6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The safety profile of carvedilol phosphate extended-release capsules was similar to that observed for immediate-release carvedilol. Most common adverse events seen with immediate-release carvedilol (6.1): •Hypertension (≥5%): Dizziness. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc. at 1-800-406-7984 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Carvedilol has been evaluated for safety in hypertensive subjects. The observed adverse event profile was consistent with the pharmacology of the drug and the health status of the subjects in the clinical trials. Adverse events reported for subjects with hypertension reflecting the use of either carvedilol phosphate extended-release capsules or immediate-release carvedilol are provided below. Excluded are adverse events considered too general to be informative, and those not reasonably associated with the use of the drug because they were associated with the condition being treated or are very common in the treated population. Rates of adverse events were generally similar across demographic subsets (men and women, elderly and non-elderly, blacks and non-blacks). Hypertension: Carvedilol phosphate extended-release capsules were evaluated for safety in an 8-week double-blind trial in 337 subjects with essential hypertension. The profile of adverse events observed with carvedilol phosphate extended-release capsules was generally similar to that observed with immediate-release carvedilol. The overall rates of discontinuations due to adverse events were similar between carvedilol phosphate extended-release capsules and placebo. Table 2. Adverse Events (%) Occurring More Frequently with Carvedilol Phosphate Extended-Release Capsules than with Placebo in Subjects with Hypertension (Incidence ≥1% in Subjects Treated with Carvedilol, Regardless of Causality) Adverse Event Carvedilol Phosphate Extended-Release Capsules (n = 253) Placebo (n = 84) Nasopharyngitis 4 0 Dizziness 2 1 Nausea 2 0 Edema peripheral 2 1 Nasal congestion 1 0 Paresthesia 1 0 Sinus congestion 1 0 Diarrhea 1 0 Insomnia 1 0 The following information describes the safety experience in hypertension with immediate-release carvedilol. Carvedilol has been evaluated for safety in hypertension in more than 2,193 subjects in U.S. clinical trials and in 2,976 subjects in international clinical trials. Approximately 36% of the total treated population received carvedilol for at least 6 months. In general, carvedilol was well tolerated at doses up to 50 mg daily. Most adverse events reported during carvedilol therapy were of mild to moderate severity. In U.S. controlled clinical trials directly comparing carvedilol monotherapy in doses up to 50 mg (n = 1,142) with placebo (n = 462), 4.9% of carvedilol subjects discontinued for adverse events versus 5.2% of placebo subjects. Although there was no overall difference in discontinuation rates, discontinuations were more common in the carvedilol group for postural hypotension (1% versus 0). The overall incidence of adverse events in U.S. placebo-controlled trials was found to increase with increasing dose of carvedilol. For individual adverse events this could only be distinguished for dizziness, which increased in frequency from 2% to 5% as total daily dose increased from 6.25 mg to 50 mg as single or divided doses. Table 3 shows adverse events in U.S. placebo-controlled clinical trials for hypertension that occurred with an incidence of ≥1% regardless of causality and that were more frequent in drug-treated subjects than placebo-treated subjects. Table 3. Adverse Events (% Occurrence) in U.S. Placebo-Controlled Hypertension Trials with Immediate-Release Carvedilol (Incidence ≥1% in Subjects Treated with Carvedilol, Regardless of Causality)Shown are events with rate >1% rounded to nearest integer. Adverse Event Carvedilol (n = 1,142) Placebo (n = 462) Cardiovascular Bradycardia 2 — Postural hypotension 2 — Peripheral edema 1 — Central Nervous System Dizziness 6 5 Insomnia 2 1 Gastrointestinal Diarrhea 2 1 Hematologic Thrombocytopenia 1 — Metabolic Hypertriglyceridemia 1 — Dyspnea and fatigue were also reported in these trials, but the rates were equal or greater in subjects who received placebo. The following adverse events not described above were reported as possibly or probably related to carvedilol in worldwide open or controlled trials with carvedilol in subjects with hypertension. Incidence >0.1% to ≤1% Cardiovascular: Peripheral ischemia, tachycardia. Central and Peripheral Nervous System: Hypokinesia. Gastrointestinal: Bilirubinemia, increased hepatic enzymes (0.2% of hypertension patients were discontinued from therapy because of increases in hepatic enzymes) [seeLaboratory Abnormalities]. Psychiatric: Nervousness, sleep disorder, aggravated depression, impaired concentration, abnormal thinking, paroniria, emotional lability. Respiratory System: Asthma [see Contraindications (4)]. Reproductive, male: Decreased libido. Skin and Appendages: Pruritus, rash erythematous, rash maculopapular, rash psoriaform, photosensitivity reaction. Special Senses: Tinnitus. Urinary System: Micturition frequency increased. Autonomic Nervous System: Dry mouth, sweating increased. Metabolic and Nutritional: Hypokalemia, hypertriglyceridemia. Hematologic: Anemia, leukopenia. The following events were reported in ≤0.1% of subjects and are potentially important: complete AV block, bundle branch block, myocardial ischemia, cerebrovascular disorder, convulsions, migraine, neuralgia, paresis, anaphylactoid reaction, alopecia, exfoliative dermatitis, amnesia, GI hemorrhage, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, decreased hearing, respiratory alkalosis, increased BUN, decreased HDL, pancytopenia, and atypical lymphocytes. Laboratory Abnormalities Reversible elevations in serum transaminases (ALT or AST) have been observed during treatment with carvedilol. Rates of transaminase elevations (2 to 3 times the upper limit of normal) observed during controlled clinical trials have generally been similar between subjects treated with carvedilol and those treated with placebo. However, transaminase elevations, confirmed by rechallenge, have been observed with carvedilol. Carvedilol therapy has not been associated with clinically significant changes in serum potassium, total triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, or creatinine. No clinically relevant changes were noted in fasting serum glucose in hypertensive subjects. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of carvedilol tablets or carvedilol phosphate extended-release capsules. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Aplastic anemia. Immune System Disorders: Hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions, angioedema, urticaria). Renal and Urinary Disorders: Urinary incontinence. Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders: Interstitial pneumonitis. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme.