Data from FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 July 2018

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage) are indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive medications. Diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage) are indicated for the management of chronic stable angina and angina due to coronary artery spasm.

Learning Zones

An epgonline.org Learning Zone (LZ) is an area of the site dedicated to providing detailed self-directed medical education about a disease, condition or procedure.

Cardiovascular Metabolism Knowledge Centre

Cardiovascular Metabolism Knowledge Centre

The Cardiovascular Metabolism Knowledge Centre is an information hub providing expert insight into the management of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. This Knowledge Centre contains a wealth of scientific video content offering insights and opinion from some of the leading experts in the field.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a chronic condition characterised by recurrent interruptions in breathing throughout the sleep cycle. Learn about the two main types of sleep apnea and hear from experts as they present the latest research at the Sleep and Breathing conference (Marseille, 2019).

ESICM LIVES Highlights

ESICM LIVES Highlights

ESICM LIVES Congress 2018: Bringing you the latest news and insights from the 31st ESICM LIVES Congress, 20–24 October 2018 Paris, France.

Load more

Related Content

Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Diltiazem is contraindicated in (1) patients with sick sinus syndrome except in the presence of a functioning ventricular pacemaker, (2) patients with second- or third-degree AV block except in the presence of a functioning ventricular pacemaker, (3) patients with hypotension (less than 90 mm Hg systolic), (4) patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to the drug, and (5) patients with acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary congestion documented by x-ray on admission.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General Diltiazem hydrochloride is extensively metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys and in bile. Laboratory parameters of renal and hepatic function should be monitored at regular intervals. In subacute and chronic dog and rat studies designed to produce toxicity, high doses of diltiazem were associated with hepatic damage. In special subacute hepatic studies, oral doses of 125 mg/kg and higher in rats were associated with histological changes in the liver which were reversible when the drug was discontinued. In dogs, doses of 20 mg/kg were also associated with hepatic changes; however, these changes were reversible with continued dosing. Dermatological events (see ADVERSE REACTIONS ) may be transient and may disappear despite continued use of diltiazem. However, skin eruptions progressing to erythema multiforme and/or exfoliative dermatitis have also been infrequently reported. Should a dermatologic reaction persist, the drug should be discontinued. Drug Interactions Because of the potential for additive effects, slow titration is warranted in patients receiving diltiazem concomitantly with other agents known to affect cardiac contractility and/or conduction (see WARNINGS ). Pharmacologic studies indicate that there may be additive effects in prolonging AV conduction when using beta-blockers or digitalis concomitantly with diltiazem (see WARNINGS ). Diltiazem is both a substrate and an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme system. Other drugs that are specific substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of this enzyme system may have a significant impact on the efficacy and side effect profile of diltiazem. Patients taking other drugs that are substrates of CYP450 3A4, especially patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment, may require dosage adjustment when starting or stopping concomitantly administered diltiazem in order to maintain optimum therapeutic blood levels. Anesthetics: The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium channel blockers. When used concomitantly, titrate anesthetics and calcium blockers slowly. Benzodiazepines: Studies showed that diltiazem increased the AUC of midazolam and triazolam by 3- to 4- fold and the Cmax by 2-fold, compared to placebo. The elimination half-life of midazolam and triazolam also increased (1.5- to 2.5-fold) during coadministration with diltiazem. These pharmacokinetic effects seen during diltiazem coadministration can result in increased clinical effects (e.g., prolonged sedation) of both midazolam and triazolam. Beta-blockers: Controlled and uncontrolled domestic studies suggest that concomitant use of diltiazem and beta-blockers is usually well tolerated, but available data are not sufficient to predict the effects of concomitant treatment in patients with left ventricular dysfunction or cardiac conduction abnormalities. Administration of diltiazem hydrochloride concomitantly with propranolol in five normal volunteers resulted in increased propranolol levels in all subjects and bioavailability of propranolol was increased approximately 50%. In vitro, propranolol appears to be displaced from its binding sites by diltiazem. If combination therapy is initiated or withdrawn in conjunction with propranolol, an adjustment in the propranolol dose may be warranted (see WARNINGS ). Buspirone: In nine healthy subjects, diltiazem significantly increased the mean buspirone AUC 5.5-fold and Cmax 4.1-fold compared to placebo. The T1/2 and Tmax of buspirone were not significantly affected by diltiazem. Enhanced effects and increased toxicity of buspirone may be possible during concomitant administration with diltiazem. Subsequent dose adjustments may be necessary during coadministration, and should be based on clinical assessment. Carbamazepine: Concomitant administration of diltiazem with carbamazepine has been reported to result in elevated serum levels of carbamazepine (40% to 72% increase), resulting in toxicity in some cases. Cimetidine: A study in six healthy volunteers has shown a significant increase in peak diltiazem plasma levels (58%) and area under the curve (53%) after a 1-week course of cimetidine at 1200 mg per day and a single dose of diltiazem 60 mg. Ranitidine produced smaller, nonsignificant increases. The effect may be mediated by cimetidine’s known inhibition of hepatic cytochrome P450, the enzyme system responsible for the first-pass metabolism of diltiazem. Patients currently receiving diltiazem therapy should be carefully monitored for a change in pharmacological effect when initiating and discontinuing therapy with cimetidine. An adjustment in the diltiazem dose may be warranted. Clonidine: Sinus bradycardia resulting in hospitalization and pacemaker insertion has been reported in association with the use of clonidine concurrently with diltiazem. Monitor heart rate in patients receiving concomitant diltiazem and clonidine. Cyclosporine: A pharmacokinetic interaction between diltiazem and cyclosporine has been observed during studies involving renal and cardiac transplant patients. In renal and cardiac transplant recipients, a reduction of cyclosporine dose ranging from 15% to 48% was necessary to maintain cyclosporine trough concentrations similar to those seen prior to the addition of diltiazem. If these agents are to be administered concurrently, cyclosporine concentrations should be monitored, especially when diltiazem therapy is initiated, adjusted, or discontinued. The effect of cyclosporine on diltiazem plasma concentrations has not been evaluated. Digitalis: Administration of diltiazem with digoxin in 24 healthy male subjects increased plasma digoxin concentrations approximately 20%. Another investigator found no increase in digoxin levels in 12 patients with coronary artery disease. Monitor digoxin levels when initiating, adjusting, and discontinuing diltiazem therapy to avoid possible over- or under- digitalization (see WARNINGS ). Ivabradine: Concurrent use of diltiazem increases exposure to ivabradine and may exacerbate bradycardia and conduction disturbances. Avoid concomitant use of ivabradine and diltiazem. Quinidine: Diltiazem significantly increases the AUC(0-∞) of quinidine by 51%, T1/2 by 36%, and decreases its CLoral by 33%. Monitor for quinidine adverse effects and adjust the dose accordingly. Rifampin: Coadministration of rifampin with diltiazem lowered the diltiazem plasma concentrations to undetectable levels. Avoid coadministration of diltiazem with rifampin or any known CYP3A4 inducer. Statins: Diltiazem is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has been shown to increase significantly the AUC of some statins. The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with statins metabolized by CYP3A4 may be increased with concomitant use of diltiazem. When possible, use a non-CYP3A4-metabolized statin together with diltiazem; otherwise, monitor for signs and symptoms of any statin related adverse events, and adjust the doses accordingly. In a healthy volunteer crossover study (N=10), coadministration of a single 20 mg dose of simvastatin at the end of a 14 day regimen with 120 mg BID diltiazem SR resulted in a 5-fold increase in mean simvastatin AUC versus simvastatin alone. Subjects with increased average steady-state exposures of diltiazem showed a greater fold increase in simvastatin exposure. Computer-based simulations showed that at a daily dose of 480 mg of diltiazem, an 8- to 9-fold mean increase in simvastatin AUC can be expected. If coadministration of simvastatin with diltiazem is required, limit the daily doses of simvastatin to 10 mg and diltiazem to 240 mg. In a ten-subject randomized, open-label, 4-way crossover study, coadministration of diltiazem (120 mg BID diltiazem SR for 2 weeks) with a single 20 mg dose of lovastatin resulted in 3- to 4-fold increase in mean lovastatin AUC and Cmax versus lovastatin alone. In the same study, there was no significant change in 20 mg single dose pravastatin AUC and Cmax during diltiazem coadministration. Diltiazem plasma levels were not significantly affected by lovastatin or pravastatin. Alcohol: Alcohol increases the rate at which diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage) releases diltiazem in vitro. This effect may lead to more rapid absorption and an increase in the systemic exposure of diltiazem, and associated dose-related adverse reactions. Avoid consumption of alcohol with diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage) (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility A 24-month study in rats at oral dosage levels of up to 100 mg/kg/day and a 21-month study in mice at oral dosage levels of up to 30 mg/kg/day showed no evidence of carcinogenicity. There was also no mutagenic response in vitro or in vivo in mammalian cell assays or in vitro in bacteria. No evidence of impaired fertility was observed in a study performed in male and female rats at oral dosages of up to 100 mg/kg/day. Pregnancy Reproduction studies have been conducted in mice, rats, and rabbits. Administration of doses ranging from five to ten times greater (on a mg/kg basis) than the daily recommended therapeutic dose has resulted in embryo and fetal lethality. These doses, in some studies, have been reported to cause skeletal abnormalities. In the perinatal/postnatal studies, there was an increased incidence of stillbirths at doses of 20 times the human dose or greater. There are no well-controlled studies in pregnant women; therefore, use diltiazem in pregnant women only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nursing Mothers Diltiazem is excreted in human milk. One report suggests that concentrations in breast milk may approximate serum levels. If use of diltiazem is deemed essential, an alternative method of infant feeding should be instituted. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of diltiazem did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Serious adverse reactions have been rare in studies carried out to date, but it should be recognized that patients with impaired ventricular function and cardiac conduction abnormalities have usually been excluded from these studies. The following table presents the most common adverse reactions reported in placebo-controlled angina and hypertension trials in patients receiving diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsule (once-a-day dosage) up to 360 mg with rates in placebo patients shown for comparison. Diltiazem Hydrochloride Extended-release Capsule (once-a-day dosage) Placebo-Controlled Angina and Hypertension Trials Combined Adverse Reactions Diltiazem Hydrochloride Extended-release Capsule (once-a-day dosage) (n=607) Placebo (n=301) Headache 5.4% 5.0% Dizziness 3.0% 3.0% Bradycardia 3.3% 1.3% AV Block First Degree 3.3% 0.0% Edema 2.6% 1.3% Asthenia 1.8% 1.7% In addition, the following events were reported infrequently (less than 1%) in angina or hypertension trials: Cardiovascular: Congestive heart failure, palpitations, syncope, ventricular extrasystoles. Nervous System: Abnormal dreams, amnesia, depression, gait abnormality, hallucinations, insomnia, nervousness, paresthesia, personality change, somnolence, tinnitus, tremor. Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, dry mouth, dysgeusia, dyspepsia, mild elevations of SGOT, SGPT, LDH, and alkaline phosphatase (see WARNINGS , Acute Hepatic Injury ), thirst, vomiting, weight increase. Dermatological: Petechiae, photosensitivity, pruritus, urticaria. Other: Amblyopia, CPK increase, dyspnea, epistaxis, eye irritation, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, impotence, muscle cramps, nasal congestion, nocturia, osteoarticular pain, polyuria, sexual difficulties. The following postmarketing events have been reported infrequently in patients receiving diltiazem: acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, allergic reactions, alopecia, angioedema (including facial or periorbital edema), asystole, erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), exfoliative dermatitis, extrapyramidal symptoms, gingival hyperplasia, hemolytic anemia, increased bleeding time, leukopenia, photosensitivity (including lichenoid keratosis and hyperpigmentation at sun-exposed skin areas), purpura, retinopathy, myopathy, and thrombocytopenia. In addition, events such as myocardial infarction have been observed which are not readily distinguishable from the natural history of the disease in these patients. A number of well-documented cases of generalized rash, some characterized as leukocytoclastic vasculitis, have been reported. However, a definitive cause and effect relationship between these events and diltiazem therapy is yet to be established. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE EVENTS, contact Actavis at 1-800-272-5525 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or http://www.fda.gov/ for voluntary reporting of adverse reactions.