship, were: Hepatic: Transient increases in AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), GGT, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and LDH. Hematologic: Eosinophilia, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, granulocytosis, basophilia, monocytosis, thrombocytosis, decreased hemoglobin, decreased hematocrit, leukopenia, neutropenia, lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocythemia, positive Coombs’ test, and prolonged PT, and PTT. Serum Chemistry: Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, hyperkalemia, and hyponatremia. Renal: Increases in BUN and creatinine. Most of these abnormalities were transient and not clinically significant. Post-marketing Experience: The following serious adverse experiences have been reported: allergic reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme and serum sickness-like reactions, pseudomembranous colitis, bloody diarrhea with abdominal pain, ulcerative colitis, rectorrhagia with hypotension, anaphylactic shock, acute liver injury, in utero exposure with miscarriage, purpuric nephritis, pulmonary infiltrate with eosinophilia, and eyelid dermatitis. One death was attributed to pseudomembranous colitis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Cephalosporin Class Labeling: In addition to the adverse reactions listed above which have been observed in patients treated with cefpodoxime proxetil, the following adverse reactions and altered laboratory tests have been reported for cephalosporin class antibiotics: Adverse Reactions and Abnormal Laboratory Tests: Renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy, hepatic dysfunction including cholestasis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, serum sickness-like reaction, hemorrhage, agranulocytosis, and pancytopenia. Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment when the dosage was not reduced. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and OVERDOSAGE .) If seizures associated with drug therapy occur, the drug should be discontinued. Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (See INDICATIONS AND USAGE for indicated pathogens.) Cefpodoxime proxetil for oral suspension may be given without regard to food. The recommended dosages, durations of treatment, and applicable patient populations are as described in the following chart: Adults and Adolescents (age 12 years and older): Type of Infection Total Daily Dose Dose Frequency Duration Pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis 200 mg 100 mg Q 12 hours 5 to 10 days Acute community-acquired pneumonia 400 mg 200 mg Q 12 hours 14 days Uncomplicated gonorrhea (men and women) and rectal gonococcal infections (women) 200 mg single dose Skin and skin structure 800 mg 400 mg Q 12 hours 7 to 14 days Acute maxillary sinusitis 400 mg 200 mg Q 12 hours 10 days Uncomplicated urinary tract infection 200 mg 100 mg Q 12 hours 7 days Infants and Pediatric Patients (age 2 months through 12 years): Type of Infection Total Daily Dose Dose Frequency Duration Acute otitis media 10 mg/kg/day (Max 400 mg/day) 5 mg/kg Q 12 h (Max 200 mg/dose) 5 days Pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis 10 mg/kg/day (Max 200 mg/day) 5 mg/kg/dose Q 12 h (Max 100 mg/dose) 5 to 10 days Acute maxillary sinusitis 10 mg/kg/day (Max 400 mg/day) 5 mg/kg Q 12 hours (Max 200 mg/dose) 10 days Patients with Renal Dysfunction: For patients with severe renal impairment (<30 mL/min creatinine clearance), the dosing intervals should be increased to Q 24 hours. In patients maintained on hemodialysis, the dose frequency should be 3 times/week after hemodialysis. When only the serum creatinine level is available, the following formula (based on sex, weight, and age of the patient) may be used to estimate creatinine clearance (mL/min). For this estimate to be valid, the serum creatinine level should represent a steady state of renal function. Males: Weight (kg) x (140 - age) (mL/min) 72 x serum creatinine (mg/100 mL) Females: 0.85 x above value (mL/min) Patients with Cirrhosis: Cefpodoxime pharmacokinetics in cirrhotic patients (with or without ascites) are similar to those in healthy subjects. Dose adjustment is not necessary in this population. Directions for use: Before reconstitution, remove the desiccant capsule by pulling out two small rings, then discard. Preparation of Suspension: Constitution Directions For Oral Suspension Constituted Volume Final Concentration Directions 50 mL 50 mg per 5 mL Suspend in a total of 31 mL of distilled water. Method: First, shake the bottle to loosen granules. Then add the water in two approximately equal portions, shaking vigorously after each aliquot of water. 75 mL 50 mg per 5 mL Suspend in a total of 44 mL of distilled water. Method: First, shake the bottle to loosen granules. Then add the water in two approximately equal portions, shaking vigorously after each aliquot of water. 100 mL 50 mg per 5 mL Suspend in a total of 57 mL of distilled water. Method: First, shake the bottle to loosen granules. Then add the water in two approximately equal portions, shaking vigorously after each aliquot of water. 50 mL 100 mg per 5 mL Suspend in a total of 30 mL of distilled water. Method: First, shake the bottle to loosen granules. Then add the water in two approximately equal portions, shaking vigorously after each aliquot of water. 75 mL 100 mg per 5 mL Suspend in a total of 43 mL of distilled water. Method: First, shake the bottle to loosen granules. Then add the water in two approximately equal portions, shaking vigorously after each aliquot of water. 100 mL 100 mg per 5 mL Suspend in a total of 57 mL of distilled water. Method: First, shake the bottle to loosen granules. Then add the water in two approximately equal portions, shaking vigorously after each aliquot of water. After mixing, the suspension should be stored in a refrigerator, 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F). Shake well before using. Keep container tightly closed. The mixture may be used for 14 days. Discard unused portion after 14 days.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers: Cefpodoxime is excreted in human milk. In a study of 3 lactating women, levels of cefpodoxime in human milk were 0%, 2% and 6% of concomitant serum levels at 4 hours following a 200 mg oral dose of cefpodoxime proxetil. At 6 hours post-dosing, levels were 0%, 9% and 16% of concomitant serum levels. Because of the potential for serious reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Interactions

Drug Interactions: Antacids: Concomitant administration of high doses of antacids (sodium bicarbonate and aluminum hydroxide) or H2 blockers reduces peak plasma levels by 24% to 42% and the extent of absorption by 27% to 32%, respectively. The rate of absorption is not altered by these concomitant medications. Oral anti-cholinergics (e.g., propantheline) delay peak plasma levels (47% increase in Tmax), but do not affect the extent of absorption (AUC). Probenecid: As with other beta-lactam antibiotics, renal excretion of cefpodoxime was inhibited by probenecid and resulted in an approximately 31% increase in AUC and 20% increase in peak cefpodoxime plasma levels. Nephrotoxic drugs: Although nephrotoxicity has not been noted when cefpodoxime proxetil was given alone, close monitoring of renal function is advised when cefpodoxime proxetil is administered concomitantly with compounds of known nephrotoxic potential.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA065409
Agency product number 2TB00A1Z7N
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 65862-140,65862-141
Date Last Revised 03-05-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 309079
Marketing authorisation holder Aurobindo Pharma Limited