Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 04 April 2017

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE CATAPRES tablets are indicated in the treatment of hypertension. CATAPRES tablets may be employed alone or concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Catapres ® (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) tablets should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to clonidine (see PRECAUTIONS ).
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General In patients who have developed localized contact sensitization to Catapres-TTS ® (clonidine), continuation of Catapres-TTS or substitution of oral clonidine hydrochloride therapy may be associated with the development of a generalized skin rash. In patients who develop an allergic reaction to Catapres-TTS, substitution of oral clonidine hydrochloride may also elicit an allergic reaction (including generalized rash, urticaria, or angioedema). The sympatholytic action of clonidine may worsen sinus node dysfunction and atrioventricular (AV) block, especially in patients taking other sympatholytic drugs. There are post-marketing reports of patients with conduction abnormalities and/or taking other sympatholytic drugs who developed severe bradycardia requiring IV atropine, IV isoproterenol and temporary cardiac pacing while taking clonidine. In hypertension caused by pheochromocytoma, no therapeutic effect of CATAPRES tablets can be expected. Perioperative Use Administration of Catapres ® (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) tablets should be continued to within 4 hours of surgery and resumed as soon as possible thereafter. Blood pressure should be carefully monitored during surgery and additional measures to control blood pressure should be available if required. Information for Patients Patients should be cautioned against interruption of CATAPRES tablets therapy without their physician's advice. Since patients may experience a possible sedative effect, dizziness, or accommodation disorder with use of clonidine, caution patients about engaging in activities such as driving a vehicle or operating appliances or machinery. Also, inform patients that this sedative effect may be increased by concomitant use of alcohol, barbiturates, or other sedating drugs. Patients who wear contact lenses should be cautioned that treatment with CATAPRES tablets may cause dryness of eyes. Drug Interactions Clonidine may potentiate the CNS-depressive effects of alcohol, barbiturates or other sedating drugs. If a patient receiving clonidine hydrochloride is also taking tricyclic antidepressants, the hypotensive effect of clonidine may be reduced, necessitating an increase in the clonidine dose. If a patient receiving clonidine is also taking neuroleptics, orthostatic regulation disturbances (e.g., orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, fatigue) may be induced or exacerbated. Monitor heart rate in patients receiving clonidine concomitantly with agents known to affect sinus node function or AV nodal conduction, e.g., digitalis, calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers. Sinus bradycardia resulting in hospitalization and pacemaker insertion has been reported in association with the use of clonidine concomitantly with diltiazem or verapamil. Amitriptyline in combination with clonidine enhances the manifestation of corneal lesions in rats (see Toxicology ). Based on observations in patients in a state of alcoholic delirium it has been suggested that high intravenous doses of clonidine may increase the arrhythmogenic potential (QT-prolongation, ventricular fibrillation) of high intravenous doses of haloperidol. Causal relationship and relevance for clonidine oral tablets have not been established. Toxicology In several studies with oral clonidine hydrochloride, a dose-dependent increase in the incidence and severity of spontaneous retinal degeneration was seen in albino rats treated for six months or longer. Tissue distribution studies in dogs and monkeys showed a concentration of clonidine in the choroid. In view of the retinal degeneration seen in rats, eye examinations were performed during clinical trials in 908 patients before, and periodically after, the start of clonidine therapy. In 353 of these 908 patients, the eye examinations were carried out over periods of 24 months or longer. Except for some dryness of the eyes, no drug-related abnormal ophthalmological findings were recorded and, according to specialized tests such as electroretinography and macular dazzle, retinal function was unchanged. In combination with amitriptyline, clonidine hydrochloride administration led to the development of corneal lesions in rats within 5 days. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Chronic dietary administration of clonidine was not carcinogenic to rats (132 weeks) or mice (78 weeks) dosed, respectively, at up to 46 or 70 times the maximum recommended daily human dose as mg/kg (9 or 6 times the MRDHD on a mg/m 2 basis). There was no evidence of genotoxicity in the Ames test for mutagenicity or mouse micronucleus test for clastogenicity. Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by clonidine doses as high as 150 µg/kg (approximately 3 times MRDHD). In a separate experiment, fertility of female rats appeared to be affected at dose levels of 500 to 2000 µg/kg (10 to 40 times the oral MRDHD on a mg/kg basis; 2 to 8 times the MRDHD on a mg/m 2 basis). Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Reproduction studies performed in rabbits at doses up to approximately 3 times the oral maximum recommended daily human dose (MRDHD) of Catapres ® (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) tablets produced no evidence of a teratogenic or embryotoxic potential in rabbits. In rats, however, doses as low as 1/3 the oral MRDHD (1/15 the MRDHD on a mg/m 2 basis) of clonidine were associated with increased resorptions in a study in which dams were treated continuously from 2 months prior to mating. Increased resorptions were not associated with treatment at the same time or at higher dose levels (up to 3 times the oral MRDHD) when the dams were treated on gestation days 6 to 15. Increases in resorption were observed at much higher dose levels (40 times the oral MRDHD on a mg/kg basis; 4 to 8 times the MRDHD on a mg/m 2 basis) in mice and rats treated on gestation days 1 to 14 (lowest dose employed in the study was 500 µg/kg). No adequate, well-controlled studies have been conducted in pregnant women. Clonidine crosses the placental barrier (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics ). Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nursing Mothers As clonidine hydrochloride is excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when CATAPRES tablets are administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established in adequate and well-controlled trials (see WARNINGS, Withdrawal ).
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Most adverse effects are mild and tend to diminish with continued therapy. The most frequent (which appear to be dose-related) are dry mouth, occurring in about 40 of 100 patients; drowsiness, about 33 in 100; dizziness, about 16 in 100; constipation and sedation, each about 10 in 100. The following less frequent adverse experiences have also been reported in patients receiving CATAPRES tablets, but in many cases patients were receiving concomitant medication and a causal relationship has not been established. Body as a Whole: Fatigue, fever, headache, pallor, weakness, and withdrawal syndrome. Also reported were a weakly positive Coombs’ test and increased sensitivity to alcohol. Cardiovascular: Bradycardia, congestive heart failure, electrocardiographic abnormalities (i.e., sinus node arrest, junctional bradycardia, high degree AV block and arrhythmias), orthostatic symptoms, palpitations, Raynaud’s phenomenon, syncope, and tachycardia. Cases of sinus bradycardia and atrioventricular block have been reported, both with and without the use of concomitant digitalis. Central Nervous System: Agitation, anxiety, delirium, delusional perception, hallucinations (including visual and auditory), insomnia, mental depression, nervousness, other behavioral changes, paresthesia, restlessness, sleep disorder, and vivid dreams or nightmares. Dermatological: Alopecia, angioneurotic edema, hives, pruritus, rash, and urticaria. Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, hepatitis, malaise, mild transient abnormalities in liver function tests, nausea, parotitis, pseudo-obstruction (including colonic pseudo-obstruction), salivary gland pain, and vomiting. Genitourinary: Decreased sexual activity, difficulty in micturition, erectile dysfunction, loss of libido, nocturia, and urinary retention. Hematologic: Thrombocytopenia. Metabolic: Gynecomastia, transient elevation of blood glucose or serum creatine phosphokinase, and weight gain. Musculoskeletal: Leg cramps and muscle or joint pain. Oro-otolaryngeal: Dryness of the nasal mucosa. Ophthalmological: Accommodation disorder, blurred vision, burning of the eyes, decreased lacrimation, and dryness of eyes.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Adults The dose of Catapres ® (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) tablets must be adjusted according to the patient's individual blood pressure response. The following is a general guide to its administration. Initial Dose 0.1 mg tablet twice daily (morning and bedtime). Elderly patients may benefit from a lower initial dose. Maintenance Dose Further increments of 0.1 mg per day may be made at weekly intervals if necessary until the desired response is achieved. Taking the larger portion of the oral daily dose at bedtime may minimize transient adjustment effects of dry mouth and drowsiness. The therapeutic doses most commonly employed have ranged from 0.2 mg to 0.6 mg per day given in divided doses. Studies have indicated that 2.4 mg is the maximum effective daily dose, but doses as high as this have rarely been employed. Renal Impairment Patients with renal impairment may benefit from a lower initial dose. Patients should be carefully monitored. Since only a minimal amount of clonidine is removed during routine hemodialysis, there is no need to give supplemental clonidine following dialysis.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers As clonidine hydrochloride is excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when CATAPRES tablets are administered to a nursing woman.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Clonidine may potentiate the CNS-depressive effects of alcohol, barbiturates or other sedating drugs. If a patient receiving clonidine hydrochloride is also taking tricyclic antidepressants, the hypotensive effect of clonidine may be reduced, necessitating an increase in the clonidine dose. If a patient receiving clonidine is also taking neuroleptics, orthostatic regulation disturbances (e.g., orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, fatigue) may be induced or exacerbated. Monitor heart rate in patients receiving clonidine concomitantly with agents known to affect sinus node function or AV nodal conduction, e.g., digitalis, calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers. Sinus bradycardia resulting in hospitalization and pacemaker insertion has been reported in association with the use of clonidine concomitantly with diltiazem or verapamil. Amitriptyline in combination with clonidine enhances the manifestation of corneal lesions in rats (see Toxicology ). Based on observations in patients in a state of alcoholic delirium it has been suggested that high intravenous doses of clonidine may increase the arrhythmogenic potential (QT-prolongation, ventricular fibrillation) of high intravenous doses of haloperidol. Causal relationship and relevance for clonidine oral tablets have not been established.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA017407
Agency product number W76I6XXF06
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 61786-923
Date Last Revised 07-10-2016
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 884175
Marketing authorisation holder REMEDYREPACK INC.