Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 July 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Carvedilol tablets are an alpha/beta-adrenergic blocking agent indicated for the treatment of: mild to severe chronic heart failure ( 1.1) left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction in clinically stable patients ( 1.2) hypertension ( 1.3) 1.1 Heart Failure Carvedilol tablets are indicated for the treatment of mild-to-severe chronic heart failure of ischemic or cardiomyopathic origin, usually in addition to diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and digitalis, to increase survival and, also, to reduce the risk of hospitalization [ see Drug Interactions (7.4) and Clinical Studies (14.1) ]. 1.2 Left Ventricular Dysfunction following Myocardial Infarction Carvedilol tablets are indicated to reduce cardiovascular mortality in clinically stable patients who have survived the acute phase of a myocardial infarction and have a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than or equal to 40% (with or without symptomatic heart failure) [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ] 1.3 Hypertension Carvedilol tablets are indicated for the management of essential hypertension [see Clinical Studies (14.3, 14.4) ]. It can be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, especially thiazide-type diuretics [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Carvedilol tablets are contraindicated in the following conditions: Bronchial asthma or related bronchospastic conditions. Deaths from status asthmaticus have been reported following single doses of carvedilol tablets. Second- or third-degree AV block. Sick sinus syndrome. Severe bradycardia (unless a permanent pacemaker is in place). Patients with cardiogenic shock or who have decompensated heart failure requiring the use of intravenous inotropic therapy. Such patients should first be weaned from intravenous therapy before initiating carvedilol tablets. Patients with severe hepatic impairment. Patients with a history of a serious hypersensitivity reaction (e.g., Stevens-Johnson syndrome, anaphylactic reaction, angioedema) to any of the component of this medication or other medications containing carvedilol. Bronchial asthma or related bronchospastic conditions ( 4) Second- or third-degree AV block ( 4) Sick sinus syndrome ( 4) Severe bradycardia (unless permanent pacemaker in place) ( 4) Patients in cardiogenic shock or decompensated heart failure requiring the use of IV inotropic therapy. ( 4) Severe hepatic impairment ( 2.4, 4) History of serious hypersensitivity reaction (e.g., Stevens-Johnson syndrome, anaphylactic reaction, angioedema) to any component of this medication or other medications containing carvedilol ( 4)
Adverse reactions
6. ADVERSE REACTIONS Most common adverse events ( 6.1): Heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction (≥10%): Dizziness, fatigue, hypotension, diarrhea, hyperglycemia, asthenia, bradycardia, weight increase. Hypertension (≥5%): Dizziness. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc. at 1-877-993-8779 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Studies Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Carvedilol tablets have been evaluated for safety in subjects with heart failure (mild, moderate, and severe), in subjects with left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction and in hypertensive subjects. The observed adverse event profile was consistent with the pharmacology of the drug and the health status of the subjects in the clinical trials. Adverse events reported for each of these patient populations are provided below. Excluded are adverse events considered too general to be informative, and those not reasonably associated with the use of the drug because they were associated with the condition being treated or are very common in the treated population. Rates of adverse events were generally similar across demographic subsets (men and women, elderly and non-elderly, blacks and non-blacks). Heart Failure Carvedilol tablets have been evaluated for safety in heart failure in more than 4,500 subjects worldwide of whom more than 2,100 participated in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Approximately 60% of the total treated population in placebo-controlled clinical trials received Carvedilol tablets for at least 6 months and 30% received Carvedilol tablets for at least 12 months. In the COMET trial, 1,511 subjects with mild-to-moderate heart failure were treated with Carvedilol tablets for up to 5.9 years (mean: 4.8 years). Both in US clinical trials in mild-to-moderate heart failure that compared Carvedilol tablets in daily doses up to 100 mg (n = 765) with placebo (n = 437), and in a multinational clinical trial in severe heart failure (COPERNICUS) that compared Carvedilol tablets in daily doses up to 50 mg (n = 1,156) with placebo (n = 1,133), discontinuation rates for adverse experiences were similar in carvedilol and placebo subjects. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, the only cause of discontinuation greater than1%, and occurring more often on carvedilol was dizziness (1.3% on carvedilol, 0.6% on placebo in the COPERNICUS trial). Table 1 shows adverse events reported in subjects with mild-to-moderate heart failure enrolled in US placebo-controlled clinical trials, and with severe heart failure enrolled in the COPERNICUS trial. Shown are adverse events that occurred more frequently in drug-treated subjects than placebo-treated subjects with an incidence of greater than 3% in subjects treated with carvedilol regardless of causality. Median trial medication exposure was 6.3 months for both carvedilol and placebo subjects in the trials of mild-to-moderate heart failure, and 10.4 months in the trial of subjects with severe heart failure. The adverse event profile of Carvedilol tablets observed in the long-term COMET trial was generally similar to that observed in the US Heart Failure Trials. Table 1 Adverse Events (%) Occurring More Frequently with Carvedilol tablets than with Placebo in Subjects with Mild-to-Moderate Heart Failure (HF) Enrolled in US Heart Failure Trials or in Subjects with Severe Heart Failure in the COPERNICUS Trial (Incidence >3% in Subjects Treated with Carvedilol, Regardless of Causality) Mild-to-Moderate HF Severe HF Body System/ Adverse Event Carvedilol (n = 765) Placebo (n = 437) Carvedilol (n = 1,156) Placebo (n = 1,133) Body as a Whole Asthenia Fatigue Digoxin level increased Edema generalized Edema dependent 7 24 5 5 4 7 22 4 3 2 11 — 2 6 — 9 — 1 5 — Cardiovascular Bradycardia Hypotension Syncope Angina pectoris 9 9 3 2 1 3 3 3 10 14 8 6 3 8 5 4 Central Nervous System Dizziness Headache 32 8 19 7 24 5 17 3 Gastrointestinal Diarrhea Nausea Vomiting 12 9 6 6 5 4 5 4 1 3 3 2 Metabolic Hyperglycemia Weight increase BUN increased NPN increased Hypercholesterolemia Edema peripheral 12 10 6 6 4 2 8 7 5 5 3 1 5 12 — — 1 7 3 11 — — 1 6 Musculoskeletal Arthralgia 6 5 1 1 Respiratory Cough increased Rales 8 4 9 4 5 4 4 2 Vision Vision abnormal 5 2 — — Cardiac failure and dyspnea were also reported in these trials, but the rates were equal or greater in subjects who received placebo. The following adverse events were reported with a frequency of greater than 1% but less than or equal to 3% and more frequently with carvedilol in either the US placebo-controlled trials in subjects with mild-to-moderate heart failure, or in subjects with severe heart failure in the COPERNICUS trial. Incidence greater than 1% to less than or equal to 3% Body as a Whole Allergy, malaise, hypovolemia, fever, leg edema. Cardiovascular Fluid overload, postural hypotension, aggravated angina pectoris, AV block, palpitation, hypertension. Central and Peripheral Nervous System Hypesthesia, vertigo, paresthesia. Gastrointestinal Melena, periodontitis. Liver and Biliary System SGPT increased, SGOT increased. Metabolic and Nutritional Hyperuricemia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, increased alkaline phosphatase, glycosuria, hypervolemia, diabetes mellitus, GGT increased, weight loss, hyperkalemia, creatinine increased. Musculoskeletal Muscle cramps. Platelet, Bleeding, and Clotting Prothrombin decreased, purpura, thrombocytopenia. Psychiatric Somnolence. Reproductive, male Impotence. Special Senses Blurred vision. Urinary System Renal insufficiency, albuminuria, hematuria. Left Ventricular Dysfunction following Myocardial Infarction Carvedilol tablets have been evaluated for safety in survivors of an acute myocardial infarction with left ventricular dysfunction in the CAPRICORN trial which involved 969 subjects who received carvedilol tablets and 980 who received placebo. Approximately 75% of the subjects received carvedilol tablets for at least 6 months and 53% received carvedilol tablets for at least 12 months. Subjects were treated for an average of 12.9 months and 12.8 months with carvedilol tablets and placebo, respectively. The most common adverse events reported with carvedilol tablets in the CAPRICORN trial were consistent with the profile of the drug in the US heart failure trials and the COPERNICUS trial. The only additional adverse events reported in CAPRICORN in greater than 3% of the subjects and more commonly on carvedilol were dyspnea, anemia, and lung edema. The following adverse events were reported with a frequency of greater than 1% but less than or equal to 3% and more frequently with carvedilol tablets: flu syndrome, cerebrovascular accident, peripheral vascular disorder, hypotonia, depression, gastrointestinal pain, arthritis, and gout. The overall rates of discontinuations due to adverse events were similar in both groups of subjects. In this database, the only cause of discontinuation greater than 1%, and occurring more often on carvedilol was hypotension (1.5% on carvedilol, 0.2% on placebo). Hypertension Carvedilol tablets have been evaluated for safety in hypertension in more than 2,193 subjects in US clinical trials and in 2,976 subjects in international clinical trials. Approximately 36% of the total treated population received carvedilol tablets for at least 6 months. Most adverse events reported during therapy with carvedilol tablets were of mild to moderate severity. In US controlled clinical trials directly comparing carvedilol tablets in doses up to 50 mg (n = 1,142) with placebo (n = 462), 4.9% of subjects receiving carvedilol tablets discontinued for adverse events versus 5.2% of placebo subjects. Although there was no overall difference in discontinuation rates, discontinuations were more common in the carvedilol group for postural hypotension (1% versus 0). The overall incidence of adverse events in US placebo-controlled trials increased with increasing dose of carvedilol tablets. For individual adverse events this could only be distinguished for dizziness, which increased in frequency from 2% to 5% as total daily dose increased from 6.25 mg to 50 mg. Table 2 shows adverse events in US placebo-controlled clinical trials for hypertension that occurred with an incidence of greater than or equal to 1% regardless of causality, and that were more frequent in drug-treated subjects than placebo-treated subjects. Table 2 Adverse Events (%) Occurring in US Placebo-Controlled Hypertension Trials (Incidence > 1%, Regardless of Causality) Shown are events with rate >1% rounded to nearest integer. Body System/Adverse Event Carvedilol Tablets (n = 1,142) Placebo (n = 462) Cardiovascular Bradycardia Postural Hypotension Peripheral edema 2 2 1 -- -- -- Central Nervous System Dizziness Insomnia 6 2 5 1 Gastrointestinal Diarrhea 2 1 Hematologic Thrombocytopenia 1 -- Metabolic Hypertriglyceridemia 1 -- Dyspnea and fatigue were also reported in these trials, but the rates were equal or greater in subjects who received placebo. The following adverse events not described above were reported as possibly or probably related to carvedilol tablets in worldwide open or controlled trials with carvedilol tablets in subjects with hypertension or heart failure. Incidence greater than 0.1% to less than or equal to 1% Cardiovascular: Peripheral ischemia, tachycardia. Central and Peripheral Nervous System: Hypokinesia. Gastrointestinal: Bilirubinemia, increased hepatic enzymes (0.2% of hypertension patients and 0.4% of heart failure patients were discontinued from therapy because of increases in hepatic enzymes) [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] . Psychiatric: Nervousness, sleep disorder, aggravated depression, impaired concentration, abnormal thinking, paroniria, emotional lability. Respiratory System: Asthma [see Contraindications (4)] . Reproductive, male: Decreased libido. Skin and Appendages: Pruritus, rash erythematous, rash maculopapular, rash psoriaform, photosensitivity reaction. Special Senses: Tinnitus. Urinary System: Micturition frequency increased. Autonomic Nervous System: Dry mouth, sweating increased. Metabolic and Nutritional: Hypokalemia, hypertriglyceridemia. Hematologic: Anemia, leukopenia. The following events were reported in less than or equal to 0.1% of subjects and are potentially important: complete AV block, bundle branch block, myocardial ischemia, cerebrovascular disorder, convulsions, migraine, neuralgia, paresis, anaphylactoid reaction, alopecia, exfoliative dermatitis, amnesia, GI hemorrhage, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, decreased hearing, respiratory alkalosis, increased BUN, decreased HDL, pancytopenia, and atypical lymphocytes. Laboratory Abnormalities Reversible elevations in serum transaminases (ALT or AST) have been observed during treatment with carvedilol tablets. Rates of transaminase elevations (2- to 3-times the upper limit of normal) observed during controlled clinical trials have generally been similar between subjects treated with carvedilol tablets and those treated with placebo. However, transaminase elevations, confirmed by rechallenge, have been observed with carvedilol tablets. In a long-term, placebo-controlled trial in severe heart failure, subjects treated with carvedilol tablets had lower values for hepatic transaminases than subjects treated with placebo, possibly because improvements in cardiac function induced by carvedilol led to less hepatic congestion and/or improved hepatic blood flow. Carvedilol tablets have not been associated with clinically significant changes in serum potassium, total triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, or creatinine. No clinically relevant changes were noted in fasting serum glucose in hypertensive patients; fasting serum glucose was not evaluated in the heart failure clinical trials. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of carvedilol tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders Aplastic anemia. Immune System Disorders Hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions, angioedema, urticaria). Renal and Urinary Disorders Urinary incontinence. Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders Interstitial pneumonitis. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Carvedilol should be taken with food to slow the rate of absorption and reduce the incidence of orthostatic effects. Take with food. Individualize dosage and monitor during up-titration. ( 2) Heart failure: Start at 3.125 mg twice daily and increase to 6.25, 12.5, and then 25 mg twice daily over intervals of at least 2 weeks. Maintain lower doses if higher doses are not tolerated. ( 2.1) Left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction: Start at 6.25 mg twice daily and increase to 12.5 mg then 25 mg twice daily after intervals of 3 to 10 days. A lower starting dose or slower titration may be used. ( 2.2) Hypertension: Start at 6.25 mg twice daily and increase if needed for blood pressure control to 12.5 mg then 25 mg twice daily over intervals of 1 to 2 weeks. (2.3) 2.1 Heart Failure DOSAGE MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED AND CLOSELY MONITORED BY A PHYSICIAN DURING UP-TITRATION. Prior to initiation of Carvedilol tablets, it is recommended that fluid retention be minimized. The recommended starting dose of Carvedilol tablets is 3.125 mg twice daily for 2 weeks. If tolerated, patients may have their dose increased to 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg twice daily over successive intervals of at least 2 weeks. Patients should be maintained on lower doses if higher doses are not tolerated. A maximum dose of 50 mg twice daily has been administered to patients with mild-to-moderate heart failure weighing over 85 kg (187 lbs). Patients should be advised that initiation of treatment and (to a lesser extent) dosage increases may be associated with transient symptoms of dizziness or lightheadedness (and rarely syncope) within the first hour after dosing. During these periods, patients should avoid situations such as driving or hazardous tasks, where symptoms could result in injury. Vasodilatory symptoms often do not require treatment, but it may be useful to separate the time of dosing of Carvedilol tablets from that of the ACE inhibitor or to reduce temporarily the dose of the ACE inhibitor. The dose of Carvedilol tablets should not be increased until symptoms of worsening heart failure or vasodilation have been stabilized. Fluid retention (with or without transient worsening heart failure symptoms) should be treated by an increase in the dose of diuretics. The dose of Carvedilol tablets should be reduced if patients experience bradycardia (heart rate less than 55 beats per minute). Episodes of dizziness or fluid retention during initiation of Carvedilol tablets can generally be managed without discontinuation of treatment and do not preclude subsequent successful titration of, or a favorable response to, carvedilol. 2.2 Left Ventricular Dysfunction following Myocardial Infarction DOSAGE MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED AND MONITORED DURING UP-TITRATION. Treatment with carvedilol tablets may be started as an inpatient or outpatient and should be started after the patient is hemodynamically stable and fluid retention has been minimized. It is recommended that carvedilol tablets be started at 6.25 mg twice daily and increased after 3 to 10 days, based on tolerability, to 12.5 mg twice daily, then again to the target dose of 25 mg twice daily. A lower starting dose may be used (3.125 mg twice daily) and/or the rate of up-titration may be slowed if clinically indicated (e.g., due to low blood pressure or heart rate, or fluid retention). Patients should be maintained on lower doses if higher doses are not tolerated. The recommended dosing regimen need not be altered in patients who received treatment with an IV or oral β-blocker during the acute phase of the myocardial infarction. 2.3 Hypertension DOSAGE MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED. The recommended starting dose of carvedilol tablets is 6.25 mg twice daily. If this dose is tolerated, using standing systolic pressure measured about 1 hour after dosing as a guide, the dose should be maintained for 7 to 14 days, and then increased to 12.5 mg twice daily if needed, based on trough blood pressure, again using standing systolic pressure 1 hour after dosing as a guide for tolerance. This dose should also be maintained for 7 to 14 days and can then be adjusted upward to 25 mg twice daily if tolerated and needed. The full antihypertensive effect of carvedilol tablet is seen within 7 to 14 days. Total daily dose should not exceed 50 mg. Concomitant administration with a diuretic can be expected to produce additive effects and exaggerate the orthostatic component of carvedilol action. 2.4 Hepatic Impairment Carvedilol tablets should not be given to patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Contraindications (4)] .
Use in special populations
8. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Available data regarding use of carvedilol in pregnant women are insufficient to determine whether there are drug-associated risks of adverse developmental outcomes. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled hypertension in pregnancy. The use of beta blockers during the third trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of hypotension, bradycardia, hypoglycemia, and respiratory depression in the neonate [see Clinical Considerations]. In animal reproduction studies, there was no evidence of adverse developmental outcomes at clinically relevant doses [see Data]. Oral administration of carvedilol to pregnant rats during organogenesis resulted in post-implantation loss, decreased fetal body weight, and an increased frequency of delayed fetal skeletal development at maternally toxic doses that were 50 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD). In addition, oral administration of carvedilol to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis resulted in increased post-implantation loss at doses 25 times the MRHD [see Data]. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations are unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-Associated Maternal and/ or Embryo/ Fetal Risk: Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly. Fetal/ Neonatal Adverse Reactions: Neonates of women with hypertension who are treated with beta-blockers during the third trimester of pregnancy may be at increased risk for hypotension, bradycardia, hypoglycemia, and respiratory depression. Observe newborns for symptoms of hypotension, bradycardia, hypoglycemia, and respiratory depression and manage accordingly. Data Animal Data: Studies performed in rats and rabbits given carvedilol during fetal organogenesis revealed increased post-implantation loss in rats at a maternally toxic dose of 300 mg per kg per day (50 times the MRHD as mg per m 2) and in rabbits (in the absence of maternal toxicity) at doses of 75 mg per kg per day (25 times the MRHD as mg per m 2). In the rats, there was also a decrease in fetal body weight at 300 mg per kg per day (50 times the MRHD as mg per m 2), accompanied by an increased incidence of fetuses with delayed skeletal development. In rats, the no-effect level for embryo-fetal toxicity was 60 mg per kg per day (10 times the MRHD as mg per m 2); in rabbits, it was 15 mg per kg per day (5 times the MRHD as mg per m 2). In a pre- and post-natal development study in rats administered carvedilol from late gestation through lactation, increased embryo-lethality was observed at a maternally toxic dose of 200 mg per kg per day (approximately 32 times the MRHD as mg per m 2), and pup mortality and delays in physical growth / development were observed at 60 mg per kg per day (10 times the MRHD as mg per m 2) in the absence of maternal toxicity. The no-effect level was 12 mg per kg per day (2 times the MRHD as mg per m 2). Carvedilol was present in fetal rat tissue. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There are no data on the presence of carvedilol in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Carvedilol is present in the milk of lactating rats. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for carvedilol and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from carvedilol or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4 Pediatric Use Effectiveness of carvedilol tablets in patients younger than 18 years has not been established. In a double-blind trial, 161 children (mean age 6 years, range 2 months to 17 years; 45% younger than 2 years) with chronic heart failure [NYHA class II-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% for children with a systemic left ventricle (LV), and moderate-severe ventricular dysfunction qualitatively by echo for those with a systemic ventricle that was not an LV] who were receiving standard background treatment were randomized to placebo or to 2 dose levels of carvedilol. These dose levels produced placebo-corrected heart rate reduction of 4 to 6 heart beats per minute, indicative of β-blockade activity. Exposure appeared to be lower in pediatric subjects than adults. After 8 months of follow-up, there was no significant effect of treatment on clinical outcomes. Adverse reactions in this trial that occurred in greater than 10% of subjects treated with carvedilol and at twice the rate of placebo-treated subjects included chest pain (17% versus 6%), dizziness (13% versus 2%), and dyspnea (11% versus 0%). 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the 765 subjects with heart failure randomized to carvedilol in US clinical trials, 31% (235) were aged 65 years or older, and 7.3% (56) were aged 75 years or older. Of the 1,156 subjects randomized to carvedilol in a long-term, placebo-controlled trial in severe heart failure, 47% (547) were aged 65 years or older, and 15% (174) were aged 75 years or older. Of 3,025 subjects receiving carvedilol in heart failure trials worldwide, 42% were aged 65 years or older. Of the 975 myocardial infarction subjects randomized to carvedilol tablets in the CAPRICORN trial, 48% (468) were aged 65 years or older, and 11% (111) were aged 75 years or older. Of the 2,065 hypertensive subjects in US clinical trials of efficacy or safety who were treated with carvedilol tablets, 21% (436) were aged 65 years or older. Of 3,722 subjects receiving carvedilol tablets in hypertension clinical trials conducted worldwide, 24% were aged 65 years or older. With the exception of dizziness in hypertensive subjects (incidence 8.8% in the elderly versus 6% in younger subjects), no overall differences in the safety or effectiveness (see Figures 2 and 4) were observed between the older subjects and younger subjects in each of these populations. Similarly, other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Interactions

7. DRUG INTERACTIONS CYP P450 2D6 enzyme inhibitors may increase and rifampin may decrease carvedilol levels. ( 7.1, 7.5) Hypotensive agents (e.g., reserpine, MAO inhibitors, clonidine) may increase the risk of hypotension and/or severe bradycardia. ( 7.2) Cyclosporine or digoxin levels may increase. ( 7.3, 7.4) Both digitalis glycosides and β-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia. ( 7.4) Amiodarone may increase carvedilol levels resulting in further slowing of the heart rate or cardiac conduction. ( 7.6) Verapamil- or diltiazem-type calcium channel blockers may affect ECG and/or blood pressure. ( 7.7) Insulin and oral hypoglycemics action may be enhanced. ( 7.8) 7.1 CYP2D6 Inhibitors and Poor Metabolizers Interactions of carvedilol with potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 isoenzyme (such as quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and propafenone) have not been studied, but these drugs would be expected to increase blood levels of the R(+) enantiomer of carvedilol [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Retrospective analysis of side effects in clinical trials showed that poor 2D6 metabolizers had a higher rate of dizziness during up-titration, presumably resulting from vasodilating effects of the higher concentrations of the α-blocking R(+) enantiomer. 7.2 Hypotensive Agents Patients taking a β-blocker and a drug that can deplete catecholamines (e.g., reserpine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors) should be observed closely for signs of hypotension and/or severe bradycardia. Concomitant administration of clonidine with a β-blocker may cause hypotension and bradycardia. When concomitant treatment with a β-blocker and clonidine is to be terminated, the β-blocker should be discontinued first. Clonidine therapy can then be discontinued several days later by gradually decreasing the dosage. 7.3 Cyclosporine Modest increases in mean trough cyclosporine concentrations were observed following initiation of carvedilol treatment in 21 renal transplant subjects suffering from chronic vascular rejection. In about 30% of subjects, the dose of cyclosporine had to be reduced in order to maintain cyclosporine concentrations within the therapeutic range, while in the remainder no adjustment was needed. On the average for the group, the dose of cyclosporine was reduced about 20% in these subjects. Due to wide interindividual variability in the dose adjustment required, it is recommended that cyclosporine concentrations be monitored closely after initiation of carvedilol therapy and that the dose of cyclosporine be adjusted as appropriate. 7.4 Digitalis Glycosides Both digitalis glycosides and β-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia. Digoxin concentrations are increased by about 15% when digoxin and carvedilol are administered concomitantly. Therefore, increased monitoring of digoxin is recommended when initiating, adjusting, or discontinuing Carvedilol tablets [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)] . 7.5 Inducers/Inhibitors of Hepatic Metabolism Rifampin reduced plasma concentrations of carvedilol by about 70% [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)]. Cimetidine increased AUC by about 30% but caused no change in C max [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)] . 7.6 Amiodarone Amiodarone, and its metabolite desethyl amiodarone, inhibitors of CYP2C9, and P-glycoprotein, increased concentrations of the S(-)-enantiomer of carvedilol by at least 2 fold [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)] .The concomitant administration of amiodarone or other CYP2C9 inhibitors such as fluconazole with carvedilol may enhance the β-blocking properties of carvedilol resulting in further slowing of the heart rate or cardiac conduction. Patients should be observed for signs of bradycardia or heart block, particularly when one agent is added to pre-existing treatment with the other. 7.7 Calcium Channel Blockers Conduction disturbance (rarely with hemodynamic compromise) has been observed when carvedilol tablet is co-administered with diltiazem. As with β-blockers, if carvedilol tablet is administered with calcium channel blockers of the verapamil or diltiazem type, it is recommended that ECG and blood pressure be monitored. 7.8 Insulin or Oral Hypoglycemics β-blockers may enhance the blood-sugar-reducing effect of insulin and oral hypoglycemics. Therefore, in patients taking insulin or oral hypoglycemics, regular monitoring of blood glucose is recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. 7.9 Anesthesia If treatment with carvedilol is to be continued perioperatively, particular care should be taken when anesthetic agents that depress myocardial function, such as ether, cyclopropane, and trichloroethylene, are used [see Overdosage (10)] .

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA077614
Agency product number 0K47UL67F2
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 68084-865,68084-876,68084-854,68084-843
Date Last Revised 28-06-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Marketing authorisation holder American Health Packaging