PRECAUTIONS 1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Patients should be counseled that this product does not protect against HIV infection (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases. 2. Physical Examination and Follow Up It is good medical practice for all women to have annual history and physical examinations, including women using oral contraceptives. The physical examination, however, may be deferred until after initiation of oral contraceptives if requested by the woman and judged appropriate by the clinician. The physical examination should include special reference to blood pressure, breasts, abdomen and pelvic organs, including cervical cytology, and relevant laboratory tests. In case of undiagnosed, persistent or recurrent abnormal vaginal bleeding, appropriate measures should be conducted to rule out malignancy. Women with a strong family history of breast cancer or who have breast nodules should be monitored with particular care. 3. Lipid Disorders Women who are being treated for hyperlipidemias should be followed closely if they elect to use oral contraceptives. Some progestogens may elevate LDL levels and may render the control of hyperlipidemias more difficult. In patients with familial defects of lipoprotein metabolism receiving estrogen-containing preparations, there have been case reports of significant elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis. 4. Liver Function If jaundice develops in any woman receiving oral contraceptives, the medication should be discontinued. The hormones in Caziant may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function. 5. Fluid Retention Oral contraceptives may cause some degree of fluid retention. They should be prescribed with caution, and only with careful monitoring, in patients with conditions which might be aggravated by fluid retention. 6. Emotional Disorders Patients becoming significantly depressed while taking oral contraceptives should stop the medication and use an alternate method of contraception in an attempt to determine whether the symptom is drug related. Women with a history of depression should be carefully observed and the drug discontinued if depression recurs to a serious degree. 7. Contact Lenses Contact lens wearers who develop visual changes or changes in lens tolerance should be assessed by an ophthalmologist. 8. Drug Interactions Changes in contraceptive effectiveness associated with coadministration of other drugs: a. Anti-infective agents and anticonvulsants Contraceptive effectiveness may be reduced when hormonal contraceptives are coadministered with some antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and other drugs that increase metabolism of contraceptive steroids. This could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. Examples include barbiturates, rifampin, phenylbutazone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, felbamate, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, and griseofulvin. Since desogestrel is mainly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 2C9 enzyme (CYP 2C9) to form etonogestrel, the active progestin, there is a possibility of interaction with CYP 2C9 substrates or inhibitors (such as: ibuprofen, piroxicam, naproxen, phenytoin, fluconazole, diclofenac, tolbutamide, glipizide, celecoxib, sulfamethoxazole, isoniazid, torsemide, irbesartan, losartan, and valsartan). The clinical relevance of these interactions is unknown. b. Anti-HIV protease inhibitors Several of the anti-HIV protease inhibitors have been studied with coadministration of oral combination hormonal contraceptives; significant changes (increase and decrease) in the plasma levels of the estrogen and progestin have been noted in some cases. The efficacy and safety of these oral contraceptive products may be affected with coadministration of anti-HIV protease inhibitors. Healthcare providers should refer to the label of the individual anti-HIV protease inhibitors for further drug-drug interaction information. Concomitant Use with HCV Combination Therapy – Liver Enzyme Elevation Do not co-administer Caziant (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets) with HCV drug combinations containing ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, due to potential for ALT elevations (see WARNINGS, Risk of Liver Enzyme Elevations with Concomitant Hepatitis C Treatment ). c. Herbal products Herbal products containing St. John’s Wort (hypericum perforatum) may induce hepatic enzymes (cytochrome P450) and p-glycoprotein transporter and may reduce the effectiveness of contraceptive steroids. This may also result in breakthrough bleeding. Increase in plasma hormone levels associated with coadministered drugs: Coadministration of atorvastatin and certain ethinyl estradiol containing oral contraceptives increased AUC values for ethinyl estradiol by approximately 20%. Ascorbic acid and acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol levels, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. CYP 3A4 inhibitors such as itraconazole or ketoconazole may increase plasma hormone levels. Changes in plasma levels of coadministered drugs: Combination hormonal contraceptives containing some synthetic estrogens (e.g., ethinyl estradiol) may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. Increased plasma concentrations of cyclosporine, prednisolone, and theophylline have been reported with concomitant administration of oral contraceptives. Decreased plasma concentrations of acetaminophen and increased clearance of temazepam, salicylic acid, morphine, and clofibric acid have been noted when these drugs were administered with oral contraceptives. No formal drug-drug interaction studies were conducted with Caziant. 9. Interactions with Laboratory Tests Certain endocrine and liver function tests and blood components may be affected by oral contraceptives: Increased prothrombin and factors VII, VIII, IX and X; decreased antithrombin 3; increased norepinephrine-induced platelet aggregability. Increased thyroid binding globulin (TBG) leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone, as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI), T4 by column or by radioimmunoassay. Free T3 resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG; free T4 concentration is unaltered. Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum. Sex hormone-binding globulins are increased and result in elevated levels of total circulating sex steroids; however, free or biologically active levels either decrease or remain unchanged. Triglycerides may be increased, and levels of various other lipids and lipoproteins may be affected. Glucose tolerance may be decreased. Serum folate levels may be depressed by oral contraceptive therapy. This may be of clinical significance if a woman becomes pregnant shortly after discontinuing oral contraceptives. 10. Carcinogenesis See WARNINGS section. 11. Pregnancy Pregnancy Category X See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS sections. 12. Nursing Mothers Small amounts of oral contraceptive steroids have been identified in the milk of nursing mothers and a few adverse effects on the child have been reported, including jaundice and breast enlargement. In addition, combination oral contraceptives given in the postpartum period may interfere with lactation by decreasing the quantity and quality of breast milk. If possible, the nursing mother should be advised not to use oral contraceptives but to use other forms of contraception until she has completely weaned her child. 13. Pediatric Use Safety and efficacy of Caziant tablets have been established in women of reproductive age. Safety and efficacy are expected to be the same for postpubertal adolescents under the age of 16 and for users 16 years and older. Use of this product before menarche is not indicated. 14. Geriatric Use This product has not been studied in women over 65 years of age and is not indicated in this population. INFORMATION FOR THE PATIENT See Patient Labeling printed below.