6. ADVERSE REACTIONS Most common adverse events ( 6.1): Heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction (≥10%): Dizziness, fatigue, hypotension, diarrhea, hyperglycemia, asthenia, bradycardia, weight increase. Hypertension (≥5%): Dizziness. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc. at 1-877-993-8779 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Studies Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Carvedilol tablets have been evaluated for safety in subjects with heart failure (mild, moderate, and severe), in subjects with left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction and in hypertensive subjects. The observed adverse event profile was consistent with the pharmacology of the drug and the health status of the subjects in the clinical trials. Adverse events reported for each of these patient populations are provided below. Excluded are adverse events considered too general to be informative, and those not reasonably associated with the use of the drug because they were associated with the condition being treated or are very common in the treated population. Rates of adverse events were generally similar across demographic subsets (men and women, elderly and non-elderly, blacks and non-blacks). Heart Failure Carvedilol tablets have been evaluated for safety in heart failure in more than 4,500 subjects worldwide of whom more than 2,100 participated in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Approximately 60% of the total treated population in placebo-controlled clinical trials received Carvedilol tablets for at least 6 months and 30% received Carvedilol tablets for at least 12 months. In the COMET trial, 1,511 subjects with mild-to-moderate heart failure were treated with Carvedilol tablets for up to 5.9 years (mean: 4.8 years). Both in US clinical trials in mild-to-moderate heart failure that compared Carvedilol tablets in daily doses up to 100 mg (n = 765) with placebo (n = 437), and in a multinational clinical trial in severe heart failure (COPERNICUS) that compared Carvedilol tablets in daily doses up to 50 mg (n = 1,156) with placebo (n = 1,133), discontinuation rates for adverse experiences were similar in carvedilol and placebo subjects. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, the only cause of discontinuation greater than1%, and occurring more often on carvedilol was dizziness (1.3% on carvedilol, 0.6% on placebo in the COPERNICUS trial). Table 1 shows adverse events reported in subjects with mild-to-moderate heart failure enrolled in US placebo-controlled clinical trials, and with severe heart failure enrolled in the COPERNICUS trial. Shown are adverse events that occurred more frequently in drug-treated subjects than placebo-treated subjects with an incidence of greater than 3% in subjects treated with carvedilol regardless of causality. Median trial medication exposure was 6.3 months for both carvedilol and placebo subjects in the trials of mild-to-moderate heart failure, and 10.4 months in the trial of subjects with severe heart failure. The adverse event profile of Carvedilol tablets observed in the long-term COMET trial was generally similar to that observed in the US Heart Failure Trials. Table 1 Adverse Events (%) Occurring More Frequently with Carvedilol tablets than with Placebo in Subjects with Mild-to-Moderate Heart Failure (HF) Enrolled in US Heart Failure Trials or in Subjects with Severe Heart Failure in the COPERNICUS Trial (Incidence >3% in Subjects Treated with Carvedilol, Regardless of Causality) Mild-to-Moderate HF Severe HF Body System/ Adverse Event Carvedilol (n = 765) Placebo (n = 437) Carvedilol (n = 1,156) Placebo (n = 1,133) Body as a Whole Asthenia Fatigue Digoxin level increased Edema generalized Edema dependent 7 24 5 5 4 7 22 4 3 2 11 — 2 6 — 9 — 1 5 — Cardiovascular Bradycardia Hypotension Syncope Angina pectoris 9 9 3 2 1 3 3 3 10 14 8 6 3 8 5 4 Central Nervous System Dizziness Headache 32 8 19 7 24 5 17 3 Gastrointestinal Diarrhea Nausea Vomiting 12 9 6 6 5 4 5 4 1 3 3 2 Metabolic Hyperglycemia Weight increase BUN increased NPN increased Hypercholesterolemia Edema peripheral 12 10 6 6 4 2 8 7 5 5 3 1 5 12 — — 1 7 3 11 — — 1 6 Musculoskeletal Arthralgia 6 5 1 1 Respiratory Cough increased Rales 8 4 9 4 5 4 4 2 Vision Vision abnormal 5 2 — — Cardiac failure and dyspnea were also reported in these trials, but the rates were equal or greater in subjects who received placebo. The following adverse events were reported with a frequency of greater than 1% but less than or equal to 3% and more frequently with carvedilol in either the US placebo-controlled trials in subjects with mild-to-moderate heart failure, or in subjects with severe heart failure in the COPERNICUS trial. Incidence greater than 1% to less than or equal to 3% Body as a Whole Allergy, malaise, hypovolemia, fever, leg edema. Cardiovascular Fluid overload, postural hypotension, aggravated angina pectoris, AV block, palpitation, hypertension. Central and Peripheral Nervous System Hypesthesia, vertigo, paresthesia. Gastrointestinal Melena, periodontitis. Liver and Biliary System SGPT increased, SGOT increased. Metabolic and Nutritional Hyperuricemia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, increased alkaline phosphatase, glycosuria, hypervolemia, diabetes mellitus, GGT increased, weight loss, hyperkalemia, creatinine increased. Musculoskeletal Muscle cramps. Platelet, Bleeding, and Clotting Prothrombin decreased, purpura, thrombocytopenia. Psychiatric Somnolence. Reproductive, male Impotence. Special Senses Blurred vision. Urinary System Renal insufficiency, albuminuria, hematuria. Left Ventricular Dysfunction following Myocardial Infarction Carvedilol tablets have been evaluated for safety in survivors of an acute myocardial infarction with left ventricular dysfunction in the CAPRICORN trial which involved 969 subjects who received carvedilol tablets and 980 who received placebo. Approximately 75% of the subjects received carvedilol tablets for at least 6 months and 53% received carvedilol tablets for at least 12 months. Subjects were treated for an average of 12.9 months and 12.8 months with carvedilol tablets and placebo, respectively. The most common adverse events reported with carvedilol tablets in the CAPRICORN trial were consistent with the profile of the drug in the US heart failure trials and the COPERNICUS trial. The only additional adverse events reported in CAPRICORN in greater than 3% of the subjects and more commonly on carvedilol were dyspnea, anemia, and lung edema. The following adverse events were reported with a frequency of greater than 1% but less than or equal to 3% and more frequently with carvedilol tablets: flu syndrome, cerebrovascular accident, peripheral vascular disorder, hypotonia, depression, gastrointestinal pain, arthritis, and gout. The overall rates of discontinuations due to adverse events were similar in both groups of subjects. In this database, the only cause of discontinuation greater than 1%, and occurring more often on carvedilol was hypotension (1.5% on carvedilol, 0.2% on placebo). Hypertension Carvedilol tablets have been evaluated for safety in hypertension in more than 2,193 subjects in US clinical trials and in 2,976 subjects in international clinical trials. Approximately 36% of the total treated population received carvedilol tablets for at least 6 months. Most adverse events reported during therapy with carvedilol tablets were of mild to moderate severity. In US controlled clinical trials directly comparing carvedilol tablets in doses up to 50 mg (n = 1,142) with placebo (n = 462), 4.9% of subjects receiving carvedilol tablets discontinued for adverse events versus 5.2% of placebo subjects. Although there was no overall difference in discontinuation rates, discontinuations were more common in the carvedilol group for postural hypotension (1% versus 0). The overall incidence of adverse events in US placebo-controlled trials increased with increasing dose of carvedilol tablets. For individual adverse events this could only be distinguished for dizziness, which increased in frequency from 2% to 5% as total daily dose increased from 6.25 mg to 50 mg. Table 2 shows adverse events in US placebo-controlled clinical trials for hypertension that occurred with an incidence of greater than or equal to 1% regardless of causality, and that were more frequent in drug-treated subjects than placebo-treated subjects. Table 2 Adverse Events (%) Occurring in US Placebo-Controlled Hypertension Trials (Incidence > 1%, Regardless of Causality) Shown are events with rate >1% rounded to nearest integer. Body System/Adverse Event Carvedilol Tablets (n = 1,142) Placebo (n = 462) Cardiovascular Bradycardia Postural Hypotension Peripheral edema 2 2 1 -- -- -- Central Nervous System Dizziness Insomnia 6 2 5 1 Gastrointestinal Diarrhea 2 1 Hematologic Thrombocytopenia 1 -- Metabolic Hypertriglyceridemia 1 -- Dyspnea and fatigue were also reported in these trials, but the rates were equal or greater in subjects who received placebo. The following adverse events not described above were reported as possibly or probably related to carvedilol tablets in worldwide open or controlled trials with carvedilol tablets in subjects with hypertension or heart failure. Incidence greater than 0.1% to less than or equal to 1% Cardiovascular: Peripheral ischemia, tachycardia. Central and Peripheral Nervous System: Hypokinesia. Gastrointestinal: Bilirubinemia, increased hepatic enzymes (0.2% of hypertension patients and 0.4% of heart failure patients were discontinued from therapy because of increases in hepatic enzymes) [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] . Psychiatric: Nervousness, sleep disorder, aggravated depression, impaired concentration, abnormal thinking, paroniria, emotional lability. Respiratory System: Asthma [see Contraindications (4)] . Reproductive, male: Decreased libido. Skin and Appendages: Pruritus, rash erythematous, rash maculopapular, rash psoriaform, photosensitivity reaction. Special Senses: Tinnitus. Urinary System: Micturition frequency increased. Autonomic Nervous System: Dry mouth, sweating increased. Metabolic and Nutritional: Hypokalemia, hypertriglyceridemia. Hematologic: Anemia, leukopenia. The following events were reported in less than or equal to 0.1% of subjects and are potentially important: complete AV block, bundle branch block, myocardial ischemia, cerebrovascular disorder, convulsions, migraine, neuralgia, paresis, anaphylactoid reaction, alopecia, exfoliative dermatitis, amnesia, GI hemorrhage, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, decreased hearing, respiratory alkalosis, increased BUN, decreased HDL, pancytopenia, and atypical lymphocytes. Laboratory Abnormalities Reversible elevations in serum transaminases (ALT or AST) have been observed during treatment with carvedilol tablets. Rates of transaminase elevations (2- to 3-times the upper limit of normal) observed during controlled clinical trials have generally been similar between subjects treated with carvedilol tablets and those treated with placebo. However, transaminase elevations, confirmed by rechallenge, have been observed with carvedilol tablets. In a long-term, placebo-controlled trial in severe heart failure, subjects treated with carvedilol tablets had lower values for hepatic transaminases than subjects treated with placebo, possibly because improvements in cardiac function induced by carvedilol led to less hepatic congestion and/or improved hepatic blood flow. Carvedilol tablets have not been associated with clinically significant changes in serum potassium, total triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, or creatinine. No clinically relevant changes were noted in fasting serum glucose in hypertensive patients; fasting serum glucose was not evaluated in the heart failure clinical trials. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of carvedilol tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders Aplastic anemia. Immune System Disorders Hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions, angioedema, urticaria). Renal and Urinary Disorders Urinary incontinence. Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders Interstitial pneumonitis. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme.