8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to AUBAGIO during pregnancy. Healthcare providers and patients are encouraged to report pregnancies by calling 1-800-745-4447, option 2 Risk Summary AUBAGIO is contraindicated for use in pregnant women and females of reproductive potential not using effective contraception because of the potential for fetal harm based on animal data. Human data are not available at this time to inform the presence or absence of drug-associated risk with the use of AUBAGIO during pregnancy. In animal reproduction studies in rat and rabbits, oral administration of teriflunomide during organogenesis caused teratogenicity and embryolethality at plasma exposures (AUC) lower than that at the maximum human recommended dose (MHRD) of 14 mg/day [see Data]. In the US general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2%–4% and 15%–20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in the indicated population is unknown. Clinical Considerations Women who wish to become pregnant should discontinue use of AUBAGIO and undergo an accelerated elimination procedure to decrease the plasma concentration of teriflunomide to less than 0.02 mg/L (0.02 mcg/mL). Effective contraception should be used until is it verified that plasma concentrations of teriflunomide are less than 0.02 mg/L (0.02 mcg/mL) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Human plasma concentrations of teriflunomide less than 0.02 mg/L (0.02 mcg/mL) are expected to have minimal embryofetal risk [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, stop treatment with AUBAGIO, inform the patient of the potential risk to the fetus, and perform the accelerated drug elimination procedure to achieve plasma concentrations of less than 0.02 mg/L (0.02 mcg/mL) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Refer the patient to an obstetrician/gynecologist, preferably experienced in reproductive toxicity, for further evaluation and counseling [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3)]. Data Animal Data When teriflunomide (oral doses of 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg/day) was administered to pregnant rats throughout the period of organogenesis, high incidences of fetal malformation (primarily craniofacial, and axial and appendicular skeletal defects) and embryofetal death were observed at doses not associated with maternal toxicity. Adverse effects on embryofetal development were observed following dosing at various stages throughout organogenesis. Maternal plasma exposure at the no-effect level (1.0 mg/kg/day) for embryofetal developmental toxicity in rats was less than that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD, 14 mg /day). Administration of teriflunomide (oral doses of 1, 3.5, or 12 mg/kg/day) to pregnant rabbits throughout organogenesis resulted in high incidences of fetal malformation (primarily craniofacial, and axial and appendicular skeletal defects) and embryofetal death at doses associated with minimal maternal toxicity. Maternal plasma exposure at the no-effect dose (1.0 mg/kg/day) for embryofetal developmental toxicity in rabbits was less than that in humans at the MRHD. In studies in which teriflunomide (oral doses of 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, or 1.0 mg/kg/day) was administered to rats during gestation and lactation, decreased growth, eye and skin abnormalities, and high incidences of malformation (limb defects) and postnatal death were observed in the offspring at doses not associated with maternal toxicity. Maternal plasma exposure at the no-effect dose for pre- and postnatal developmental toxicity in rats (0.10 mg/kg/day) was less than that in humans at the MRHD. In animal reproduction studies of leflunomide, embryolethality and teratogenic effects were observed in pregnant rat and rabbit at or below clinically relevant plasma teriflunomide exposures (AUC). In published reproduction studies in pregnant mice, leflunomide was embryolethal and increased the incidence of malformations (craniofacial, axial skeletal, heart and great vessel). Supplementation with exogenous uridine reduced the teratogenic effects in pregnant mice, suggesting that the mode of action (inhibition of mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) is the same for therapeutic efficacy and developmental toxicity. At recommended doses in humans, teriflunomide and leflunomide result in a similar range of plasma concentrations of teriflunomide. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Teriflunomide was detected in rat milk following a single oral dose. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for AUBAGIO and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from AUBAGIO or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Pregnancy Testing Exclude pregnancy prior to initiation of treatment with AUBAGIO in females of reproductive potential. Advise females to notify their healthcare provider immediately if pregnancy occurs or is suspected during treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Contraception Females Females of reproductive potential should use effective contraception while taking AUBAGIO. If AUBAGIO is discontinued, use of contraception should be continued until is it verified that plasma concentrations of teriflunomide are less than 0.02 mg/L (0.02 mcg/mL). Females of reproductive potential who wish to become pregnant should undergo an accelerated elimination procedure. Effective contraception should be used until it is verified that plasma concentrations of teriflunomide are less than 0.02 mg/L (0.02 mcg/mL) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Males AUBAGIO is detected in human semen. Animal studies to specifically evaluate the risk of male-mediated fetal toxicity have not been conducted. To minimize any possible risk, men not wishing to father a child and their female partners should use effective contraception. Men wishing to father a child should discontinue use of AUBAGIO and either undergo an accelerated elimination procedure or wait until verification that the plasma teriflunomide concentration is less than 0.02 mg/L (0.02 mcg/mL) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Infertility Administration of teriflunomide to male rats resulted in no adverse effects on fertility. However, reduced epididymal sperm count was observed [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. Effects of AUBAGIO on fertility in humans have not been evaluated. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of AUBAGIO did not include patients over 65 years old. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment. The pharmacokinetics of teriflunomide in severe hepatic impairment have not been evaluated. AUBAGIO is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.7 Renal Impairment No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].