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Patients controlled on diltiazem alone or in combination with other medications may be switched to diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage) at the nearest equivalent total daily dose. Higher doses of diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage) may be needed in some patients. Monitor patients closely. Subsequent titration to higher or lower doses may be necessary. There is limited general clinical experience with doses above 360 mg, but doses to 540 mg have been studied in clinical trials. The incidence of side effects increases as the dose increases with first-degree AV block, dizziness, and sinus bradycardia bearing the strongest relationship to dose. Hypertension: Adjust dosage to individual patient needs. When used as monotherapy, reasonable starting doses are 180 to 240 mg once daily, although some patients may respond to lower doses. Maximum antihypertensive effect is usually observed by 14 days of chronic therapy; therefore, schedule dosage adjustments accordingly. The usual dosage range studied in clinical trials was 240 to 360 mg once daily. Individual patients may respond to higher doses of up to 480 mg once daily. Angina: Dosages for the treatment of angina should be adjusted to each patient’s needs, starting with a dose of 120 or 180 mg once daily. Individual patients may respond to higher doses of up to 480 mg once daily. When necessary, titration may be carried out over a 7- to 14-day period. Concomitant Use with Other Cardiovascular Agents: Sublingual NTG: May be taken as required to abort acute anginal attacks during diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage) therapy. Prophylactic Nitrate Therapy: Diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage)may be safely coadministered with short- and long-acting nitrates. Beta-blockers: (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS). Antihypertensives: Diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage) have an additive antihypertensive effect when used with other antihypertensive agents. Therefore, the dosage of diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage) or the concomitant antihypertensives may need to be adjusted when adding one to the other.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Diltiazem is excreted in human milk. One report suggests that concentrations in breast milk may approximate serum levels. If use of diltiazem is deemed essential, an alternative method of infant feeding should be instituted.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Because of the potential for additive effects, slow titration is warranted in patients receiving diltiazem concomitantly with other agents known to affect cardiac contractility and/or conduction (see WARNINGS ). Pharmacologic studies indicate that there may be additive effects in prolonging AV conduction when using beta-blockers or digitalis concomitantly with diltiazem (see WARNINGS ). Diltiazem is both a substrate and an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme system. Other drugs that are specific substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of this enzyme system may have a significant impact on the efficacy and side effect profile of diltiazem. Patients taking other drugs that are substrates of CYP450 3A4, especially patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment, may require dosage adjustment when starting or stopping concomitantly administered diltiazem in order to maintain optimum therapeutic blood levels. Anesthetics: The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium channel blockers. When used concomitantly, titrate anesthetics and calcium blockers slowly. Benzodiazepines: Studies showed that diltiazem increased the AUC of midazolam and triazolam by 3- to 4- fold and the Cmax by 2-fold, compared to placebo. The elimination half-life of midazolam and triazolam also increased (1.5- to 2.5-fold) during coadministration with diltiazem. These pharmacokinetic effects seen during diltiazem coadministration can result in increased clinical effects (e.g., prolonged sedation) of both midazolam and triazolam. Beta-blockers: Controlled and uncontrolled domestic studies suggest that concomitant use of diltiazem and beta-blockers is usually well tolerated, but available data are not sufficient to predict the effects of concomitant treatment in patients with left ventricular dysfunction or cardiac conduction abnormalities. Administration of diltiazem hydrochloride concomitantly with propranolol in five normal volunteers resulted in increased propranolol levels in all subjects and bioavailability of propranolol was increased approximately 50%. In vitro, propranolol appears to be displaced from its binding sites by diltiazem. If combination therapy is initiated or withdrawn in conjunction with propranolol, an adjustment in the propranolol dose may be warranted (see WARNINGS ). Buspirone: In nine healthy subjects, diltiazem significantly increased the mean buspirone AUC 5.5-fold and Cmax 4.1-fold compared to placebo. The T1/2 and Tmax of buspirone were not significantly affected by diltiazem. Enhanced effects and increased toxicity of buspirone may be possible during concomitant administration with diltiazem. Subsequent dose adjustments may be necessary during coadministration, and should be based on clinical assessment. Carbamazepine: Concomitant administration of diltiazem with carbamazepine has been reported to result in elevated serum levels of carbamazepine (40% to 72% increase), resulting in toxicity in some cases. Cimetidine: A study in six healthy volunteers has shown a significant increase in peak diltiazem plasma levels (58%) and area under the curve (53%) after a 1-week course of cimetidine at 1200 mg per day and a single dose of diltiazem 60 mg. Ranitidine produced smaller, nonsignificant increases. The effect may be mediated by cimetidine’s known inhibition of hepatic cytochrome P450, the enzyme system responsible for the first-pass metabolism of diltiazem. Patients currently receiving diltiazem therapy should be carefully monitored for a change in pharmacological effect when initiating and discontinuing therapy with cimetidine. An adjustment in the diltiazem dose may be warranted. Clonidine: Sinus bradycardia resulting in hospitalization and pacemaker insertion has been reported in association with the use of clonidine concurrently with diltiazem. Monitor heart rate in patients receiving concomitant diltiazem and clonidine. Cyclosporine: A pharmacokinetic interaction between diltiazem and cyclosporine has been observed during studies involving renal and cardiac transplant patients. In renal and cardiac transplant recipients, a reduction of cyclosporine dose ranging from 15% to 48% was necessary to maintain cyclosporine trough concentrations similar to those seen prior to the addition of diltiazem. If these agents are to be administered concurrently, cyclosporine concentrations should be monitored, especially when diltiazem therapy is initiated, adjusted, or discontinued. The effect of cyclosporine on diltiazem plasma concentrations has not been evaluated. Digitalis: Administration of diltiazem with digoxin in 24 healthy male subjects increased plasma digoxin concentrations approximately 20%. Another investigator found no increase in digoxin levels in 12 patients with coronary artery disease. Monitor digoxin levels when initiating, adjusting, and discontinuing diltiazem therapy to avoid possible over- or under- digitalization (see WARNINGS ). Ivabradine: Concurrent use of diltiazem increases exposure to ivabradine and may exacerbate bradycardia and conduction disturbances. Avoid concomitant use of ivabradine and diltiazem. Quinidine: Diltiazem significantly increases the AUC(0-∞) of quinidine by 51%, T1/2 by 36%, and decreases its CLoral by 33%. Monitor for quinidine adverse effects and adjust the dose accordingly. Rifampin: Coadministration of rifampin with diltiazem lowered the diltiazem plasma concentrations to undetectable levels. Avoid coadministration of diltiazem with rifampin or any known CYP3A4 inducer. Statins: Diltiazem is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has been shown to increase significantly the AUC of some statins. The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with statins metabolized by CYP3A4 may be increased with concomitant use of diltiazem. When possible, use a non-CYP3A4-metabolized statin together with diltiazem; otherwise, monitor for signs and symptoms of any statin related adverse events, and adjust the doses accordingly. In a healthy volunteer crossover study (N=10), coadministration of a single 20 mg dose of simvastatin at the end of a 14 day regimen with 120 mg BID diltiazem SR resulted in a 5-fold increase in mean simvastatin AUC versus simvastatin alone. Subjects with increased average steady-state exposures of diltiazem showed a greater fold increase in simvastatin exposure. Computer-based simulations showed that at a daily dose of 480 mg of diltiazem, an 8- to 9-fold mean increase in simvastatin AUC can be expected. If coadministration of simvastatin with diltiazem is required, limit the daily doses of simvastatin to 10 mg and diltiazem to 240 mg. In a ten-subject randomized, open-label, 4-way crossover study, coadministration of diltiazem (120 mg BID diltiazem SR for 2 weeks) with a single 20 mg dose of lovastatin resulted in 3- to 4-fold increase in mean lovastatin AUC and Cmax versus lovastatin alone. In the same study, there was no significant change in 20 mg single dose pravastatin AUC and Cmax during diltiazem coadministration. Diltiazem plasma levels were not significantly affected by lovastatin or pravastatin. Alcohol: Alcohol increases the rate at which diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage) releases diltiazem in vitro. This effect may lead to more rapid absorption and an increase in the systemic exposure of diltiazem, and associated dose-related adverse reactions. Avoid consumption of alcohol with diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules (once-a-day dosage) (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA074752
Agency product number OLH94387TE
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 50090-3124,50090-3051
Date Last Revised 26-06-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
Storage and handling Storage Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Avoid excessive humidity. Dispense in tight, light resistant container as defined in USP
Marketing authorisation holder A-S Medication Solutions