Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 16 February 2018

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Catapres‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system is indicated in the treatment of hypertension. It may be employed alone or concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to clonidine or to any other component of the therapeutic system.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General In patients who have developed localized contact sensitization to CATAPRES‑TTS® (clonidine) transdermal therapeutic system continuation of CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system or substitution of oral clonidine hydrochloride therapy may be associated with development of a generalized skin rash. In patients who develop an allergic reaction to CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system, substitution of oral clonidine hydrochloride may also elicit an allergic reaction (including generalized rash, urticaria, or angioedema). The sympatholytic action of clonidine may worsen sinus node dysfunction and atrioventricular (AV) block, especially in patients taking other sympatholytic drugs. There are post-marketing reports of patients with conduction abnormalities and/or taking other sympatholytic drugs who developed severe bradycardia requiring IV atropine, IV isoproterenol and temporary cardiac pacing while taking clonidine. In hypertension caused by pheochromocytoma, no therapeutic effect of CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system can be expected. In rare instances, loss of blood pressure control has been reported in patients using CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system according to the instructions for use. Perioperative Use CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system therapy should not be interrupted during the surgical period. Blood pressure should be carefully monitored during surgery and additional measures to control blood pressure should be available if required. Physicians considering starting CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system therapy during the perioperative period must be aware that therapeutic plasma clonidine levels are not achieved until 2 to 3 days after initial application of Catapres-TTS transdermal therapeutic system (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Defibrillation or Cardioversion The transdermal clonidine systems should be removed before attempting defibrillation or cardioversion because of the potential for altered electrical conductivity which may increase the risk of arcing, a phenomenon associated with the use of defibrillators. MRI Skin burns have been reported at the patch site in several patients wearing an aluminized transdermal system during a magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI). Because the CATAPRES-TTS PATCH contains aluminum, it is recommended to remove the system before undergoing an MRI. Information for Patients Patients should be cautioned against interruption of CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system therapy without their physician’s advice. Since patients may experience a possible sedative effect, dizziness, or accommodation disorder with use of clonidine, caution patients about engaging in activities such as driving a vehicle or operating appliances or machinery. Also, inform patients that this sedative effect may be increased by concomitant use of alcohol, barbiturates, or other sedating drugs. Patients who wear contact lenses should be cautioned that treatment with CATAPRES-TTS® (clonidine) transdermal therapeutic system may cause dryness of eyes. Patients should be instructed to consult their physicians promptly about the possible need to remove the patch if they observe moderate to severe localized erythema and/or vesicle formation at the site of application or generalized skin rash. If a patient experiences isolated, mild localized skin irritation before completing 7 days of use, the system may be removed and replaced with a new system applied to a fresh skin site. If the system should begin to loosen from the skin after application, the patient should be instructed to place the adhesive cover directly over the system to ensure adhesion during its 7‑day use. Used CATAPRES‑TTS PATCHES contain a substantial amount of their initial drug content which may be harmful to infants and children if accidentally applied or ingested. THEREFORE, PATIENTS SHOULD BE CAUTIONED TO KEEP BOTH USED AND UNUSED CATAPRES‑TTS PATCHES OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. After use, CATAPRES‑TTS should be folded in half with the adhesive sides together and discarded away from children’s reach. Instructions for use, storage and disposal of the system are provided at the end of this monograph. These instructions are also included in each box of CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system. Drug Interactions Clonidine may potentiate the CNS-depressive effects of alcohol, barbiturates or other sedating drugs. If a patient receiving clonidine is also taking tricyclic antidepressants, the hypotensive effect of clonidine may be reduced, necessitating an increase in the clonidine dose. If a patient receiving clonidine is also taking neuroleptics, orthostatic regulation disturbances (e.g., orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, fatigue) may be induced or exacerbated. Monitor heart rate in patients receiving clonidine concomitantly with agents known to affect sinus node function or AV nodal conduction e.g., digitalis, calcium channel blockers, and beta‑blockers. Sinus bradycardia resulting in hospitalization and pacemaker insertion has been reported in association with the use of clonidine concomitantly with diltiazem or verapamil. Amitriptyline in combination with clonidine enhances the manifestation of corneal lesions in rats (see Toxicology ). Toxicology In several studies with oral clonidine hydrochloride, a dose-dependent increase in the incidence and severity of spontaneous retinal degeneration was seen in albino rats treated for six months or longer. Tissue distribution studies in dogs and monkeys showed a concentration of clonidine in the choroid. In view of the retinal degeneration seen in rats, eye examinations were performed during clinical trials in 908 patients before, and periodically after, the start of clonidine therapy. In 353 of these 908 patients, the eye examinations were carried out over periods of 24 months or longer. Except for some dryness of the eyes, no drug‑related abnormal ophthalmological findings were recorded and, according to specialized tests such as electroretinography and macular dazzle, retinal function was unchanged. In combination with amitriptyline, clonidine hydrochloride administration led to the development of corneal lesions in rats within 5 days. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Chronic dietary administration of clonidine was not carcinogenic to rats (132 weeks) or mice (78 weeks) dosed, respectively, at up to 46 to 70 times the maximum recommended daily human dose as mg/kg (9 or 6 times the MRDHD on a mg/m2 basis). There was no evidence of genotoxicity in the Ames test for mutagenicity or mouse micronucleus test for clastogenicity. Fertility of male and female rats was unaffected by clonidine doses as high as 150 µg/kg (approximately 3 times the MRDHD). In a separate experiment, fertility of female rats appeared to be affected at dose levels of 500 to 2000 µg/kg (10 to 40 times the oral MRDHD on a mg/kg basis; 2 to 8 times the MRDHD on a mg/m2 basis). Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Reproduction studies performed in rabbits at doses up to approximately 3 times the oral maximum recommended daily human dose (MRDHD) of CATAPRES® (clonidine hydrochloride) produced no evidence of a teratogenic or embryotoxic potential in rabbits. In rats, however, doses as low as 1/3 the oral MRDHD (1/15 the MRDHD on a mg/m2 basis) of clonidine were associated with increased resorptions in a study in which dams were treated continuously from 2 months prior to mating. Increased resorptions were not associated with treatment at the same or at higher dose levels (up to 3 times the oral MRDHD) when the dams were treated on gestation days 6 to 15. Increases in resorption were observed at much higher dose levels (40 times the oral MRDHD on a mg/kg basis; 4 to 8 times the MRDHD on a mg/m2 basis) in mice and rats treated on gestation days 1 to 14 (lowest dose employed in the study was 500 µg/kg). No adequate well‑controlled studies have been conducted in pregnant women. Clonidine crosses the placental barrier (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics ). Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nursing Mothers As clonidine is excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Catapres‑TTS® (clonidine) transdermal therapeutic system is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established in adequate and well-controlled trials.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Clinical trial experience with CATAPRES-TTS Most systemic adverse effects during Catapres-TTS transdermal therapeutic system therapy have been mild and have tended to diminish with continued therapy. In a 3‑month multi-clinic trial of CATAPRES-TTS transdermal therapeutic system in 101 hypertensive patients, the systemic adverse reactions were, dry mouth (25 patients) and drowsiness (12), fatigue (6), headache (5), lethargy and sedation (3 each), insomnia, dizziness, impotence/sexual dysfunction, dry throat (2 each) and constipation, nausea, change in taste and nervousness (1 each). In the above mentioned 3‑month controlled clinical trial, as well as other uncontrolled clinical trials, the most frequent adverse reactions were dermatological and are described below. In the 3‑month trial, 51 of the 101 patients had localized skin reactions such as erythema (26 patients) and/or pruritus, particularly after using an adhesive cover throughout the 7‑day dosage interval. Allergic contact sensitization to CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system was observed in 5 patients. Other skin reactions were localized vesiculation (7 patients), hyperpigmentation (5), edema (3), excoriation (3), burning (3), papules (1), throbbing (1), blanching (1), and a generalized macular rash (1). In additional clinical experience, contact dermatitis resulting in treatment discontinuation was observed in 128 of 673 patients (about 19 in 100) after a mean duration of treatment of 37 weeks. The incidence of contact dermatitis was about 34 in 100 among white women, about 18 in 100 in white men, about 14 in 100 in black women, and approximately 8 in 100 in black men. Analysis of skin reaction data showed that the risk of having to discontinue CATAPRES‑TTS® (clonidine) transdermal therapeutic system treatment because of contact dermatitis was greatest between treatment weeks 6 and 26, although sensitivity may develop either earlier or later in treatment. In a large‑scale clinical acceptability and safety study by 451 physicians in a total of 3539 patients, other allergic reactions were recorded for which a causal relationship to CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system was not established: maculopapular rash (10 cases); urticaria (2 cases); and angioedema of the face (2 cases), which also affected the tongue in one of the patients. Marketing Experience with CATAPRES-TTS The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of CATAPRES-TTS transdermal therapeutic system. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate reliably their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) frequency of reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to CATAPRES-TTS transdermal therapeutic system. Body as a Whole: Fever; malaise; weakness; pallor; and withdrawal syndrome. Cardiovascular: Congestive heart failure; cerebrovascular accident; electrocardiographic abnormalities (i.e., bradycardia, sick sinus syndrome disturbances and arrhythmias); chest pain; orthostatic symptoms; syncope; increases in blood pressure; sinus bradycardia and AV block with and without the use of concomitant digitalis; Raynaud’s phenomenon; tachycardia; bradycardia; and palpitations. Central and Peripheral Nervous System/Psychiatric: Delirium; mental depression; hallucinations (including visual and auditory); localized numbness; vivid dreams or nightmares; restlessness; anxiety; agitation; irritability; other behavioral changes; and drowsiness. Dermatological: Angioneurotic edema; localized or generalized rash; hives; urticaria; contact dermatitis; pruritus; alopecia; and localized hypo or hyper pigmentation. Gastrointestinal: Anorexia and vomiting. Genitourinary: Difficult micturition; loss of libido; and decreased sexual activity. Metabolic: Gynecomastia or breast enlargement and weight gain. Musculoskeletal: Muscle or joint pain; and leg cramps. Ophthalmological: Blurred vision; burning of the eyes and dryness of the eyes. Adverse Events Associated with Oral CATAPRES Therapy: Most adverse effects are mild and tend to diminish with continued therapy. The most frequent (which appear to be dose-related) are dry mouth, occurring in about 40 of 100 patients; drowsiness, about 33 in 100; dizziness, about 16 in 100; constipation and sedation, each about 10 in 100. The following less frequent adverse experiences have also been reported in patients receiving CATAPRES® (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) tablets, but in many cases patients were receiving concomitant medication and a causal relationship has not been established. Body as a Whole: Fatigue, fever, headache, pallor, weakness, and withdrawal syndrome. Also reported were a weakly positive Coombs’ test and increased sensitivity to alcohol. Cardiovascular: Bradycardia, congestive heart failure, electrocardiographic abnormalities (i.e., sinus node arrest, junctional bradycardia, high degree AV block and arrhythmias), orthostatic symptoms, palpitations, Raynaud’s phenomenon, syncope, and tachycardia. Cases of sinus bradycardia and AV block have been reported, both with and without the use of concomitant digitalis. Central Nervous System: Agitation, anxiety, delirium, delusional perception, hallucinations (including visual and auditory), insomnia, mental depression, nervousness, other behavioral changes, paresthesia, restlessness, sleep disorder, and vivid dreams or nightmares. Dermatological: Alopecia, angioneurotic edema, hives, pruritus, rash, and urticaria. Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, hepatitis, malaise, mild transient abnormalities in liver function tests, nausea, parotitis, pseudo-obstruction (including colonic pseudo-obstruction), salivary gland pain, and vomiting. Genitourinary: Decreased sexual activity, difficulty in micturition, erectile dysfunction, loss of libido, nocturia, and urinary retention. Hematologic: Thrombocytopenia. Metabolic: Gynecomastia, transient elevation of blood glucose or serum creatine phosphokinase, and weight gain. Musculoskeletal: Leg cramps and muscle or joint pain. Oro-otolaryngeal: Dryness of the nasal mucosa. Ophthalmological: Accommodation disorder, blurred vision, burning of the eyes, decreased lacrimation, and dryness of the eyes.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Apply CATAPRES‑TTS® (clonidine) transdermal therapeutic system once every 7 days to a hairless area of intact skin on the upper outer arm or chest. Each new application of CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system should be on a different skin site from the previous location. If the system loosens during 7‑day wearing, the adhesive cover should be applied directly over the system to ensure good adhesion. There have been rare reports of the need for patch changes prior to 7 days to maintain blood pressure control. To initiate therapy, CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system dosage should be titrated according to individual therapeutic requirements, starting with CATAPRES‑TTS-1. If after one or two weeks the desired reduction in blood pressure is not achieved, increase the dosage by adding another CATAPRES‑TTS-1 or changing to a larger system. An increase in dosage above two CATAPRES‑TTS-3 is usually not associated with additional efficacy. When substituting CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system for oral clonidine or for other antihypertensive drugs, physicians should be aware that the antihypertensive effect of CATAPRES‑TTS transdermal therapeutic system may not commence until 2‑3 days after initial application. Therefore, gradual reduction of prior drug dosage is advised. Some or all previous antihypertensive treatment may have to be continued, particularly in patients with more severe forms of hypertension. Renal Impairment Patients with renal impairment may benefit from a lower initial dose. Patients should be carefully monitored. Since only a minimal amount of clonidine is removed during routine hemodialysis, there is no need to give supplemental clonidine following dialysis.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers As clonidine is excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Catapres‑TTS® (clonidine) transdermal therapeutic system is administered to a nursing woman.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Clonidine may potentiate the CNS-depressive effects of alcohol, barbiturates or other sedating drugs. If a patient receiving clonidine is also taking tricyclic antidepressants, the hypotensive effect of clonidine may be reduced, necessitating an increase in the clonidine dose. If a patient receiving clonidine is also taking neuroleptics, orthostatic regulation disturbances (e.g., orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, fatigue) may be induced or exacerbated. Monitor heart rate in patients receiving clonidine concomitantly with agents known to affect sinus node function or AV nodal conduction e.g., digitalis, calcium channel blockers, and beta‑blockers. Sinus bradycardia resulting in hospitalization and pacemaker insertion has been reported in association with the use of clonidine concomitantly with diltiazem or verapamil. Amitriptyline in combination with clonidine enhances the manifestation of corneal lesions in rats (see Toxicology ).

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA018891
Agency product number MN3L5RMN02
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0597-0032,0597-0033,0597-0031
Date Last Revised 03-08-2016
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Storage and handling STORAGE AND HANDLING Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°- 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Distributed by: Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Ridgefield, CT 06877 USA Licensed from: Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH Address medical inquiries to: (800) 542-6257 or (800) 459-9906 TTY. Copyright © 2016 Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Revised: August 2016 IT7000HH112016
Marketing authorisation holder Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc.