Data from FDA - Curated by Marshall Pearce - Last updated 28 September 2017

Indication(s)

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules are indicated for the management of the symptom complex of tension (or muscle contraction) headache when non-opioid analgesic and alternative treatments are inadequate. Limitations of Use Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids and butalbital, even at recommended doses [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )], reserve Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options [e.g., non-opioid, non-barbiturate analgesics]: • Have not been tolerated, or are not expected to be tolerated, • Have not provided adequate analgesia, or are not expected to provide adequate analgesia. Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsule is a combination product of butalbital, a barbiturate; acetaminophen; caffeine, a methylxanthine; and codeine phosphate, an opioid agonist; and is indicated for the management of the symptom complex of tension (or muscle contraction) headache, when other non-opioid analgesic and alternative treatments are inadequate. (1) Limitations of Use Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, even at recommended doses, reserve Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options (e.g., non-opioid, non-barbiturate analgesics): •Have not been tolerated, or are not expected to be tolerated, •Have not provided adequate analgesia, or are not expected to provide adequate analgesia.

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Advisory information

contraindications
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules are contraindicated for: • All children younger than 12 years of age [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] . • Postoperative management in children younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] . Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules are also contraindicated in patients with: • Significant respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] • Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8 )] •Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or use of MAOIs within the last 14 days [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9), Drug Interactions (7)] • Known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13 )] •Known intolerance or hypersensitivity to acetaminophen, caffeine, butalbital, or codeine or to the components of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules •Porphyria •Children younger than 12 years of age. (4) •Post-operative management in children younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. (4) •Significant respiratory depression. (4) •Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in absence of resuscitative equipment. (4) •Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or use of MAOIs within the last 14 days. (4) •Known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus. (4) •Intolerance or hypersensitivity to acetaminophen, caffeine, butalbital or codeine, or components of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules. (4) •Porphyria. (4)
Adverse reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are described, or described in greater detail, in other sections: •Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] •Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] •Interactions with Benzodiazepines and other CNS Depressants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] •Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Codeine and Other Risk Factors for Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Children [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] •Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] •Hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] •Adrenal Insufficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)] •Severe Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)] •Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)] •Seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)] •Withdrawal [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)] •Serious Skin Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.17)] •Anaphylaxis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.18)] The following adverse reactions associated with the use of butalbital, acetaminophen, caffeine, and codeine phosphate were identified in clinical studies or postmarketing reports. Because some of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Frequently Observed The most frequently reported adverse reactions were drowsiness, lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and intoxicated feeling. Infrequently Observed All adverse events tabulated below are classified as infrequent. Central Nervous: headache, shaky feeling, tingling, agitation, fainting, fatigue, heavy eyelids, high energy, hot spells, numbness, sluggishness, seizure. Mental confusion, excitement or depression can also occur due to intolerance, particularly in elderly or debilitated patients, or due to overdosage of butalbital. Autonomic Nervous: dry mouth, hyperhidrosis. Gastrointestinal: difficulty swallowing, heartburn, flatulence, constipation. Cardiovascular : tachycardia. Musculoskeletal: leg pain, muscle fatigue. Genitourinary: diuresis. Miscellaneous: pruritus, fever, earache, nasal congestion, tinnitus, euphoria, allergic reactions. The following adverse reactions have been voluntarily reported as temporally associated with Butalbital, Aspirin, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules, a related product containing aspirin, butalbital, caffeine, and codeine phosphate. Central Nervous: abuse, addiction, anxiety, disorientation, hallucination, hyperactivity, insomnia, libido decrease, nervousness, neuropathy, psychosis, sexual activity increase, slurred speech, twitching, unconsciousness, vertigo. Autonomic Nervous: epistaxis, flushing, miosis, salivation. Gastrointestinal: anorexia, appetite increased, diarrhea, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal spasms, hiccup, mouth burning, pyloric ulcer. Cardiovascular: chest pain, hypotensive reaction, palpitations, syncope. Skin: erythema, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, hives, rash, toxic epidermal necrolysis. Urinary: kidney impairment, urinary difficulty. Miscellaneous: allergic reaction, anaphylactic shock, cholangiocarcinoma, drug interaction with erythromycin (stomach upset), edema. The following adverse reactions have been reported with the components of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules. Potential effects of high dosage are listed in the OVERDOSAGE section. Acetaminophen: allergic reactions, rash, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis. Caffeine: cardiac stimulation, irritability, tremor, dependence, nephrotoxicity, hyperglycemia. Codeine: nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, lightheadedness, constipation, pruritus. Several cases of dermatological reactions, including toxic epidermal necrolysis and erythema multiforme, have been reported for butalbital, acetaminophen, and caffeine tablets, USP. Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs. Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use. Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. Frequently reported adverse reactions are drowsiness, lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and intoxicated feeling. (6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Actavis Pharma, Inc. at 1-800-272-5525 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION •Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals. (2.1) •Individualize dosing based on the severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse. (2.1) •Initiate treatment with one or two capsules every 4 hours as needed for pain. Total daily dosage should not exceed 6 capsules. (2.2) •Do not stop Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules abruptly in a physically dependent patient. (2.3) 2.1 Important Dosage and Administration Instructions Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic treatment experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )]. Evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules in the treatment of multiple recurrent headaches is unavailable. 2.2 Dosing Information One or two capsules every 4 hours as needed for pain. Total daily dosage should not exceed 6 capsules. 2.3 Discontinuation of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules While not indicated for around-the-clock therapy, when a patient who has been taking Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules regularly and may be physically dependent no longer requires therapy with Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules, taper the dose gradually, by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days, while monitoring carefully for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. If the patient develops these signs or symptoms, raise the dose to the previous level and taper more slowly, either by increasing the interval between decreases, decreasing the amount of change in dose, or both. Do not abruptly discontinue Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules in a physically dependent patient [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Use in special populations
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS • Pregnancy: May cause fetal harm. (8.1) • Lactation: Breastfeeding not recommended. (8.2) • Geriatric: Respiratory depression has occurred after large initial doses were administered. Increase dosage slowly. (8.5) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Available data with Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with the combination of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules or with butalbital alone. In animal reproduction studies, codeine administration during organogenesis has been shown to produce delayed ossification in the offspring of mice at 2.8 times maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 180 mg/day, embryolethal and fetotoxic effects in the offspring of rats and hamsters at approximately 4 to 6 times the MRHD, and cranial malformations/cranioschisis in the offspring of hamsters between 2 and 8 times the MRHD. Reproductive and developmental studies in rats and mice from the published literature identified adverse events at clinically relevant doses with acetaminophen. Treatment of pregnant rats with doses of acetaminophen approximately 2 times the maximum human daily dose (MHDD) showed evidence of fetotoxicity and increases in bone variations in the fetuses. In another study, necrosis was observed in the liver and kidney of both pregnant rats and fetuses at doses approximately 2 times the MHDD. In mice treated with acetaminophen at doses within the clinical dosing range, cumulative adverse effects on reproduction were seen in a continuous breeding study. A reduction in number of litters of the parental mating pair was observed as well as retarded growth and abnormal sperm in their offspring and reduced birth weight in the next generation [see Data]. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Labor or Delivery Use of codeine during labor may lead to respiratory depression in the neonate. Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone, must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules are not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules, can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression. Data Human Data Published data from a large population-based prospective cohort study and a population-based, case-control study do not clearly report an association with oral acetaminophen and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes when acetaminophen is used during pregnancy. However, these studies cannot definitely establish the absence of any risk because of methodological limitations including recall bias. Withdrawal seizures were reported in a two-day-old male infant whose mother had taken a butalbital containing drug during the last 2 months of pregnancy. Butalbital was found in the infant's serum. The infant was given phenobarbital 5 mg/kg, which was tapered without further seizure or other withdrawal symptoms. Animal Data Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules or with butalbital alone. The following data are based on findings from studies performed with either codeine or acetaminophen alone. Codeine In a study in which pregnant hamsters were administered 150 mg/kg twice daily of codeine (oral; approximately 14 times the maximum recommended daily dose of 180 mg/day for adults on a mg/m2 basis) during organogenesis cranial malformations (i.e., meningoencephalocele) in several fetuses were reported; as well as the observation of increases in the percentage of resorptions per litter. Doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg, bid resulted in fetotoxicity as demonstrated by decreased fetal body weight. In an earlier study in hamsters, single oral doses of 73 to 360 mg/kg level on Gestation Day 8 (oral; approximately 4 to 16 times the maximum recommended daily dose of 180 mg/day for adults on a mg/m2 basis), reportedly produced cranioschisis in all of the fetuses examined. In studies in rats, doses at the 120 mg/kg level (oral; approximately 6 times the maximum recommended daily dose of 180 mg/day for adults on a mg/m2 basis) during organogenesis, in the toxic range for the adult animal, were associated with an increase in embryo resorption at the time of implantation. In pregnant mice, a single 100 mg/kg dose (subcutaneous; approximately 2.8 times the recommended daily dose of 180 mg/day for adults on a mg/mg2 basis) administered between Gestation Day 7 and 12 reportedly resulted in delayed ossification in the offspring. No teratogenic effects were observed in rabbits administered up to 30 mg/kg (approximately 4 times the maximum recommended daily dose of 180 mg/day for adults on a mg/m2 basis) of codeine during organogenesis. Codeine (30 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously to pregnant rats during pregnancy and for 25 days after delivery increased neonatal mortality at birth. This dose is 1.6 times the maximum recommended human dose of 180 mg/day on a body surface area comparison. Acetaminophen Studies in pregnant rats that received oral acetaminophen during organogenesis at doses up to 1.7 the maximum human daily dose (MHDD) of 1950 mg/day based on a body surface area comparison showed evidence of fetotoxicity (reduced fetal weight and length) and a dose-related increase in bone variations (reduced ossification and rudimentary rib changes). Offspring had no evidence of external, visceral, or skeletal malformations. When pregnant rats received oral acetaminophen throughout gestation at doses of 2.4 times the MHDD (based on a body surface area comparison), areas of necrosis occurred in both the liver and kidney of pregnant rats and fetuses. These effects did not occur in animals that received oral acetaminophen at doses 0.6 times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison. In a continuous breeding study, pregnant mice received 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0% acetaminophen via the diet (357, 715, or 1430 mg/kg/day). These doses are approximately 0.86, 1.7, and 3.4 times the MHDD, respectively, based on a body surface area comparison. A dose-related reduction in body weights of fourth and fifth litter offspring of the treated mating pair occurred during lactation and post-weaning at all doses. Animals in the high dose group had a reduced number of litters per mating pair, male offspring with an increased percentage of abnormal sperm, and reduced birth weights in the next generation pups. Caffeine In studies performed in adult animals, caffeine (as caffeine base) administered to pregnant mice as sustained release pellets at 50 mg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily dose on a mg/m2 basis), during the period of organogenesis, caused a low incidence of cleft palate and exencephaly in the fetuses. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Codeine and its active metabolite, morphine, are present in human milk. There are published studies and cases that have reported excessive sedation, respiratory depression, and death in infants exposed to codeine via breast milk. Women who are ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine achieve higher than expected serum levels of morphine, potentially leading to higher levels of morphine in breast milk that can be dangerous in their breastfed infants. In women with normal codeine metabolism (normal CYP2D6 activity), the amount of codeine secreted into human milk is low and dose-dependent. There is no information on the effects of the codeine on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including excess sedation, respiratory depression, and death in a breastfed infant, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Acetaminophen is present in human milk in small quantities after oral administration. Based on data from more than 15 nursing mothers, the calculated infant daily dose of acetaminophen is approximately 1 to 2% of the maternal dose. There is one well-documented report of a rash in a breastfed infant that resolved when the mother stopped acetaminophen use and recurred when she resumed acetaminophen use. Barbiturates and caffeine are also excreted in breast milk in small amounts. Because of potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Clinical Considerations If infants are exposed to Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules through breast milk, they should be monitored for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Infertility Chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility in females and males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Adverse Reactions (6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2), Nonclinical Pharmacology (13.1)]. Published literature indicates that acetaminophen affects sperm development in mice with consequent reduction in litter size in a multigeneration study [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules in pediatric patients have not been established. Life-threatening respiratory depression and deaths have occurred in children who received codeine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. In most of the reported cases, these events followed tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy, and many of the children had evidence of being ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine (i.e., multiple copies of the gene for cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2D6 or high morphine concentrations). Children with sleep apnea may be particularly sensitive to the respiratory depressant effects of codeine. Because of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression and death: •Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules are contraindicated for all children younger than 12 years of age [see Contraindications (4)]. •Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules are contraindicated for post-operative management in pediatric patients younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy [see Contraindications (4)]. •Avoid the use of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules in adolescents 12 to 18 years of age who have other risk factors that may increase their sensitivity to the respiratory depressant effects of codeine unless the benefits outweigh the risks. Risk factors include conditions associated with hypoventilation, such as postoperative status, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, severe pulmonary disease, neuromuscular disease, and concomitant use of other medications that cause respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Butalbital is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity to Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules. In general, use caution when selecting a dosage for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids, and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules slowly in geriatric patients and monitor closely for signs of respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]. Components of this product are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment No formal studies have been conducted in patients with hepatic impairment so the pharmacokinetics of butalbital, codeine, and acetaminophen in this patient population are unknown. Start these patients cautiously with lower doses of codeine sulfate or with longer dosing intervals and titrate slowly while carefully monitoring for side effects. 8.7 Renal Impairment Codeine pharmacokinetics may be altered in patients with renal failure. Clearance may be decreased and the metabolites may accumulate to much higher plasma levels in patients with renal failure as compared to patients with normal renal function. Start these patients cautiously with lower doses of codeine sulfate or with longer dosing intervals and titrate slowly while carefully monitoring for side effects. In patients with renal disease, monitor effects of therapy with serial renal function tests.

Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Table 1 includes clinically significant drug interactions with Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules. Table 1: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules Inhibitors of CYP3A4 Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules with CYP3A4 inhibitors may result in an increase in codeine plasma concentrations with subsequently greater metabolism by cytochrome CYP2D6, resulting in greater morphine levels, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules is achieved [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. After stopping a CYP3A4 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, it may result in lower codeine levels, greater norcodeine levels, and less metabolism via 2D6 with resultant lower morphine levels [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], resulting in decreased opioid efficacy or a withdrawal syndrome in patients who had developed physical dependence to codeine. Intervention: If concomitant use with CYP3A4 inhibitor is necessary, consider dosage reduction of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals. If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider increasing the Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Examples: Macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g. ketoconazole), protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir), grapefruit juice CYP3A4 Inducers Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules and CYP3A4 inducers can result in lower codeine levels, greater norcodeine levels, and less metabolism via 2D6 with resultant lower morphine levels [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], resulting in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. After stopping a CYP3A4 inducer, as the effects of the inducer decline, the codeine plasma concentration may increase with subsequently greater metabolism by cytochrome CYP2D6, resulting in greater morphine levels [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], which could increase or prolong both the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions, and may cause serious respiratory depression. Intervention: If concomitant use of a CYP3A4 inducer is necessary, follow the patient for reduced efficacy and signs of opioid withdrawal and consider increasing the Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules dosage as needed. If a CYP3A4 inducer is discontinued, consider Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules dosage reduction, and monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals. Examples: Rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin Inhibitors of CYP2D6 Clinical Impact: Codeine is metabolized by CYP2D6 to form morphine. The concomitant use of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules and CYP2D6 inhibitors can increase the plasma concentration of codeine, but can decrease the plasma concentrations of active metabolite morphine, which could result in reduced analgesic efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal, particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules is achieved [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. After stopping a CYP2D6 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, the codeine plasma concentration will decrease but the active metabolite morphine plasma concentration will increase, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention: If concomitant use with a CYP2D6 inhibitor is necessary, or if a CYP2D6 inhibitor is discontinued after concomitant use, consider dosage adjustment of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules and monitor patients closely at frequent intervals. If concomitant use with CYP2D6 inhibitors is necessary, follow the patient for reduced efficacy or signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal and consider increasing the Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules as needed. After stopping use of a CYP2D6 inhibitor, consider reducing the Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules and monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression or sedation. Examples: paroxetine, fluoxetine, bupropion, quinidine Benzodiazepines and Other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants Clinical Impact: Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Intervention: Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Examples: Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol. Serotonergic Drugs Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome. Intervention: If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Examples: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue). Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) Clinical Impact: MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. Intervention: Do not use Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules in patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of other opioids (such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, hydromorphone, or buprenorphine) to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. Examples: phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics Clinical Impact: May reduce the analgesic effect of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms. Intervention: Avoid concomitant use. Examples: butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine Muscle Relaxants Clinical Impact: Codeine may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression. Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary. Diuretics Clinical Impact: Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone. Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed. Anticholinergic Drugs Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules are used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs. • Serotonergic Drugs: Concomitant use may result in serotonin syndrome. Discontinue Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules if serotonin syndrome is suspected. (7) • Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics: Avoid use with Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules because they may reduce analgesic effect of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules or precipitate withdrawal symptoms. (7)

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA020232
Agency product number KHS0AZ4JVK
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0591-3220
Date Last Revised 11-09-2017
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 993943
Marketing authorisation holder Actavis Pharma, Inc.
Warnings WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE; LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS; ULTRA-RAPID METABOLISM OF CODEINE AND OTHER RISK FACTORS FOR LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION IN CHILDREN; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; INTERACTIONS WITH DRUGS AFFECTING CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES; and HEPATOTOXICITY Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules expose patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient’s risk prior to prescribing Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules, and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules or following a dose increase [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Accidental Ingestion Accidental ingestion of even one dose of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules, especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants Concomitant use of opioids or a barbiturate with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 ), Drug Interactions ( 7 )] . • Reserve concomitant prescribing of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. • Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. • Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Codeine and Other Risk Factors for Life-threatening Respiratory Depression in Children Life-threatening respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received codeine. Most of the reported cases occurred following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy, and many of the children had evidence of being an ultra-rapid metabolizer of codeine due to a CYP2D6 polymorphism [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] . Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules are contraindicated in children younger than 12 years of age and in children younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy [see Contraindications ( 4 )] . Avoid the use of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules in adolescents 12 to 18 years of age who have other risk factors that may increase their sensitivity to the respiratory depressant effects of codeine. Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome Prolonged use of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 )] . Interactions with Drugs Affecting Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes The effects of concomitant use or discontinuation of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with codeine are complex. Use of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules requires careful consideration of the effects on codeine, and the active metabolite, morphine [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 )] . Hepatotoxicity Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules contain acetaminophen. Acetaminophen has been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed 4,000 milligrams per day, and often involve more than one acetaminophen-containing product [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE; LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS; ULTRA-RAPID METABOLISM OF CODEINE AND OTHER RISK FACTORS FOR LIFE THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION IN CHILDREN; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; INTERACTIONS WITH DRUGS AFFECTING CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES; and HEPATOTOXICITY See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. • Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules expose users to the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess patient's risk before prescribing and monitor regularly for these behaviors and conditions. (5.1) • Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur. Monitor closely, especially upon initiation or following a dose increase. (5.2) • Accidental ingestion of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules, especially by children, can result in fatal overdose. Keep out of reach of children. (5.2) • Concomitant use of opioids or a barbiturate with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate; limit dosages and durations to the minimum required; and follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. (5.3, 7) • Life-threatening respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received codeine; most cases followed tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy, and many of the children had evidence of being an ultra-rapid metabolizer of codeine due to a CYP2D6 polymorphism. (5.4). Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules are contraindicated in children younger than 12 years of age and in children younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy (4). Avoid the use of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules in adolescents 12 to 18 years of age who have other risk factors that may increase their sensitivity to the respiratory depressant effects of codeine. • Prolonged use of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated. If prolonged opioid use is required in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available. (5.5) • The effects of concomitant use or discontinuation of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with codeine are complex. Use of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules requires careful consideration of the effects on codeine, and the active metabolite, morphine. (5.6, 7) • Acetaminophen has been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed 4,000 milligrams per day, and often involve more than one acetaminophen-containing product. (5.7)