Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 30 April 2018

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) is indicated in the treatment of primary systemic carnitine deficiency. In the reported cases, the clinical presentation consisted of recurrent episodes of Reye-like encephalopathy, hypoketotic hypoglycemia, and/or cardiomyopathy. Associated symptoms included hypotonia, muscle weakness and failure to thrive. A diagnosis of primary carnitine deficiency requires that serum, red cell and/or tissue carnitine levels be low and that the patient does not have a primary defect in fatty acid or organic acid oxidation (see Clinical Pharmacology). In some patients, particularly those presenting with cardiomyopathy, carnitine supplementation rapidly alleviated signs and symptoms. Treatment should include, in addition to carnitine, supportive and other therapy as indicated by the condition of the patient. CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) is also indicated for acute and chronic treatment of patients with an inborn error of metabolism which results in a secondary carnitine deficiency.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS None known.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) Oral Solution and CARNITOR® SF (levocarnitine) Sugar-Free Oral Solution are for oral/internal use only. Not for parenteral use. Gastrointestinal reactions may result from a too rapid consumption of carnitine. CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) Oral Solution and CARNITOR® SF (levocarnitine) Sugar-Free Oral Solution may be consumed alone, or dissolved in drinks or other liquid foods to reduce taste fatigue. They should be consumed slowly and doses should be spaced evenly throughout the day to maximize tolerance. The safety and efficacy of oral levocarnitine has not been evaluated in patients with renal insufficiency. Chronic administration of high doses of oral levocarnitine in patients with severely compromised renal function or in ESRD patients on dialysis may result in accumulation of the potentially toxic metabolites, trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), since these metabolites are normally excreted in the urine. Drug Interactions Reports of INR increase with the use of warfarin have been observed. It is recommended that INR levels be monitored in patients on warfarin therapy after the initiation of treatment with levocarnitine or after dose adjustments. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Mutagenicity tests performed in Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe indicate that levocarnitine is not mutagenic. No long-term animal studies have been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of levocarnitine. Pregnancy Reproductive studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 3.8 times the human dose on the basis of surface area and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to CARNITOR®. There are, however, no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nursing Mothers Levocarnitine supplementation in nursing mothers has not been specifically studied. Studies in dairy cows indicate that the concentration of levocarnitine in milk is increased following exogenous administration of levocarnitine. In nursing mothers receiving levocarnitine, any risks to the child of excess carnitine intake need to be weighed against the benefits of levocarnitine supplementation to the mother. Consideration may be given to discontinuation of nursing or of levocarnitine treatment. Pediatric Use See Dosage and Administration.
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions associated with the use of oral formulations of levocarnitine were identified in clinical trials or postmarketing reports. Because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency, reliability, or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Gastrointestinal Reactions: Various mild gastrointestinal complaints have been reported during the long-term administration of oral L- or D,L-carnitine; these include transient nausea and vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Gastrointestinal adverse reactions with CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) Oral Solution or CARNITOR® SF (levocarnitine) Sugar-Free Oral Solution dissolved in liquids might be avoided by a slow consumption of the solution or by a greater dilution. Decreasing the dosage often diminishes or eliminates drug-related patient body odor or gastrointestinal symptoms when present. Tolerance should be monitored very closely during the first week of administration, and after any dosage increases. Musculoskeletal Reactions: Mild myasthenia has been described only in uremic patients receiving D,L-carnitine. Neurologic Reactions: Seizures have been reported to occur in patients with or without pre-existing seizure activity receiving either oral or intravenous levocarnitine. In patients with pre-existing seizure activity, an increase in seizure frequency and/or severity has been reported. Hypersensitivity Reactions: Rash, urticaria, and facial edema have been reported with oral CARNITOR® (see WARNINGS ).

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) Tablets. Adults: The recommended oral dosage for adults is 990 mg two or three times a day using the 330 mg tablets, depending on clinical response. Infants and children: The recommended oral dosage for infants and children is between 50 and 100 mg/kg/day in divided doses, with a maximum of 3 g/day. Dosage should begin at 50 mg/kg/day. The exact dosage will depend on clinical response. Monitoring should include periodic blood chemistries, vital signs, plasma carnitine concentrations and overall clinical condition. CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) Oral Solution and CARNITOR® SF (levocarnitine) Sugar-Free Oral Solution. For oral use only. Not for parenteral use. Adults: The recommended dosage of levocarnitine is 1 to 3 g/day for a 50 kg subject, which is equivalent to 10 to 30 mL/day of CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) Oral Solution or CARNITOR® SF (levocarnitine) Sugar-Free Oral Solution. Higher doses should be administered only with caution and only where clinical and biochemical considerations make it seem likely that higher doses will be of benefit. Dosage should start at 1 g/day, (10 mL/day), and be increased slowly while assessing tolerance and therapeutic response. Monitoring should include periodic blood chemistries, vital signs, plasma carnitine concentrations, and overall clinical condition. Infants and children: The recommended dosage of levocarnitine is 50 to 100 mg/kg/day which is equivalent to 0.5 mL/kg/day CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) Oral Solution or CARNITOR® SF (levocarnitine) Sugar-Free Oral Solution. Higher doses should be administered only with caution and only where clinical and biochemical considerations make it seem likely that higher doses will be of benefit. Dosage should start at 50 mg/kg/day, and be increased slowly to a maximum of 3 g/day (30 mL/day) while assessing tolerance and therapeutic response. Monitoring should include periodic blood chemistries, vital signs, plasma carnitine concentrations, and overall clinical condition. CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) Oral Solution or CARNITOR® SF (levocarnitine) Sugar-Free Oral Solution may be consumed alone or dissolved in drink or other liquid food. Doses should be spaced evenly throughout the day (every three or four hours) preferably during or following meals and should be consumed slowly in order to maximize tolerance.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Levocarnitine supplementation in nursing mothers has not been specifically studied. Studies in dairy cows indicate that the concentration of levocarnitine in milk is increased following exogenous administration of levocarnitine. In nursing mothers receiving levocarnitine, any risks to the child of excess carnitine intake need to be weighed against the benefits of levocarnitine supplementation to the mother. Consideration may be given to discontinuation of nursing or of levocarnitine treatment.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Reports of INR increase with the use of warfarin have been observed. It is recommended that INR levels be monitored in patients on warfarin therapy after the initiation of treatment with levocarnitine or after dose adjustments.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA019257
Agency product number 0G389FZZ9M
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 54482-145
Date Last Revised 18-04-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 315134
Marketing authorisation holder Leadiant Biosciences, Inc.