Data from FDA - Curated by EPG Health - Last updated 05 July 2018

Indication(s)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP are indicated for the prophylaxis and treatment of signs and symptoms of infection caused by various strains of influenza A virus. Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP are also indicated in the treatment of parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions. Influenza A Prophylaxis: Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP are indicated for chemoprophylaxis against signs and symptoms of influenza A virus infection. Because Amantadine Hydrochloride does not completely prevent the host immune response to influenza A infection, individuals who take this drug may still develop immune responses to natural disease or vaccination and may be protected when later exposed to antigenically related viruses. Following vaccination during an influenza A outbreak, Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP prophylaxis should be considered for the 2- to 4-week time period required to develop an antibody response. Influenza A Treatment: Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP are also indicated in the treatment of uncomplicated respiratory tract illness caused by influenza A virus strains especially when administered early in the course of illness. There are no well-controlled clinical studies demonstrating that treatment with Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP will avoid the development of influenza A virus pneumonitis or other complications in high risk patients. There is no clinical evidence indicating that Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP are effective in the prophylaxis or treatment of viral respiratory tract illnesses other than those caused by influenza A virus strains. The following points should be considered before initiating treatment or prophylaxis with Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP: Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP is not a substitute for early vaccination on an annual basis as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Influenza viruses change over time. Emergence of resistance mutations could decrease drug effectiveness. Other factors (for example, changes in viral virulence) might also diminish clinical benefit of antiviral drugs. Prescribers should consider available information on influenza drug susceptibility patterns and treatment effects when deciding whether to use Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP. Parkinson's Disease/Syndrome: Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP are indicated in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Paralysis Agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, and symptomatic parkinsonism which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication. It is indicated in those elderly patients believed to develop parkinsonism in association with cerebral arteriosclerosis. In the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP are less effective than levodopa, (-),-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine, and its efficacy in comparison with the anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs has not yet been established. Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Reactions: Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP are indicated in the treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions. Although anticholinergic-type side effects have been noted with Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP when used in patients with drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, there is a lower incidence of these side effects than that observed with the anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs.

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Advisory information

contraindications
CONTRAINDICATIONS Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to amantadine hydrochloride or to any of the other ingredients in Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules.
Special warnings and precautions
PRECAUTIONS Amantadine Hydrochloride should not be discontinued abruptly in patients with Parkinson's disease since a few patients have experienced a parkinsonian crisis, i.e., a sudden marked clinical deterioration, when this medication was suddenly stopped. The dose of anticholinergic drugs or of amantadine hydrochloride should be reduced if atropine-like effects appear when these drugs are used concurrently. Abrupt discontinuation may also precipitate delirium, agitation, delusions, hallucinations, paranoid reaction, stupor, anxiety, depression and slurred speech. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS): Sporadic cases of possible Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) have been reported in association with dose reduction or withdrawal of amantadine hydrochloride therapy. Therefore, patients should be observed carefully when the dosage of amantadine hydrochloride is reduced abruptly or discontinued, especially if the patient is receiving neuroleptics. NMS is an uncommon but life-threatening syndrome characterized by fever or hyperthermia; neurologic findings including muscle rigidity, involuntary movements, altered consciousness; mental status changes; other disturbances such as autonomic dysfunction, tachycardia, tachypnea, hyper- or hypotension; laboratory findings such as creatine phosphokinase elevation, leukocytosis, myoglobinuria, and increased serum myoglobin. The early diagnosis of this condition is important for the appropriate management of these patients. Considering NMS as a possible diagnosis and ruling out other acute illnesses (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) is essential. This may be especially complex if the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology. The management of NMS should include: 1) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 2) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. Dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine, and muscle relaxants, such as dantrolene are often used in the treatment of NMS, however, their effectiveness has not been demonstrated in controlled studies. Renal disease: Because amantadine hydrochloride is mainly excreted in the urine, it accumulates in the plasma and in the body when renal function declines. Thus, the dose of amantadine hydrochloride should be reduced in patients with renal impairment and in individuals who are 65 years of age or older (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ; Dosage for Impaired Renal Function ). Liver disease: Care should be exercised when administering amantadine hydrochloride to patients with liver disease. Rare instances of reversible elevation of liver enzymes have been reported in patients receiving amantadine hydrochloride, though a specific relationship between the drug and such changes has not been established. Impulse Control/Compulsive Behaviors Postmarketing reports suggest that patients treated with anti-Parkinson medications can experience intense urges to gamble, increased sexual urges, intense urges to spend money uncontrollably, and other intense urges. Patients may be unable to control these urges while taking one or more of the medications that are generally used for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and that increase central dopaminergic tone, including amantadine hydrochloride. In some cases, although not all, these urges were reported to have stopped when the dose was reduced or the medication was discontinued. Because patients may not recognize these behaviors as abnormal it is important for prescribers to specifically ask patients or their caregivers about the development of new or increased gambling urges, sexual urges, uncontrolled spending or other urges while being treated with amantadine hydrochloride. Physicians should consider dose reduction or stopping the medication if a patient develops such urges while taking amantadine hydrochloride. Melanoma: Epidemiological studies have shown that patients with Parkinson’s disease have a higher risk (2- to approximately 6-fold higher) of developing melanoma than the general population. Whether the increased risk observed was due to Parkinson’s disease or other factors, such as drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease, is unclear. For the reasons stated above, patients and providers are advised to monitor for melanomas frequently and on a regular basis when using amantadine hydrochloride for any indication. Ideally, periodic skin examinations should be performed by appropriately qualified individuals (e.g., dermatologists). Other: The dose of amantadine hydrochloride may need careful adjustment in patients with congestive heart failure, peripheral edema, or orthostatic hypotension. Care should be exercised when administering amantadine hydrochloride to patients with a history of recurrent eczematoid rash, or to patients with psychosis or severe psychoneurosis not controlled by chemotherapeutic agents. Serious bacterial infections may begin with influenza-like symptoms or may coexist with or occur as complications during the course of influenza. Amantadine hydrochloride has not been shown to prevent such complications. Information for Patients Patients should be advised of the following information: Blurry vision and/or impaired mental acuity may occur. Gradually increase physical activity as the symptoms of Parkinson's disease improve. Avoid excessive alcohol usage, since it may increase the potential for CNS effects such as dizziness, confusion, lightheadedness and orthostatic hypotension. Avoid getting up suddenly from a sitting or lying position. If dizziness or lightheadedness occurs, notify physician. Notify physician if mood/mental changes, swelling of extremities, difficulty urinating and/or shortness of breath occur. Do not take more medication than prescribed because of the risk of overdose. If there is no improvement in a few days, or if medication appears less effective after a few weeks, discuss with a physician. Consult physician before discontinuing medication. Seek medical attention immediately if it is suspected that an overdose of medication has been taken. Drug Interactions Careful observation is required when amantadine hydrochloride is administered concurrently with central nervous system stimulants. Agents with anticholinergic properties may potentiate the anticholinergic-like side effects of amantadine. Coadministration of thioridazine has been reported to worsen the tremor in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease, however, it is not known if other phenothiazines produce a similar response. Coadministration of Dyazide ® (triamterene/hydrochlorothiazide) resulted in a higher plasma amantadine concentration in a 61-year-old man receiving amantadine hydrochloride 100 mg TID for Parkinson's disease. 1 It is not known which of the components of Dyazide ® contributed to the observation or if related drugs produce a similar response. Coadministration of quinine or quinidine with amantadine was shown to reduce the renal clearance of amantadine by about 30%. The concurrent use of amantadine hydrochloride with live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) intranasal has not been evaluated. However, because of the potential for interference between these products, LAIV should not be administered within 2 weeks before or 48 hours after administration of amantadine hydrochloride, unless medically indicated. The concern about possible interference arises from the potential for antiviral drugs to inhibit replication of live vaccine virus. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine can be administered at any time relative to use of amantadine hydrochloride. Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis Long-term in vivo animal studies designed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of amantadine hydrochloride have not been performed. In several in vitro assays for gene mutation, amantadine hydrochloride did not increase the number of spontaneously observed mutations in four strains of Salmonella typhimurium (Ames Test) or in a mammalian cell line (Chinese Hamster Ovary cells) when incubations were performed either with or without a liver metabolic activation extract. Further, there was no evidence of chromosome damage observed in an in vitro test using freshly derived and stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (with and without metabolic activation) or in an in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test (140 to 550 mg/kg; estimated human equivalent doses of 11.7 to 45.8 mg/kg based on body surface area conversion). Impairment of Fertility The effect of amantadine on fertility has not been adequately tested, that is, in a study conducted under Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) and according to current recommended methodology. In a three litter, non-GLP, reproduction study in rats, amantadine hydrochloride at a dose of 32 mg/kg/day (equal to the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis) administered to both males and females slightly impaired fertility. There were no effects on fertility at a dose level of 10 mg/kg/day (or 0.3 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis); intermediate doses were not tested. Failed fertility has been reported during human in vitro fertilization (IVF) when the sperm donor ingested amantadine 2 weeks prior to, and during the IVF cycle. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C: The effect of amantadine on embryofetal and peri-postnatal development has not been adequately tested, that is, in studies conducted under Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) and according to current recommended methodology. However, in two non-GLP studies in rats in which females were dosed from 5 days prior to mating to Day 6 of gestation or on Days 7 to 14 of gestation, amantadine hydrochloride produced increases in embryonic death at an oral dose of 100 mg/kg (or 3 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis). In the non-GLP rat study in which females were dosed on Days 7 to 14 of gestation, there was a marked increase in severe visceral and skeletal malformations at oral doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg (or 1.5 and 3 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis). The no-effect dose for teratogenicity was 37 mg/kg (equal to the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis). The safety margins reported may not accurately reflect the risk considering the questionable quality of the study on which they are based. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Human data regarding teratogenicity after maternal use of amantadine is scarce. Tetralogy of Fallot and tibial hemimelia (normal karyotype) occurred in an infant exposed to amantadine during the first trimester of pregnancy (100 mg P.O. for 7 days during the 6th and 7th week of gestation). Cardiovascular maldevelopment (single ventricle with pulmonary atresia) was associated with maternal exposure to amantadine (100 mg/d) administered during the first 2 weeks of pregnancy. Amantadine hydrochloride should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the embryo or fetus. Nursing Mothers Amantadine hydrochloride is excreted in human milk. Use is not recommended in nursing mothers. Pediatric Use The safety and efficacy of amantadine hydrochloride in newborn infants and infants below the age of 1 year have not been established. Usage in the Elderly Because amantadine hydrochloride is primarily excreted in the urine, it accumulates in the plasma and in the body when renal function declines. Thus, the dose of amantadine hydrochloride should be reduced in patients with renal impairment and in individuals who are 65 years of age or older. The dose of Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules may need reduction in patients with congestive heart failure, peripheral edema, or orthostatic hypotension (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
Adverse reactions
ADVERSE REACTIONS The adverse reactions reported most frequently at the recommended dose of amantadine hydrochloride (5 to10%) are: nausea, dizziness (lightheadedness), and insomnia. Less frequently (1 to 5%) reported adverse reactions are: depression, anxiety and irritability, hallucinations, confusion, anorexia, dry mouth, constipation, ataxia, livedo reticularis, peripheral edema, orthostatic hypotension, headache, somnolence, nervousness, dream abnormality, agitation, dry nose, diarrhea and fatigue. Infrequently (0.1 to 1%) occurring adverse reactions are: congestive heart failure, psychosis, urinary retention, dyspnea, skin rash, vomiting, weakness, slurred speech, euphoria, thinking abnormality, amnesia, hyperkinesia, hypertension, decreased libido, and visual disturbance, including punctate subepithelial or other corneal opacity, corneal edema, decreased visual acuity, sensitivity to light, and optic nerve palsy. Rare (less than 0.1%) occurring adverse reactions are: instances of convulsion, leukopenia, neutropenia, eczematoid dermatitis, oculogyric episodes, suicidal attempt, suicide, and suicidal ideation (see WARNINGS ). Other adverse reactions reported during postmarketing experience with amantadine hydrochloride usage include Nervous System/Psychiatric -coma, stupor, delirium, hypokinesia, hypertonia, delusions, aggressive behavior, paranoid reaction, manic reaction, involuntary muscle contractions, gait abnormalities, paresthesia, EEG changes, and tremor. Abrupt discontinuation may also precipitate delirium, agitation, delusions, hallucinations, paranoid reaction, stupor, anxiety, depression and slurred speech; Cardiovascular --cardiac arrest, arrhythmias including malignant arrhythmias, hypotension, and tachycardia; Respiratory -acute respiratory failure, pulmonary edema, and tachypnea; Gastrointestinal -dysphagia; Hematologic -leukocytosis; agranulocytosis Special Senses -keratitis and mydriasis; Skin and Appendages -pruritus and diaphoresis; Miscellaneous -neuroleptic malignant syndrome (see WARNINGS ), allergic reactions including anaphylactic reactions, edema and fever. Laboratory Test -elevated: CPK, BUN, serum creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, bilirubin, GGT, SGOT, and SGPT. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact AvKARE, Inc. at 1-855-361-3993; email [email protected]; or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Usage information

Dosing and administration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The dosage of Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules may need to be reduced in patients with congestive heart failure, peripheral edema, orthostatic hypotension, or impaired renal function (see Dosage for Impaired Renal Function ). Dosage for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Uncomplicated Influenza A Virus Illness Adult: The adult daily dosage of Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules is 200 mg; two 100 mg capsules as a single daily dose. The daily dosage may be split into one capsule of 100 mg twice a day. If central nervous system effects develop in once-a-day dosage, a split dosage schedule may reduce such complaints. In persons 65 years of age or older, the daily dosage of Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules is 100 mg. A 100 mg daily dose has also been shown in experimental challenge studies to be effective as prophylaxis in healthy adults who are not at high risk for influenza-related complications. However, it has not been demonstrated that a 100 mg daily dose is as effective as a 200 mg daily dose for prophylaxis, nor has the 100 mg daily dose been studied in the treatment of acute influenza illness. In recent clinical trials, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) side effects associated with the 100 mg daily dose was at or near the level of placebo. The 100 mg dose is recommended for persons who have demonstrated intolerance to 200 mg of Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules daily because of CNS or other toxicities. Pediatric Patients: 1 yr. to 9 yrs. of age: The total daily dose should be calculated on the basis of 2 to 4 mg/lb/day (4.4 to 8.8 mg/kg/day), but not to exceed 150 mg per day. 9 yrs.to12 yrs. of age: The total daily dose is 200 mg given as one capsule of 100 mg twice a day. The 100 mg daily dose has not been studied in this pediatric population. Therefore, there are no data which demonstrate that this dose is as effective as or is safer than the 200 mg daily dose in this patient population. Prophylactic dosing should be started in anticipation of an influenza A outbreak and before or after contact with individuals with influenza A virus respiratory tract illness. Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP should be continued daily for at least 10 days following a known exposure. If Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP are used chemoprophylactically in conjunction with inactivated influenza A virus vaccine until protective antibody responses develop, then it should be administered for 2 to 4 weeks after the vaccine has been given. When inactivated influenza A virus vaccine is unavailable or contraindicated, Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP should be administered for the duration of known influenza A in the community because of repeated and unknown exposure. Treatment of influenza A virus illness should be started as soon as possible, preferably within 24 to 48 hours after onset of signs and symptoms, and should be continued for 24 to 48 hours after the disappearance of signs and symptoms. Dosage for Parkinsonism Adult: The usual dose of Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP is 100 mg twice a day when used alone. Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP have an onset of action usually within 48 hours. The initial dose of Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP is 100 mg daily for patients with serious associated medical illnesses or who are receiving high doses of other antiparkinson drugs. After one to several weeks at 100 mg once daily, the dose may be increased to 100 mg twice daily, if necessary. Occasionally, patients whose responses are not optimal with Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP at 200 mg daily may benefit from an increase up to 400 mg daily in divided doses. However, such patients should be supervised closely by their physicians. Patients initially deriving benefit from Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP not uncommonly experience a fall-off of effectiveness after a few months. Benefit may be regained by increasing the dose to 300 mg daily. Alternatively, temporary discontinuation of Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP for several weeks, followed by reinitiation of the drug, may result in regaining benefit in some patients. A decision to use other antiparkinson drugs may be necessary. Dosage for Concomitant Therapy Some patients who do not respond to anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs may respond to Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP. When Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP or anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs are each used with marginal benefit, concomitant use may produce additional benefit. When Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP and levodopa are initiated concurrently, the patient can exhibit rapid therapeutic benefits. Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP should be held constant at 100 mg daily or twice daily while the daily dose of levodopa is gradually increased to optimal benefit. When Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP are added to optimal well-tolerated doses of levodopa, additional benefit may result, including smoothing out the fluctuations in improvement which sometimes occur in patients on levodopa alone. Patients who require a reduction in their usual dose of levodopa because of development of side effects may possibly regain lost benefit with the addition of Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP. Dosage for Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Reactions Adult: The usual dose of Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules is 100 mg twice a day. Occasionally, patients whose responses are not optimal with Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules at 200 mg daily may benefit from an increase up to 300 mg daily in divided doses. Dosage for Impaired Renal Function Depending upon creatinine clearance, the following dosage adjustments are recommended: CREATININE CLEARANCE (mL/min/1.73 m 2) Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules DOSAGE 30 to 50 200 mg 1st day and 100 mg each day thereafter 15 to 29 200 mg 1st day followed by 100 mg on alternate days <15 200 mg every 7 days The recommended dosage for patients on hemodialysis is 200 mg every 7 days.
Pregnancy and lactation
Nursing Mothers Amantadine hydrochloride is excreted in human milk. Use is not recommended in nursing mothers.

Interactions

Drug Interactions Careful observation is required when amantadine hydrochloride is administered concurrently with central nervous system stimulants. Agents with anticholinergic properties may potentiate the anticholinergic-like side effects of amantadine. Coadministration of thioridazine has been reported to worsen the tremor in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease, however, it is not known if other phenothiazines produce a similar response. Coadministration of Dyazide ® (triamterene/hydrochlorothiazide) resulted in a higher plasma amantadine concentration in a 61-year-old man receiving amantadine hydrochloride 100 mg TID for Parkinson's disease. 1 It is not known which of the components of Dyazide ® contributed to the observation or if related drugs produce a similar response. Coadministration of quinine or quinidine with amantadine was shown to reduce the renal clearance of amantadine by about 30%. The concurrent use of amantadine hydrochloride with live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) intranasal has not been evaluated. However, because of the potential for interference between these products, LAIV should not be administered within 2 weeks before or 48 hours after administration of amantadine hydrochloride, unless medically indicated. The concern about possible interference arises from the potential for antiviral drugs to inhibit replication of live vaccine virus. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine can be administered at any time relative to use of amantadine hydrochloride.

More information

Category Value
Authorisation number ANDA078720
Agency product number M6Q1EO9TD0
Orphan designation No
Product NDC 42291-125
Date Last Revised 18-06-2018
Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG
RXCUI 849389
Marketing authorisation holder AvKARE, Inc.