8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Based on animal data, ALDACTONE may affect sex differentiation of the male during embryogenesis ( 8.1) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Based on mechanism of action and findings in animal studies, spironolactone may affect sex differentiation of the male during embryogenesis (see Data) . Rat embryofetal studies report feminization of male fetuses and endocrine dysfunction in females exposed to spironolactone in utero. Limited available data from published case reports and case series did not demonstrate an association of major malformations or other adverse pregnancy outcomes with spironolactone . There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with heart failure, cirrhosis and poorly controlled hypertension during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations) . Because of the potential risk to the male fetus due to anti-androgenic properties of spironolactone and animal data, avoid spironolactone in pregnant women or advise a pregnant woman of the potential risk to a male fetus. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2%–4% and 15%–20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk Pregnant women with congestive heart failure are at increased risk for preterm birth. Stroke volume and heart rate increase during pregnancy, increasing cardiac output, especially during the first trimester. Clinical classification of heart disease may worsen with pregnancy and lead to maternal death. Closely monitor pregnant patients for destabilization of their heart failure. Pregnant women with symptomatic cirrhosis generally have poor outcomes including hepatic failure, variceal hemorrhage, preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction and maternal death. Outcomes are worse with coexisting esophageal varices. Pregnant women with cirrhosis of the liver should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly. Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Data Animal Data Teratology studies with ALDACTONE have been carried out in mice and rabbits at doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day. On a body surface area basis, this dose in the mouse is substantially below the maximum recommended human dose and, in the rabbit, approximates the maximum recommended human dose. No teratogenic or other embryotoxic effects were observed in mice, but the 20 mg/kg dose caused an increased rate of resorption and a lower number of live fetuses in rabbits. Because of its antiandrogenic activity and the requirement of testosterone for male morphogenesis, ALDACTONE may have the potential for adversely affecting sex differentiation of the male during embryogenesis. When administered to rats at 200 mg/kg/day between gestation days 13 and 21 (late embryogenesis and fetal development), feminization of male fetuses was observed. Offspring exposed during late pregnancy to 50 and 100 mg/kg/day doses of ALDACTONE exhibited changes in the reproductive tract including dose-dependent decreases in weights of the ventral prostate and seminal vesicle in males, ovaries and uteri that were enlarged in females, and other indications of endocrine dysfunction, that persisted into adulthood. ALDACTONE has known endocrine effects in animals including progestational and antiandrogenic effects. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Spironolactone is not present in breastmilk; however, limited data from a lactating woman at 17 days postpartum reports the presence of the active metabolite, canrenone, in human breast milk in low amounts that are expected to be clinically inconsequential. In this case, there were no adverse effects reported for the breastfed infant after short term exposure to spironolactone; however, long term effects on a breastfed infant are unknown. There are no data on spironolactone effects on milk production. Consider the developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding along with the mother's clinical need for spironolactone and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from spironolactone or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use ALDACTONE is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, monitor renal function. 8.6 Use in Renal Impairment ALDACTONE is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Patients with renal impairment are at increased risk of hyperkalemia. Monitor potassium closely. 8.7 Use in Hepatic Impairment ALDACTONE can cause sudden alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance which may precipitate impaired neurological function, worsening hepatic encephalopathy and coma in patients with hepatic disease with cirrhosis and ascites. In these patients, initiate ALDACTONE in the hospital [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Clearance of spironolactone and its metabolites is reduced in patients with cirrhosis. In patients with cirrhosis, start with lowest initial dose and titrate slowly [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .