Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 18 December 2019

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Status Epilepticus ATIVAN Injection is indicated for the treatment of status epilepticus. Preanesthetic ATIVAN Injection is indicated in adult patients for preanesthetic medication, producing sedation (sleepiness or drowsiness), relief of anxiety, and a decreased ability to recall events related to the day of surgery. It is most useful in those patients who are anxious about their surgical procedure and who would prefer to have diminished recall of the events of the day of surgery (see PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients ).

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS ATIVAN Injection is contraindicated in patients with a known sensitivity to benzodiazepines or its vehicle (polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and benzyl alcohol), in patients with acute narrow-angle glaucoma, or in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. It is also contraindicated in patients with severe respiratory insufficiency, except in those patients requiring relief of anxiety and/or diminished recall of events while being mechanically ventilated. The use of ATIVAN Injection intra-arterially is contraindicated because, as with other injectable benzodiazepines, inadvertent intra-arterial injection may produce arteriospasm resulting in gangrene which may require amputation (see WARNINGS ). ATIVAN Injection is contraindicated for use in premature infants because the formulation contains benzyl alcohol. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS - Pediatric Use ).
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS General The additive central-nervous-system effects of other drugs, such as phenothiazines, narcotic analgesics, barbiturates, antidepressants, scopolamine, and monoamine-oxidase inhibitors, should be borne in mind when these other drugs are used concomitantly with or during the period of recovery from ATIVAN Injection (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and WARNINGS ). Extreme caution must be used when administering ATIVAN Injection to elderly patients, very ill patients, or to patients with limited pulmonary reserve because of the possibility that hypoventilation and/or hypoxic cardiac arrest may occur. Resuscitative equipment for ventilatory support should be readily available (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). When lorazepam injection is used IV as the premedicant prior to regional or local anesthesia, the possibility of excessive sleepiness or drowsiness may interfere with patient cooperation in determining levels of anesthesia. This is most likely to occur when greater than 0.05 mg/kg is given and when narcotic analgesics are used concomitantly with the recommended dose (see ADVERSE REACTIONS ). As with all benzodiazepines, paradoxical reactions may occur in rare instances and in an unpredictable fashion (see ADVERSE REACTIONS ). In these instances, further use of the drug in these patients should be considered with caution. There have been reports of possible propylene glycol toxicity (e.g., lactic acidosis, hyperosmolality, hypotension) and possible polyethylene glycol toxicity (e.g., acute tubular necrosis) during administration of ATIVAN Injection at higher than recommended doses. Symptoms may be more likely to develop in patients with renal impairment. Information for Patients Patients should be informed of the pharmacological effects of the drug, including sedation, relief of anxiety, and lack of recall, the duration of these effects (about 8 hours), and be apprised of the risks as well as the benefits of therapy. Patients who receive ATIVAN Injection as a premedicant should be cautioned that driving a motor vehicle, operating machinery, or engaging in hazardous or other activities requiring attention and coordination, should be delayed for 24 to 48 hours following the injection or until the effects of the drug, such as drowsiness, have subsided, whichever is longer. Sedatives, tranquilizers and narcotic analgesics may produce a more prolonged and profound effect when administered along with injectable ATIVAN. This effect may take the form of excessive sleepiness or drowsiness and, on rare occasions, interfere with recall and recognition of events of the day of surgery and the day after. Patients should be advised that getting out of bed unassisted may result in falling and injury if undertaken within 8 hours of receiving lorazepam injection. Since tolerance for CNS depressants will be diminished in the presence of ATIVAN Injection, these substances should either be avoided or taken in reduced dosage. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed for at least 24 to 48 hours after receiving lorazepam injectable due to the additive effects on central-nervous-system depression seen with benzodiazepines in general. Elderly patients should be told that ATIVAN Injection may make them very sleepy for a period longer than 6 to 8 hours following surgery. EFFECT OF ANESTHETIC AND SEDATION DRUGS ON EARLY BRAIN DEVELOPMENT Studies conducted in young animals and children suggest repeated or prolonged use of general anesthetic or sedation drugs in children younger than 3 years may have negative effects on their developing brains. Discuss with parents and caregivers the benefits, risks, and timing and duration of surgery or procedures requiring anesthetic and sedation drug (See WARNINGS / Pediatric Neurotoxicity ). Laboratory Tests In clinical trials, no laboratory test abnormalities were identified with either single or multiple doses of ATIVAN Injection. These tests included: CBC, urinalysis, SGOT, SGPT, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, cholesterol, uric acid, BUN, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, and total proteins. Drug Interactions INTERACTION WITH BENZODIAZEPINES AND OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS The concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids increases the risk of respiratory depression because of actions at different receptor sites in the CNS that control respiration. Benzodiazepines interact at GABAA sites and opioids interact primarily at mu receptors. When benzodiazepines and opioids are combined, the potential for benzodiazepines to significantly worsen opioid-related respiratory depression exists. Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. ATIVAN Injection, like other injectable benzodiazepines, produces additive depression of the central nervous system when administered with other CNS depressants such as ethyl alcohol, phenothiazines, barbiturates, MAO inhibitors, and other antidepressants. When scopolamine is used concomitantly with injectable lorazepam, an increased incidence of sedation, hallucinations and irrational behavior has been observed. There have been rare reports of significant respiratory depression, stupor and/or hypotension with the concomitant use of loxapine and lorazepam. Marked sedation, excessive salivation, ataxia, and, rarely, death have been reported with the concomitant use of clozapine and lorazepam. Apnea, coma, bradycardia, arrhythmia, heart arrest, and death have been reported with the concomitant use of haloperidol and lorazepam. The risk of using lorazepam in combination with scopolamine, loxapine, clozapine, haloperidol, or other CNS-depressant drugs has not been systematically evaluated. Therefore, caution is advised if the concomitant administration of lorazepam and these drugs is required. Concurrent administration of any of the following drugs with lorazepam had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of lorazepam: metoprolol, cimetidine, ranitidine, disulfiram, propranolol, metronidazole, and propoxyphene. No change in ATIVAN dosage is necessary when concomitantly given with any of these drugs. LORAZEPAM-VALPROATE INTERACTION Concurrent administration of lorazepam (2 mg intravenously) with valproate (250 mg twice daily orally for 3 days) to 6 healthy male subjects resulted in decreased total clearance of lorazepam by 40% and decreased formation rate of lorazepam glucuronide by 55%, as compared with lorazepam administered alone. Accordingly, lorazepam plasma concentrations were about two-fold higher for at least 12 hours post-dose administration during valproate treatment. Lorazepam dosage should be reduced to 50% of the normal adult dose when this drug combination is prescribed in patients (see also DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). LORAZEPAM-ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE STEROIDS INTERACTION Coadministration of lorazepam (2 mg intravenously) with oral contraceptive steroids (norethindrone acetate, 1 mg, and ethinyl estradiol, 50 μg, for at least 6 months) to healthy females (n=7) was associated with a 55% decrease in half-life, a 50% increase in the volume of distribution, thereby resulting in an almost 3.7-fold increase in total clearance of lorazepam as compared with control healthy females (n=8). It may be necessary to increase the dose of ATIVAN in female patients who are concomitantly taking oral contraceptives (see also DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). LORAZEPAM-PROBENECID INTERACTION Concurrent administration of lorazepam (2 mg intravenously) with probenecid (500 mg orally every 6 hours) to 9 healthy volunteers resulted in a prolongation of lorazepam half-life by 130% and a decrease in its total clearance by 45%. No change in volume of distribution was noted during probenecid co-treatment. ATIVAN dosage needs to be reduced by 50% when coadministered with probenecid (see also DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions No laboratory test abnormalities were identified when lorazepam was given alone or concomitantly with another drug, such as narcotic analgesics, inhalation anesthetics, scopolamine, atropine, and a variety of tranquilizing agents. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility No evidence of carcinogenic potential emerged in rats and mice during an 18-month study with oral lorazepam. No studies regarding mutagenesis have been performed. The results of a preimplantation study in rats, in which the oral lorazepam dose was 20 mg/kg, showed no impairment of fertility. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects—Pregnancy Category D (See WARNINGS.) Published studies in pregnant primates demonstrate that the administration of anesthetic and sedation drugs that block NMDA receptors and/or potentiate GABA activity during the period of peak brain development increases neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain of the offspring when used for longer than 3 hours. There are no data on pregnancy exposures in primates corresponding to periods prior to the third trimester in humans. In a published study in primates, administration of an anesthetic dose of ketamine for 24 hours on Gestation Day 122 increased neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain of the fetus. In other published studies, administration of either isoflurane or propofol for 5 hours on Gestation Day 120 resulted in increased neuronal and oligodendrocyte apoptosis in the developing brain of the offspring. With respect to brain development, this time period corresponds to the third trimester of gestation in the human. The clinical significance of these findings is not clear; however, studies in juvenile animals suggest neuroapoptosis correlates with long-term cognitive deficits (See WARNINGS / Pediatric Neurotoxicity , Pediatric Use , and ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY AND/OR PHARMACOLOGY ). Labor and Delivery There are insufficient data to support the use of ATIVAN (lorazepam) Injection during labor and delivery, including cesarean section; therefore, its use in this clinical circumstance is not recommended. Nursing Mothers Lorazepam has been detected in human breast milk. Therefore, lorazepam should not be administered to nursing mothers because, like other benzodiazepines, the possibility exists that lorazepam may sedate or otherwise adversely affect the infant. Pediatric Use STATUS EPILEPTICUS The safety and effectiveness of ATIVAN for status epilepticus have not been established in pediatric patients. A randomized, double-blind, superiority-design clinical trial of ATIVAN versus intravenous diazepam in 273 pediatric patients ages 3 months to 17 years failed to establish the efficacy of ATIVAN for the treatment of status epilepticus. In that trial, assisted ventilation was required in 18% of patients treated with ATIVAN versus 16% of patients treated with diazepam. Patients treated with ATIVAN were also more likely to be reported as sedated (67% for ATIVAN vs. 50% for diazepam), and the time for return to baseline mental status was, on average, 2 hours longer for ATIVAN than for diazepam. Open-label studies described in the medical literature included 273 pediatric patients; the age range was from a few hours old to 18 years of age. Paradoxical excitation was observed in 10% to 30% of the pediatric patients under 8 years of age and was characterized by tremors, agitation, euphoria, logorrhea, and brief episodes of visual hallucinations. Paradoxical excitation in pediatric patients also has been reported with other benzodiazepines when used for status epilepticus, as an anesthesia, or for pre-chemotherapy treatment. Pediatric patients (as well as adults) with atypical petit mal status epilepticus have developed brief tonic-clonic seizures shortly after ATIVAN was given. This “paradoxical” effect was also reported for diazepam and clonazepam. Nevertheless, the development of seizures after treatment with benzodiazepines is probably rare, based on the incidence in the uncontrolled treatment series reported (i.e., seizures were not observed for 112 pediatric patients and 18 adults or during approximately 400 doses). ATIVAN Injection contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative. Benzyl alcohol, a component of this product, has been associated with serious adverse events and death, particularly in pediatric patients. The “gasping syndrome”, (characterized by central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, gasping respirations, and high levels of benzyl alcohol and its metabolites found in the blood and urine) has been associated with benzyl alcohol dosages greater than 99 mg/kg/day in neonates and low-birth-weight neonates. Additional symptoms may include gradual neurological deterioration, seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, hematologic abnormalities, skin breakdown, hepatic and renal failure, hypotension, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse. Although normal therapeutic doses of this product deliver amounts of benzyl alcohol that are substantially lower than those reported in association with the “gasping syndrome”, the minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. Premature and low-birth-weight infants, as well as patients receiving high dosages, may be more likely to develop toxicity. Practitioners administering this and other medications containing benzyl alcohol should consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources. PREANESTHETIC There are insufficient data to support the efficacy of injectable lorazepam as a preanesthetic agent in patients less than 18 years of age. GENERAL Seizure activity and myoclonus have been reported to occur following administration of ATIVAN Injection, especially in very low birth weight neonates. Pediatric patients may exhibit a sensitivity to benzyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, components of ATIVAN Injection (see also CONTRAINDICATIONS ). The “gasping syndrome”, characterized by central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, gasping respirations, and high levels of benzyl alcohol and its metabolites found in the blood and urine, has been associated with the administration of intravenous solutions containing the preservative benzyl alcohol in neonates. Additional symptoms may include gradual neurological deterioration, seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, hematologic abnormalities, skin breakdown, hepatic and renal failure, hypotension, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse. Central nervous system toxicity, including seizures and intraventricular hemorrhage, as well as unresponsiveness, tachypnea, tachycardia, and diaphoresis have been associated with propylene glycol toxicity. Although normal therapeutic doses of ATIVAN Injection contain very small amounts of these compounds, premature and low-birth-weight infants as well as pediatric patients receiving high doses may be more susceptible to their effects. Published juvenile animal studies demonstrate that the administration of anesthetic and sedation drugs, such as ATIVAN that either block NMDA receptors or potentiate the activity of GABA during the period of rapid brain growth or synaptogenesis, results in widespread neuronal and oligodendrocyte cell loss in the developing brain and alterations in synaptic morphology and neurogenesis. Based on comparisons across species, the window of vulnerability to these changes is believed to correlate with exposures in the third trimester of gestation through the first several months of life, but may extend out to approximately 3 years of age in humans. In primates, exposure to 3 hours of ketamine that produced a light surgical plane of anesthesia did not increase neuronal cell loss, however, treatment regimens of 5 hours or longer of isoflurane increased neuronal cell loss. Data from isoflurane-treated rodents and ketamine-treated primates suggest that the neuronal and oligodendrocyte cell losses are associated with prolonged cognitive deficits in learning and memory. The clinical significance of these nonclinical findings is not known, and healthcare providers should balance the benefits of appropriate anesthesia in pregnant women, neonates and young children who require procedures with the potential risks suggested by the nonclinical data. (See WARNINGS , Pediatric Neurotoxicity ; PRECAUTIONS, Pregnancy ; ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY AND/OR PHARMACOLOGY ). Geriatric Use Clinical studies of ATIVAN generally were not adequate to determine whether subjects aged 65 and over respond differently than younger subjects; however, age over 65 may be associated with a greater incidence of central nervous system depression and more respiratory depression (see WARNINGS–Preanesthetic Use , PRECAUTIONS–General and ADVERSE REACTIONS–Preanesthetic ). Age does not appear to have a clinically significant effect on lorazepam kinetics (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ). Clinical circumstances, some of which may be more common in the elderly, such as hepatic or renal impairment, should be considered. Greater sensitivity (e.g., sedation) of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS Status Epilepticus The most important adverse clinical event caused by the use of ATIVAN Injection is respiratory depression (see WARNINGS). The adverse clinical events most commonly observed with the use of ATIVAN Injection in clinical trials evaluating its use in status epilepticus were hypotension, somnolence, and respiratory failure. INCIDENCE IN CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIALS All adverse events were recorded during the trials by the clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. Similar types of events were grouped into standardized categories using modified COSTART dictionary terminology. These categories are used in the table and listings below with the frequencies representing the proportion of individuals exposed to ATIVAN Injection or to comparative therapy. The prescriber should be aware that these figures cannot be used to predict the frequency of adverse events in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors may differ from those prevailing during clinical studies. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be directly compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigators involving different treatment, uses, or investigators. An inspection of these frequencies, however, does provide the prescribing physician with one basis to estimate the relative contribution of drug and nondrug factors to the adverse event incidences in the population studied. COMMONLY OBSERVED ADVERSE EVENTS IN A CONTROLLED DOSE-COMPARISON CLINICAL TRIAL Table 1 lists the treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred in the patients treated with ATIVAN Injection in a dose-comparison trial of ATIVAN 1 mg, 2 mg, and 4 mg. TABLE 1. NUMBER (%) OF STUDY EVENTS IN A DOSE COMPARISON CLINICAL TRIAL Body System Event ATIVAN Injection (n=130)One hundred and thirty (130) patients received ATIVAN Injection. Any Study Event (1 or more)Totals are not necessarily the sum of the individual study events because a patient may report two or more different study events in the same body system. 16 (12.3%) Body as a whole Infection 1 ( <1%) Cardiovascular system Hypotension 2 (1.5%) Digestive system Liver function tests abnormal 1 ( <1%) Nausea 1 ( <1%) Vomiting 1 ( <1%) Metabolic and Nutritional Acidosis 1 ( <1%) Nervous system Brain edema 1 ( <1%) Coma 1 ( <1%) Convulsion 1 ( <1%) Somnolence 2 (1.5%) Thinking abnormal 1 ( <1%) Respiratory system Hyperventilation 1 ( <1%) Hypoventilation 1 ( <1%) Respiratory failure 2 (1.5%) Terms not classifiable Injection site reaction 1 ( <1%) Urogenital system Cystitis 1 ( <1%) COMMONLY OBSERVED ADVERSE EVENTS IN ACTIVE-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIALS In two studies, patients who completed the course of treatment for status epilepticus were permitted to be reenrolled and to receive treatment for a second status episode, given that there was a sufficient interval between the two episodes. Safety was determined from all treatment episodes for all intent-to-treat patients, i.e., from all “patient-episodes.” Table 2 lists the treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred in at least 1% of the patient-episodes in which ATIVAN Injection or diazepam was given. The table represents the pooling of results from the two controlled trials. TABLE 2. NUMBER (%) OF STUDY EVENTS IN ACTIVE CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL Body System Event ATIVAN Injection (n=85)The number indicates the number of “patient-episodes.” Patient-episodes were used rather than “patients” because a total of 7 patients were reenrolled for the treatment of a second episode of status: 5 patients received ATIVAN Injection on two occasions that were far enough apart to establish the diagnosis of status epilepticus for each episode, and, using the same time criterion, 2 patients received diazepam on two occasions. Diazepam (n=80) Any Study Event (1 or more)Totals are not necessarily the sum of the individual study events because a patient may report two or more different study events in the same body system. 14 (16.5%) 11 (13.8%) Body as a whole Headache 1 ( 1.2%) 1 (1.3%) Cardiovascular system Hypotension 2 (2.4%) 0 Hemic and lymphatic system Hypochromic anemia 0 1 (1.3%) Leukocytosis 0 1 (1.3%) Thrombocythemia 0 1 (1.3%) Nervous system Coma 1 (1.2 %) 1 (1.3%) Somnolence 3 (3.5%) 3 (3.8%) Stupor 1 (1.2%) 0 Respiratory system Hypoventilation 1 (1.2%) 2 (2.5%) Apnea 1 (1.2%) 1 (1.3%) Respiratory failure 2 (2.4%) 1 (1.3%) Respiratory disorder 1 (1.2%) 0 These trials were not designed or intended to demonstrate the comparative safety of the two treatments. The overall adverse experience profile for ATIVAN was similar between women and men. There are insufficient data to support a statement regarding the distribution of adverse events by race. Generally, age greater than 65 years may be associated with a greater incidence of central-nervous-system depression and more respiratory depression. OTHER EVENTS OBSERVED DURING THE PRE-MARKETING EVALUATION OF ATIVAN INJECTION FOR THE TREATMENT OF STATUS EPILEPTICUS ATIVAN Injection, active comparators, and ATIVAN Injection in combination with a comparator were administered to 488 individuals during controlled and open-label clinical trials. Because of reenrollments, these 488 patients participated in a total of 521 patient-episodes. ATIVAN Injection alone was given in 69% of these patient-episodes (n=360). The safety information below is based on data available from 326 of these patient-episodes in which ATIVAN Injection was given alone. All adverse events that were seen once are listed, except those already included in previous listings (Table 1 and Table 2). Study events were classified by body system in descending frequency by using the following definitions: frequent adverse events were those that occurred in at least 1/100 individuals; infrequent study events were those that occurred in 1/100 to 1/1000 individuals. Frequent and Infrequent Study Events BODY AS A WHOLE - Infrequent: asthenia, chills, headache, infection. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - Infrequent: abnormal liver function test, increased salivation, nausea, vomiting. METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL - Infrequent: acidosis, alkaline phosphatase increased. NERVOUS SYSTEM - Infrequent: agitation, ataxia, brain edema, coma, confusion, convulsion, hallucinations, myoclonus, stupor, thinking abnormal, tremor. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM - Frequent: apnea; Infrequent: hyperventilation, hypoventilation, respiratory disorder. TERMS NOT CLASSIFIABLE - Infrequent: injection site reaction. UROGENITAL SYSTEM- Infrequent: cystitis. Preanesthetic CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The most frequent adverse drug event reported with injectable lorazepam is central-nervous-system depression. The incidence varied from one study to another, depending on the dosage, route of administration, use of other central-nervous-system depressants, and the investigator’s opinion concerning the degree and duration of desired sedation. Excessive sleepiness and drowsiness were the most common consequences of CNS depression. This interfered with patient cooperation in approximately 6% (25/446) of patients undergoing regional anesthesia, causing difficulty in assessing levels of anesthesia. Patients over 50 years of age had a higher incidence of excessive sleepiness or drowsiness when compared with those under 50 (21/106 versus 24/245) when lorazepam was given intravenously (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). On rare occasion (3/1580) the patient was unable to give personal identification in the operating room on arrival, and one patient fell when attempting premature ambulation in the postoperative period. Symptoms such as restlessness, confusion, depression, crying, sobbing, and delirium occurred in about 1.3% (20/1580). One patient injured himself by picking at his incision during the immediate postoperative period. Hallucinations were present in about 1% (14/1580) of patients and were visual and self-limiting. An occasional patient complained of dizziness, diplopia and/or blurred vision. Depressed hearing was infrequently reported during the peak-effect period. An occasional patient had a prolonged recovery room stay, either because of excessive sleepiness or because of some form of inappropriate behavior. The latter was seen most commonly when scopolamine was given concomitantly as a premedicant. Limited information derived from patients who were discharged the day after receiving injectable lorazepam showed one patient complained of some unsteadiness of gait and a reduced ability to perform complex mental functions. Enhanced sensitivity to alcoholic beverages has been reported more than 24 hours after receiving injectable lorazepam, similar to experience with other benzodiazepines. LOCAL EFFECTS Intramuscular injection of lorazepam has resulted in pain at the injection site, a sensation of burning, or observed redness in the same area in a very variable incidence from one study to another. The overall incidence of pain and burning in patients was about 17% (146/859) in the immediate postinjection period and about 1.4% (12/859) at the 24-hour observation time. Reactions at the injection site (redness) occurred in approximately 2% (17/859) in the immediate postinjection period and were present 24 hours later in about 0.8% (7/859). Intravenous administration of lorazepam resulted in painful responses in 13/771 patients or approximately 1.6% in the immediate postinjection period, and 24 hours later 4/771 patients or about 0.5% still complained of pain. Redness did not occur immediately following intravenous injection but was noted in 19/771 patients at the 24-hour observation period. This incidence is similar to that observed with an intravenous infusion before lorazepam is given. Intra-arterial injection may produce arteriospasm resulting in gangrene which may require amputation (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ). CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Hypertension (0.1%) and hypotension (0.1%) have occasionally been observed after patients have received injectable lorazepam. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Five patients (5/446) who underwent regional anesthesia were observed to have airway obstruction. This was believed due to excessive sleepiness at the time of the procedure and resulted in temporary hypoventilation. In this instance, appropriate airway management may become necessary (see also CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ). OTHER ADVERSE EXPERIENCES Skin rash, nausea and vomiting have occasionally been noted in patients who have received injectable lorazepam combined with other drugs during anesthesia and surgery. Paradoxical Reactions As with all benzodiazepines, paradoxical reactions such as stimulation, mania, irritability, restlessness, agitation, aggression, psychosis, hostility, rage, or hallucinations may occur in rare instances and in an unpredictable fashion. In these instances, further use of the drug in these patients should be considered with caution (see PRECAUTIONS, General ). Postmarketing Reports Voluntary reports of other adverse events temporally associated with the use of ATIVAN (lorazepam) Injection that have been received since market introduction and that may have no causal relationship with the use of ATIVAN Injection include the following: acute brain syndrome, aggravation of pheochromocytoma, amnesia, apnea/respiratory arrest, arrhythmia, bradycardia, brain edema, coagulation disorder, coma, convulsion, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, heart arrest/failure, heart block, liver damage, lung edema, lung hemorrhage, nervousness, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, paralysis, pericardial effusion, pneumothorax, pulmonary hypertension, tachycardia, thrombocytopenia, urinary incontinence, ventricular arrhythmia. Fatalities also have been reported, usually in patients on concomitant medications (e.g., respiratory depressants) and/or with other medical conditions (e.g., obstructive sleep apnea).

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION NOTE: CONTAINS BENZYL ALCOHOL (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS - Pediatric Use ). ATIVAN must never be used without individualization of dosage particularly when used with other medications capable of producing central-nervous-system depression. EQUIPMENT NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN A PATENT AIRWAY SHOULD BE IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE PRIOR TO INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF LORAZEPAM (see WARNINGS ). Status Epilepticus GENERAL ADVICE Status epilepticus is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with a high risk of permanent neurological impairment, if inadequately treated. The treatment of status, however, requires far more than the administration of an anticonvulsant agent. It involves observation and management of all parameters critical to maintaining vital function and the capacity to provide support of those functions as required. Ventilatory support must be readily available. The use of benzodiazepines, like ATIVAN Injection, is ordinarily only an initial step of a complex and sustained intervention which may require additional interventions, (e.g., concomitant intravenous administration of phenytoin). Because status epilepticus may result from a correctable acute cause such as hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, or other metabolic or toxic derangement, such an abnormality must be immediately sought and corrected. Furthermore, patients who are susceptible to further seizure episodes should receive adequate maintenance antiepileptic therapy. Any health care professional who intends to treat a patient with status epilepticus should be familiar with this package insert and the pertinent medical literature concerning current concepts for the treatment of status epilepticus. A comprehensive review of the considerations critical to the informed and prudent management of status epilepticus cannot be provided in drug product labeling. The archival medical literature contains many informative references on the management of status epilepticus, among them the report of the working group on status epilepticus of the Epilepsy Foundation of America “Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus” (JAMA 1993; 270:854-859). As noted in the report just cited, it may be useful to consult with a neurologist if a patient fails to respond (e.g., fails to regain consciousness). INTRAVENOUS INJECTION For the treatment of status epilepticus, the usual recommended dose of ATIVAN Injection is 4 mg given slowly (2 mg/min) for patients 18 years and older. If seizures cease, no additional ATIVAN Injection is required. If seizures continue or recur after a 10- to 15-minute observation period, an additional 4 mg intravenous dose may be slowly administered. Experience with further doses of ATIVAN is very limited. The usual precautions in treating status epilepticus should be employed. An intravenous infusion should be started, vital signs should be monitored, an unobstructed airway should be maintained, and artificial ventilation equipment should be available. INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION IM ATIVAN is not preferred in the treatment of status epilepticus because therapeutic lorazepam levels may not be reached as quickly as with IV administration. However, when an intravenous port is not available, the IM route may prove useful (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism ). PEDIATRIC The safety of ATIVAN in pediatric patients has not been established. Preanesthetic INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION For the designated indications as a premedicant, the usual recommended dose of lorazepam for intramuscular injection is 0.05 mg/kg up to a maximum of 4 mg. As with all premedicant drugs, the dose should be individualized (see also CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , WARNINGS , PRECAUTIONS , and ADVERSE REACTIONS ). Doses of other central-nervous-system-depressant drugs ordinarily should be reduced (see PRECAUTIONS ). For optimum effect, measured as lack of recall, intramuscular lorazepam should be administered at least 2 hours before the anticipated operative procedure. Narcotic analgesics should be administered at their usual preoperative time. There are insufficient data to support efficacy or make dosage recommendations for intramuscular lorazepam in patients less than 18 years of age; therefore, such use is not recommended. INTRAVENOUS INJECTION For the primary purpose of sedation and relief of anxiety, the usual recommended initial dose of lorazepam for intravenous injection is 2 mg total, or 0.02 mg/lb (0.044 mg/kg), whichever is smaller. This dose will suffice for sedating most adult patients and ordinarily should not be exceeded in patients over 50 years of age. In those patients in whom a greater likelihood of lack of recall for perioperative events would be beneficial, larger doses as high as 0.05 mg/kg up to a total of 4 mg may be administered (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , WARNINGS , PRECAUTIONS , and ADVERSE REACTIONS ). Doses of other injectable central-nervous-system-depressant drugs ordinarily should be reduced (see PRECAUTIONS ). For optimum effect, measured as lack of recall, intravenous lorazepam should be administered 15 to 20 minutes before the anticipated operative procedure. There are insufficient data to support efficacy or make dosage recommendations for intravenous lorazepam in patients less than 18 years of age; therefore, such use is not recommended. Dose Administration in Special Populations ELDERLY PATIENTS AND PATIENTS WITH HEPATIC DISEASE No dosage adjustments are needed in elderly patients and in patients with hepatic disease. PATIENTS WITH RENAL DISEASE For acute dose administration, adjustment is not needed for patients with renal disease. However, in patients with renal disease, caution should be exercised if frequent doses are given over relatively short periods of time (see also CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ). DOSE ADJUSTMENT DUE TO DRUG INTERACTIONS The dose of ATIVAN should be reduced by 50% when coadministered with probenecid or valproate (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions ). It may be necessary to increase the dose of ATIVAN in female patients who are concomitantly taking oral contraceptives. Administration When given intramuscularly, ATIVAN Injection, undiluted, should be injected deep in the muscle mass. Injectable ATIVAN can be used with atropine sulfate, narcotic analgesics, other parenterally used analgesics, commonly used anesthetics, and muscle relaxants. Immediately prior to intravenous use, ATIVAN Injection must be diluted with an equal volume of compatible solution. Contents should be mixed thoroughly by gently inverting the container repeatedly until a homogenous solution results. Do not shake vigorously, as this will result in air entrapment. When properly diluted, the drug may be injected directly into a vein or into the tubing of an existing intravenous infusion. The rate of injection should not exceed 2.0 mg per minute. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if solution is discolored or contains a precipitate. ATIVAN Injection is compatible for dilution purposes with the following solutions: Sterile Water for Injection, USP; Sodium Chloride Injection, USP; 5% Dextrose Injection, USP.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Lorazepam has been detected in human breast milk. Therefore, lorazepam should not be administered to nursing mothers because, like other benzodiazepines, the possibility exists that lorazepam may sedate or otherwise adversely affect the infant.

Interactions

Drug Interactions INTERACTION WITH BENZODIAZEPINES AND OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS The concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids increases the risk of respiratory depression because of actions at different receptor sites in the CNS that control respiration. Benzodiazepines interact at GABAA sites and opioids interact primarily at mu receptors. When benzodiazepines and opioids are combined, the potential for benzodiazepines to significantly worsen opioid-related respiratory depression exists. Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. ATIVAN Injection, like other injectable benzodiazepines, produces additive depression of the central nervous system when administered with other CNS depressants such as ethyl alcohol, phenothiazines, barbiturates, MAO inhibitors, and other antidepressants. When scopolamine is used concomitantly with injectable lorazepam, an increased incidence of sedation, hallucinations and irrational behavior has been observed. There have been rare reports of significant respiratory depression, stupor and/or hypotension with the concomitant use of loxapine and lorazepam. Marked sedation, excessive salivation, ataxia, and, rarely, death have been reported with the concomitant use of clozapine and lorazepam. Apnea, coma, bradycardia, arrhythmia, heart arrest, and death have been reported with the concomitant use of haloperidol and lorazepam. The risk of using lorazepam in combination with scopolamine, loxapine, clozapine, haloperidol, or other CNS-depressant drugs has not been systematically evaluated. Therefore, caution is advised if the concomitant administration of lorazepam and these drugs is required. Concurrent administration of any of the following drugs with lorazepam had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of lorazepam: metoprolol, cimetidine, ranitidine, disulfiram, propranolol, metronidazole, and propoxyphene. No change in ATIVAN dosage is necessary when concomitantly given with any of these drugs. LORAZEPAM-VALPROATE INTERACTION Concurrent administration of lorazepam (2 mg intravenously) with valproate (250 mg twice daily orally for 3 days) to 6 healthy male subjects resulted in decreased total clearance of lorazepam by 40% and decreased formation rate of lorazepam glucuronide by 55%, as compared with lorazepam administered alone. Accordingly, lorazepam plasma concentrations were about two-fold higher for at least 12 hours post-dose administration during valproate treatment. Lorazepam dosage should be reduced to 50% of the normal adult dose when this drug combination is prescribed in patients (see also DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). LORAZEPAM-ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE STEROIDS INTERACTION Coadministration of lorazepam (2 mg intravenously) with oral contraceptive steroids (norethindrone acetate, 1 mg, and ethinyl estradiol, 50 μg, for at least 6 months) to healthy females (n=7) was associated with a 55% decrease in half-life, a 50% increase in the volume of distribution, thereby resulting in an almost 3.7-fold increase in total clearance of lorazepam as compared with control healthy females (n=8). It may be necessary to increase the dose of ATIVAN in female patients who are concomitantly taking oral contraceptives (see also DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). LORAZEPAM-PROBENECID INTERACTION Concurrent administration of lorazepam (2 mg intravenously) with probenecid (500 mg orally every 6 hours) to 9 healthy volunteers resulted in a prolongation of lorazepam half-life by 130% and a decrease in its total clearance by 45%. No change in volume of distribution was noted during probenecid co-treatment. ATIVAN dosage needs to be reduced by 50% when coadministered with probenecid (see also DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number NDA018140
Agency product number O26FZP769L
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 0641-6003,0641-6002,0641-6001,0641-6000
Date Last Revised 10-12-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 1665326
Marketing authorisation holder West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.
Warnings WARNING: RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH OPIOIDS Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions ).