Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 July 2018

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Candesartan cilexetil tablets are an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) indicated for: · Treatment of hypertension in adults and children 1 to <17 years of age, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions (1.1). · Treatment of heart failure (NYHA class II-IV); candesartan cilexetil tablets reduces cardiovascular death and heart failure hospitalization (1.2) 1.1 Hypertension Candesartan cilexetil tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension in adults and in children 1 to <17 years of age, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including the class to which this drug principally belongs. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy. Candesartan cilexetil tablets may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. 1.2 Heart Failure Candesartan cilexetil tablets are indicated for the treatment of heart failure (NYHA class II-IV) in adults with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤40%) to reduce cardiovascular death and to reduce heart failure hospitalizations [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Candesartan cilexetil tablets also have an added effect on these outcomes when used with an ACE inhibitor [see Drug Interactions (7.4)].

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Candesartan cilexetil tablets are contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to candesartan. Do not co-administer aliskiren with candesartan cilexetil tablets in patients with diabetes [see Drug Interactions (7.4)]. Known hypersensitivity to product components (4). Do not co-administer aliskiren with candesartan cilexetil tablets in patients with diabetes (4).
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS · Most common adverse reactions which caused adult patients to discontinue therapy for: o Hypertension were headache (0.6%) and dizziness (0.3%) (6.1). o Heart Failure were hypotension (4.1%) (5.3), abnormal renal function (6.3%) (5.4), and hyperkalemia (2.4%) (5.5). To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limited at 1-866 210 9797 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Studies Experience Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Adult Hypertension Candesartan cilexetil has been evaluated for safety in more than 3600 patients/subjects, including more than 3200 patients treated for hypertension. About 600 of these patients were studied for at least 6 months and about 200 for at least 1 year. In general, treatment with candesartan cilexetil was well tolerated. The overall incidence of adverse events reported with candesartan cilexetil was similar to placebo. The rate of withdrawals due to adverse events in all trials in patients (7510 total) was 3.3% (i.e., 108 of 3260) of patients treated with candesartan cilexetil as monotherapy and 3.5% (i.e., 39 of 1106) of patients treated with placebo. In placebo- controlled trials, discontinuation of therapy due to clinical adverse events occurred in 2.4% (i.e., 57 of 2350) of patients treated with candesartan cilexetil and 3.4% (i.e., 35 of 1027) of patients treated with placebo. The most common reasons for discontinuation of therapy with candesartan cilexetil were headache (0.6%) and dizziness (0.3%). The adverse events that occurred in placebo-controlled clinical trials in at least 1% of patients treated with candesartan cilexetil and at a higher incidence in candesartan cilexetil (n = 2350) than placebo (n = 1027) patients included back pain (3% vs. 2%), dizziness (4% vs. 3%), upper respiratory tract infection (6% vs. 4%), pharyngitis (2% vs. 1%), and rhinitis (2% vs. 1%). Pediatric Hypertension Among children in clinical studies, 1 in 93 children age 1 to <6 and 3 in 240 age 6 to <17 experienced worsening renal disease. The association between candesartan and exacerbation of the underlying condition could not be excluded. Heart Failure The adverse event profile of candesartan cilexetil in adult heart failure patients was consistent with the pharmacology of the drug and the health status of the patients. In the CHARM program, comparing candesartan cilexetil in total daily doses up to 32 mg once daily (n=3803) with placebo (n=3796), 21% of patients discontinued candesartan cilexetil for adverse events vs. 16.1% of placebo patients. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions were identified during post-approval use of candesartan cilexetil. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The following have been very rarely reported in post-marketing experience: Digestive: Abnormal hepatic function and hepatitis. Hematologic: Neutropenia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis. Immunologic: Angioedema Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Hyperkalemia, hyponatremia. Respiratory system disorders: Cough Skin and Appendages Disorders: Pruritus, rash and urticaria. Rare reports of rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Starting Dose Target Dose Adult Hypertension (2.1) 16 mg tablet once daily 8 to 32 mg tablet total daily dose Pediatric Hypertension (1 to ˂6 years) (2.2) 0.2 mg/kg oral suspension once daily 0.05 to 0.4 mg/kg oral suspension once daily or consider divided dose Pediatric Hypertension (6 to ˂17 years) (2.2) <50 kg 4 to 8 mg tablet once daily >50 kg 8 to 16 mg tablet once daily <50 kg 4 to 16 mg tablet once daily or consider divided dose >50 kg 4 to 32 mg tablet once daily or consider divided dose Adult Heart Failure (2.3) 4 mg tablet once daily 1The target dose is 32 mg once daily, which is achieved by doubling the dose at approximately 2-week intervals, as tolerated by patient 2.1 Adult Hypertension Dosage must be individualized. Blood pressure response is dose related over the range of 2 to 32 mg. The usual recommended starting dose of candesartan cilexetil tablet is 16 mg once daily when it is used as monotherapy in patients who are not volume depleted. Candesartan cilexetil tablets can be administered once or twice daily with total daily doses ranging from 8 mg to 32 mg. Larger doses do not appear to have a greater effect, and there is relatively little experience with such doses. Most of the antihypertensive effect is present within 2 weeks, and maximal blood pressure reduction is generally obtained within 4 to 6 weeks of treatment with candesartan cilexetil tablets. Use in Hepatic Impairment: Initiate with 8 mg candesartan cilexetil tablets in patients with moderate hepatic insufficiency. Dosing recommendations cannot be provided for patients with severe hepatic insufficiency [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Candesartan cilexetil tablets may be administered with or without food. If blood pressure is not controlled by candesartan cilexetil tablets alone, a diuretic may be added. Candesartan cilexetil tablets may be administered with other antihypertensive agents. 2.2 Pediatric Hypertension 1 to <17 Years of Age Candesartan cilexetil tablets may be administered once daily or divided into two equal doses. Adjust the dosage according to blood pressure response. For patients with possible depletion of intravascular volume (e.g., patients treated with diuretics, particularly those with impaired renal function), initiate candesartan cilexetil tablets under close medical supervision and consider administration of a lower dose [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Children 1 to <6 years of age: The dose range is 0.05 to 0.4 mg/kg per day. The recommended starting dose is 0.2 mg/kg (oral suspension). Children 6 to <17 years of age: For those less than 50 kg, the dose range is 2 to 16 mg per day. The recommended starting dose is 4 to 8 mg. For those greater than 50 kg, the dose range is 4 to 32 mg per day. The recommended starting dose is 8 to 16 mg. Doses above 0.4 mg/kg (1 to <6 year olds) or 32 mg (6 to <17 year olds) have not been studied in pediatric patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. An antihypertensive effect is usually present within 2 weeks, with full effect generally obtained within 4 weeks of treatment with candesartan cilexetil tablets. Children <1 year of age must not receive candesartan cilexetil tablets for hypertension. All pediatric patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 should not receive candesartan cilexetil tablets since candesartan cilexetil tablets has not been studied in this population [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. For children who cannot swallow tablets, an oral suspension may be substituted as described below: Preparation of Oral Suspension: Candesartan cilexetil oral suspension can be prepared in concentrations within the range of 0.1 to 2 mg/mL. Typically, a concentration of 1 mg/mL will be suitable for the prescribed dose. Any strength of candesartan cilexetil tablets can be used in the preparation of the suspension. Follow the steps below for preparation of the suspension. The number of tablets and volume of vehicle specified below will yield 160 mL of a 1 mg/mL suspension. · Prepare the vehicle by adding equal volumes of Ora-Plus® (80 mL) and Ora-Sweet SF® (80 mL) or, alternatively, use, Ora-Blend SF® (160 mL). · Add a small amount of vehicle to the required number of candesartan cilexetil tablets (five 32 mg tablets) and grind into a smooth paste using a mortar and pestle. · Add the paste to a preparation vessel of suitable size. · Rinse the mortar and pestle clean using the vehicle and add this to the vessel. Repeat, if necessary. · Prepare the final volume by adding the remaining vehicle. · Mix thoroughly. · Dispense into suitably sized amber PET bottles. · Label with an expiry date of 100 days and include the following instructions: Store at room temperature (below 30°C/86°F). Use within 30 days after first opening. Do not use after the expiry date stated on the bottle. Do not freeze. Shake well before each use. 2.3 Adult Heart Failure The recommended initial dose for treating heart failure is 4 mg once daily. The target dose is 32 mg once daily, which is achieved by doubling the dose at approximately 2-week intervals, as tolerated by the patient.
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS · Nursing Mothers: Either nursing or drug should be discontinued (8.3). · Pediatrics: Children <1 year of age must not receive candesartan cilexetil for hypertension (5.2). Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system can cause renal abnormalities in neonatal animals (12.3). 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue candesartan cilexetil as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue candesartan cilexetil, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to candesartan cilexetil for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. 8.2 Labor and Delivery The effect of candesartan cilexetil on labor and delivery in humans is unknown [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether candesartan is excreted in human milk, but candesartan has been shown to be present in rat milk. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue candesartan cilexetil, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to candesartan cilexetil: If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. The antihypertensive effects of candesartan cilexetil were evaluated in hypertensive children 1 to <17 years of age in randomized, double-blind clinical studies [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. The pharmacokinetics of candesartan cilexetil have been evaluated in pediatric patients 1 to <17 years of age [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Children <1 year of age must not receive candesartan cilexetil for hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Pregnancy and lactation
8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether candesartan is excreted in human milk, but candesartan has been shown to be present in rat milk. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue candesartan cilexetil, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS · Lithium: Increases in serum lithium concentrations and toxicity (7). · NSAIDS use may lead to increased risk of renal impairment and loss of antihypertensive effect (7). · Dual inhibition of the renin- angiotension system: Increased risk of renal impairment, hypotension, and hyperkalemia (7) . • Combined inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system: Increased risk of renal impairment, hypotension, and hyperkalemia (7). 7.1 Agents Increasing Serum Potassium Coadministration of candesartan cilexetil with potassium sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes or other drugs that raise serum potassium levels may result in hyperkalemia. Monitor serum potassium in such patients. 7.2 Lithium Increases in serum lithium concentrations and toxicity have been reported during concomitant administration of lithium with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including candesartan cilexetil. Monitor serum lithium levels. 7.3 Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors) In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co­administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including candesartan, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving candesartan and NSAID therapy. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including candesartan may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors. 7.4 Combination Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Triple combination of candesartan cilexetil with an ACE-inhibitor and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist is generally not recommended. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on candesartan cilexetil and other agents that affect the RAS. Do not co-administer aliskiren with candesartan cilexetil in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with candesartan cilexetil in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 ml/min) [see Contraindications (4)].

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA209119
Agency product number R85M2X0D68
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 62332-060
Date Last Revised 18-06-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 639537
Marketing authorisation holder Alembic Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Warnings WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY • When pregnancy is detected, discontinue candesartan cilexetil tablets as soon as possible [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. • Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. • When pregnancy is detected, discontinue candesartan cilexetil tablets as soon as possible. (5.1) • Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. (5.1)